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Meng Shi, Zhaoyu Liu, Hongliang Wang, Chuanxin Shi, Ling Liu, Junjun Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
Objective: This experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition, DE and ME contents of corn germ meals (CGM) and to develop equations to predict the corresponding energy contents based on the chemical characteristics of individual CGM. Methods: Sixty-six barrows (initial BW = 51.3 ± 4.6 kg) were allotted to 11 diets including a basal diet and 10 CGM test diets in a completely randomized design. In the test diets, CGM was included in replacement of 30% of the energy-providing ingredients in the basal diet, resulting in a final inclusion rate of 29...
May 24, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Zhongchao Li, Hu Liu, Yakui Li, Zhiqian Lv, Ling Liu, Changhua Lai, Junjun Wang, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yue She, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The role of phosphorus (P) in swine nutrition has been taken on new significance in recent years. Methods to determine the available phosphorus (AP) content of swine feeds include relative bioavailability (RBV), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), standardized total tract digestibility (STTD), and true total tract digestibility (TTTD). The RBV of P is determined by measuring bone ash or bone P, whereas the ATTD of P is determined by calculating the difference between P intake and P excretion in feces...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Zhaoxia Gao, Bin Wang, Xiaojun Gong, Chun Yao, Defa Ren, Liwei Shao, Yan Pang, Jinxiu Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease, which manifests as an endocrine disorder. Among the different methods of surgery available to treat patients with T2DM, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and ileal transposition (IT) are the most commonly performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of RYGBP combined with IT on rats with T2DM. A total of 8 healthy male rats were used as a control group and 40 GK rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: A diabetes mellitus (DM) group, a sham operative group (SO), a RYGBP group, an IT group and a RYGBP+IT group...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zhehua Zhou, Ping Ma, Yi Feng, Weidong Ou, Jing Qian, Liying Gao, Defa Zhang, Yiming Shao, Min Wei
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is notorious for its rapid evolving since its transmissions from money to human. Currently, HIV contains multiple subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs). Here, from an HIV-positive mother and her child in Tianjin, China, we identified a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant virus (TJ20170316 and TJ20170317) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. Near full-length genomes were obtained from both samples, and they shared very close sequences, except some point mutations...
May 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Hua Yang, Yingping Xiao, Junjun Wang, Yun Xiang, Yujie Gong, Xueting Wen, Defa Li
Gut microbial diversity and the core microbiota of the Jinhua pig, which is a traditional, slow-growing Chinese breed with a high body-fat content, were examined from a total of 105 fecal samples collected from 6 groups of pigs at 3 weaning ages that originated from 2 strains and were raised on 3 different pig farms. The bacterial community was analyzed following high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by gas chromatograph...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Jingshu Chen, Sui Ke, Lei Zhong, Jing Wu, Alexander Tseng, Benjamin Morpurgo, Andrei Golovko, Gang Wang, James J Cai, Xi Ma, Defa Li, Yanan Tian
The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long noncoding RNA and its overexpression is associated with the development of many types of malignancy. MALAT1 null mice show no overt phenotype. However, in transcriptome analysis of MALAT1 null mice we found significant upregulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulated antioxidant genes including Nqo1 and Cat with significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and greatly reduced ROS-generated protein carbonylation in hepatocyte and islets...
June 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xiaoqiu Wang, Yuhua Zhu, Cuiping Feng, Gang Lin, Guoyao Wu, Defa Li, Junjun Wang
Mammalian neonates undergo rapid transitions from a sterile uterine environment with a continuous intravenous supply of nutrients to a microbe-rich environment with intermittent ingesting of colostrum/milk via the gut. Currently, little is known about the colostrum-induced alterations of intestinal mucosal proteins in piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this study, we sought to investigate the innate differences and effects of colostrum on alterations in small-intestinal proteomes of IUGR piglets...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Hu Liu, Jean Noblet, Ling Liu, Defa Li, Fenglai Wang, Changhua Lai
Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the net energy (NE) content of full-fat rice bran (FFRB), corn germ meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), solvent-extracted peanut meal (PNM) and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry or published prediction equations. Methods: Twelve growing barrows with an average initial BW of 32.4 ± 3.3 kg were allotted to a replicated 3 × 6 Youden square design with 3 successive periods and 6 diets...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Minheng Ye, Xin Wang, Enzuo Liu, Jinhua Ye, Defa Wang
Although they are widely used as cocatalysts in promoting photocatalysis, practical application of noble metals is limited by their high cost and rarity. Development of noble-metal-free cocatalysts is thus highly demanded. Herein titanium carbide (Ti3 C2 ) MXene is shown to be a highly efficient noble-metal-free cocatalyst with commercial titania (P25) for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Surface alkalinization of Ti3 C2 dramatically enhances the activity; the evolution rates of CO (11.74 μmol g-1  h-1 ) and CH4 (16...
March 2, 2018: ChemSusChem
Rui Yang, Gang Zheng, Defa Ren, Chunzhou Chen, Cheng Zeng, Wei Lu, Hua Li
Tropomyosin 4 (TPM4) has been found to be dys-regulated, and function as oncogene or anti-oncogene in human cancers. However, there was no report on the clinical significance and biological function of TPM4 in colon cancer. This study was designed to investigate the clinical value and biological function of TPM4 in colon cancer. Thus, we detected the TPM4 expression in colon cancer clinical samples, and conducted the gain-of-function in colon cancer cell lines. In our results, TPM4 mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in colon cancer tissues and cell lines compared with normal colon tissues and colon epithelial cell line, respectively...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hu Liu, Ji Wang, Ting He, Sage Becker, Guolong Zhang, Defa Li, Xi Ma
Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid, is produced through microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the lower intestinal tract. Endogenous butyrate production, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor or signaling through several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, butyrate has received particular attention for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Yue She, Qiuyun Wang, Hans H Stein, Ling Liu, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility (ATTD and STTD) of phosphorus (P) in corn, soybean meal (SBM), and canola meal (CM), and additivity of values for ATTD and STTD of P in corn, SBM, and CM in diets fed to growing pigs. Methods: Thirty-six growing barrows (initial BW of 21.6 ± 1.7 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to a completely randomized design with 6 diets and 6 pigs per diet...
January 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
Riccardo Vinciguerra, Vito Romano, Esmaeil M Arbabi, Matthias Brunner, Colin E Willoughby, Mark Batterbury, Stephen B Kaye
PURPOSE: To report early corneal biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking (CXL) in patients with keratoconus. METHODS: Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients undergoing CXL for progressive keratoconus were included in this prospective clinical study. Dynamic corneal response (DCR) parameters obtained with the Corvis ST (OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH; Wetzlar, Germany) were assessed at baseline (day of CXL) and after 1 month of follow-up; conversely, corneal tomography with the Pentacam (OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH) was assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after CXL...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Jinbiao Zhao, Chuanxin Shi, Zhongchao Li, Ji Wang, Ling Liu, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level and supplementary amino acids (AAs) on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) values of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs, determined by difference and regression methods. Sixty pigs were fed 10 diets according to a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement. Two control diets contained 97.34% corn without supplementary AAs or 95.61% corn with supplementary AAs. Eight diets were formulated by replacing corn and AAs in control diets with 8%, 15%, 25% and 31% SBM...
February 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Liming Zhao, Barry W Alto, Chelsea T Smartt, Dongyoung Shin
Aedes aegypti (L.) is a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. These viruses encounter a variety of induced defense responses from the innate immune system of the mosquito. We cloned defensin A from Ae. aegypti using laboratory populations originating from Key West and Orlando, Florida. To characterize inducible immune defensin peptides, we examined the defensin A (DefA) and defensin C (DefC) expression through time course studies using quantitative real-time PCR. We observed that ingestion of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infected blood triggered early upregulated expression of DefA and DefC at 3 h after blood feeding...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jinbiao Zhao, Qiuyun Wang, Ling Liu, Yiqiang Chen, Aiming Jin, Guoliang Liu, Kaizhen Li, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
OBJECTIVE: This experiment was conducted to determine the differences in the apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and indispensable amino acids (IAA) in high-fiber diets with wheat middlings, rice bran or alfalfa meal fed to Duroc×(Landrace× Yorkshire) (DLY) and Duroc× (Berkshire×Jiaxing) (DBJ) growing barrows. METHODS: Eighteen DLY and 18 DBJ growing barrows were randomly allotted to a 2×3 factorial arrangement involving 2 crossbreeds and 3 high-fiber diets...
May 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Chengfei Huang, Shuai Zhang, Hans Henrik Stein, Jinbiao Zhao, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
OBJECTIVE: An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level of palm kernel meal (PKM) and adaptation duration on the digestible energy (DE) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. METHODS: Thirty crossbred barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) with an average initial body weight of 85.0±2.1 kg were fed 5 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 additional diets in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% PKM...
March 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Enkai Li, Zhiqian Lv, Hu Liu, Ling Liu, Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal...
January 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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