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Ji-Eun Kang, Hyun-Do Kim, Soo-Young Park, Jae-Gu Pan, Jeong Hyun Kim, Do-Young Yum
Background and Aims: Commercial superoxide dismutase (SOD) is derived from melon extract and has a potential as a dietary supplement due to its beneficial anti-oxidative effects. We aimed to improve the productivity of SOD compared with plant SOD by using a generally-regarded-as-safe (GRAS) microorganism, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and assess its anti-oxidative effect using γ-radiation- and dextransulfate sodium (DSS)-induced oxidative models in mice. Methods: We identified the sodA gene encoding manganese-containing SODs (Mn-SOD) in B...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Zhen-Zhen Cao, Mei-Ling Qin, Xiao-Yan Lin, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Sulfur (S) fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is crucial in determining rice grain productivity and quality. However, little information is available concerning the effect of S supply on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in rice. In this study, both hydroponic and soil experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on Cd accumulation in rice under two Cd levels (0 and 50 μM), combined with three S concentrations (0, 2.64 and 5.28 mM). The moderate and excessive S supply (2...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Weihua Peng, Xiaomin Li, Tong Liu, Yingying Liu, Jinqian Ren, Dawei Liang, Wenhong Fan
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was used to stabilize cadmium (Cd) in sediments spiked with Cd. The study found that the Cd in sediments (≤600 mg kg-1 ) was successfully stabilized after 166 d SRB bio-treatment. This was verified by directly and indirectly examining Cd speciation in sediments, mobilization index, and Cd content in interstitial water. After 166 d bio-treatment, compared with control groups, Cd concentrations in interstitial water of Cd-spiked sediments were reduced by 77.6-96.4%. The bioavailable fractions of Cd (e...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Navaneetha Santhanam, Lee Kumanchik, Xiufang Guo, Frank Sommerhage, Yunqing Cai, Max Jackson, Candace Martin, George Saad, Christopher W McAleer, Ying Wang, Andrea Lavado, Christopher J Long, James J Hickman
There are currently no functional neuromuscular junction (hNMJ) systems composed of human cells that could be used for drug evaluations or toxicity testing in vitro. These systems are needed to evaluate NMJs for diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy or other neurodegenerative diseases or injury states. There are certainly no model systems, animal or human, that allows for isolated treatment of motoneurons or muscle capable of generating dose response curves to evaluate pharmacological activity of these highly specialized functional units...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials
Glaucia Resende Soares, Carolina Foot Gomes de Moura, Marcelo Jose Dias Silva, Wagner Vilegas, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Debora Estadella, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of purple carrot extract following rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). For this purpose, histopathological analysis, proliferative status, antioxidant activity and inflammatory status were investigated in this setting. A total of 20 male rats were distributed into four groups as follows (n = 5 per group): Group 1-free access to water and commercial diet for 12 weeks; Group 2-received 4NQO at 50 ppm dose in drinking water daily and commercial diet for 12 weeks; Group 3-free access to water and received diet supplemented with purple carrot extract (0...
March 15, 2018: Medical Oncology
S J Hartman, O N Genther-Schroeder, S L Hansen
To compare trace mineral (TM) repletion in feedlot steers after depletion by S and Mo, 72 Red Angus steers blocked by BW (253 ± 14 kg) were assigned (6 steers per pen, fed via GrowSafe bunks) to corn silage depletion diets (DEP) supplemented with NRC (1996) recommended concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn (CON) or supplemented with 0.3% S (CaSO4), 2 mg of Mo/kg DM, and no added Cu, Mn, Zn, or Se (ANT). Three 62 d TM repletion strategies (REP) were applied within DEP diets on d 89: 1) Multimin90 injection (contains Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) and 100% of recommended Cu, Mn, Zn, and Se from inorganic sources (ITM), 2) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM from inorganic sources (ING), or 3) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM provided as 25% organic and 75% inorganic sources (BLEND)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Misato Yoshikawa, Yoshiyuki Soeda, Makoto Michikawa, Osborne F X Almeida, Akihiko Takashima
Hippocampal hyperactivity, ascribed to amyloid β (Aβ)-induced imbalances in neural excitation and inhibition, is found in patients with mild cognitive impairment, a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand the relationship between hippocampal hyperactivity and the molecular triggers of behavioral impairments in AD, we used Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to assess neuronal activity after subjecting mice to a task requiring spatial learning and memory. Depletion of endogenous tau in an amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic (J20) mouse line was shown to ameliorate hippocampal hyperactivity in J20 animals, tau depletion failed to reverse memory deficits associated with APP/Aβ overproduction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shuji Matsushita, Michiharu Nakano, Yoshiteru Aoi, Tomonori Kindaichi, Noriatsu Ozaki, Akiyoshi Ohashi
Pseudomonas resinovorans strain MO-1, which possesses a high ability to oxidize Mn(II), has been isolated from oligotrophic pond sediment. The draft genome sequence consists of 6,252,942 bp and has a G+C content of 63.4%. Strain MO-1 has 5,694 coding sequences, including 13 putative Mn(II) oxidation genes.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Amir Bostani
The solubility of iron (Fe), as an important micronutrient for plant growth, is not high in the calcareous soils, and hence efficient methods must be used to increase its availability for plant use. Accordingly, a two-year research work was conducted to investigate the effects of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) on Fe accumulation and fractionation in a calcareous soil. Treatments including MSW levels at (0 (control), 15 (MSW1), 30 (MSW2) and 60 (MSW3) t ha-1 dry weight) and usage time (yearly (T1) or biyearly usage (T2)) were tested in a factorial experiment on the basis of a completely randomized block design with three replications...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Hong-Jing Zhou, Chen-Ye Zeng, Ting-Ting Yang, Fang-Yi Long, Xi Kuang, Jun-Rong Du
AIMS: Oxidative stress caused by aging aggravates neuropathological changes and cognitive deficits. Klotho, an anti-aging protein, shows an anti-oxidative effect. The aims of the present study were to determine the potential therapeutic effect of klotho in aging-related neuropathological changes and memory impairments in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice, and identify the potential mechanism of these neuroprotective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lentiviral was used to deliver and sustain the expression of klotho...
March 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Congyu Wu, Yajing Shen, Mengwei Chen, Kun Wang, Yongyong Li, Yu Cheng
Remote control of cells and the regulation of cell events at the molecular level are of great interest in the biomedical field. In addition to chemical compounds and genes, mechanical forces play a pivotal role in regulating cell fate, which have prompted the rapid growth of mechanobiology. From a perspective of nanotechnology, magnetic nanomaterials (MNs) are an appealing option for mechanotransduction due to their capabilities in spatiotemporal manipulation of mechanical forces via the magnetic field. As a newly developed paradigm, magneto-mechanotransduction is harnessed to physically regulate cell fate for biomedical applications...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jan Paulo T Zaragoza, Maxime A Siegler, David P Goldberg
High-valent metal-hydroxide species are invoked as critical intermediates in both catalytic, metal-mediated O2 activation (e.g., by Fe porphyrin in Cytochrome P450) and O2 production (e.g., by the Mn cluster in Photosystem II). However, well-characterized mononuclear MIV (OH) complexes remain a rarity. Herein we describe the synthesis of MnIV (OH)(ttppc) (3) (ttppc = tris(2,4,6-triphenylphenyl) corrole), which has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The large steric encumbrance of the ttppc ligand allowed for isolation of 3...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Érica Prado Domingues, Guilherme Gomes Silva, Andrei Barbassa Oliveira, Lorrany Marins Mota, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Edimar Olegário de Campos, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Workers in several occupational environments are exposed to pollutants. Street vendors, for example, typically work in a high-traffic urban environment and are exposed to numerous air pollutants, including genotoxic substances emitted by motor vehicles. This study examined the genotoxic effects of exposure to air pollution. We conducted cytological analyses to assess frequencies of micronucleated (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells in a sample of exfoliated oral mucosa cells. We compared street vendors and control subjects in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and also collected quantitative information on exposure conditions of all test subjects, including concentrations of particulate matter...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yeong-Min Yoo, Eui-Bae Jeung
The phenotypes of calbindin-D9k - ( CaBP-9k -) knockout (KO), calbindin - D28k - ( CaBP-28k -) KO, and CaBP-9k/28k -KO mice are similar to those of wild-type (WT) mice due to the compensatory action of other calcium transport proteins. In this study, we investigated the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPC ) in the brains of CaBP-9k -, CaBP-28k -, and CaBP-9k/28k -KO mice. PrPC expression was significantly upregulated in the brain of all three strains. Levels of phospho-Akt (Ser473) and phospho-Bad (Ser136) were significantly elevated, but those of phospho-ERK and phospho-Bad (Ser155 and 112) were significantly reduced in the brains of CaBP-9k -, CaBP-28k -, and CaBP-9k/28k -KO mice...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xu Zou, Qing Sun, Yuxin Zhang, Guo-Dong Li, Yipu Liu, Yuanyuan Wu, Lan Yang, Xiaoxin Zou
Amorphous Ni-Mn bimetallic hydroxide film on the three-dimensional nickle foam (NF)-supported conductive Ni3 S2 nanosheets (denoted as Ni-Mn-OH@Ni3 S2 /NF) is successfully synthesized by an ultrafast process (5 s). The fascinating structural characteristic endows Ni-Mn-OH@Ni3 S2 /NF electrodes better electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance of 2233.3 F g-1 at a current density of 15 A g-1 can achieve high current density charge and discharge at 20/30 A g-1 that the corresponding capacitance is 1529...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Noor-A-Alam, Hamid Ullah, Young-Han Shin
Graphene, despite its many unique properties, is neither intrinsically polar due to inversion symmetry nor magnetic. However, based on density functional theory, we find that Mn, one of transition metals, embedded in single or double vacancy (Mn@SV and Mn@DV) in a graphene monolayer induces a dipole moment perpendicular to the sheet, which can be switched from up to down by Mn penetration through the graphene. Such switching could be realized by an external stimuli introduced through the tip of a scanning probe microscope, as already utilized in the studies of molecular switches...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Yuzhen Chen, Lifei Zhu, Xuechang Zhou
Room-temperature gallium-based liquid metals (e.g., Galinstan) are one of the emerging materials for a wide range of applications spanning from soft robotics to a medium for running chemical reactions. However, Galinstan suffers from rapid oxide formation at the surface limiting its application. Similarly, this surface oxidation renders it difficult to determine the surface free energy of Galinstan. Herein, the interfacial properties of Galinstan in contact with argon, acid, base, water, and organic solvents were investigated, yielding kinetic information of the removal by acids and bases, the knowledge of oxo-hydroxide/hydroxide species at the interface Galinstan/water and the estimated value of the dispersive contribution of the surface free energy...
March 14, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Royston K Y Tan, Xiaofei Wang, Shamira A Perera, Michaël J A Girard
PURPOSE: (1) To use finite element (FE) modelling to estimate local iris stresses (i.e. internal forces) as a result of mechanical pupil expansion; and to (2) compare such stresses as generated from several commercially available expanders (Iris hooks, APX dilator and Malyugin ring) to determine which design and deployment method are most likely to cause iris damage. METHODS: We used a biofidelic 3-part iris FE model that consisted of the stroma, sphincter and dilator muscles...
2018: PloS One
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