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Adult Children of Alcoholics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607029/age-dependent-protein-abundance-of-cytosolic-alcohol-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenases-in-human-liver
#1
Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic cytosolic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs and ALDHs) catalyze the biotransformation of xenobiotics (e.g., cyclophosphamide and ethanol) and vitamin A. Because age-dependent hepatic abundance of these proteins is unknown, we quantified protein expression of ADHs and ALDH1A1 in a large cohort of pediatric and adult human livers by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Purified proteins were used as calibrators. Two to three surrogate peptides per protein were quantified in trypsin digests of liver cytosolic samples and calibrator proteins under optimal conditions of reproducibility...
June 12, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578745/exploratory-analysis-of-meal-composition-in-australia-meat-and-accompanying-foods
#2
Zhixian Sui, David Raubenheimer, Anna Rangan
OBJECTIVE: The study of meal patterns and overall diet in relation to health outcomes may be more important than focusing on single nutrients or food groups. The present study aimed to explore the composition of main meals and snacks in the Australian population and examine associations between meat/poultry/fish and other foods. DESIGN: The study utilised 24 h recalls. Meal composition was defined based on average intakes of food groups per meal disaggregated from all food sources...
June 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542383/performance-in-eyeblink-conditioning-is-age-and-sex-dependent
#3
Karolina Löwgren, Rasmus Bååth, Anders Rasmussen, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw, Germund Hesslow
A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535755/the-relationships-between-harsh-physical-punishment-and-child-maltreatment-in-childhood-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-adulthood
#4
Tracie O Afifi, Natalie Mota, Jitender Sareen, Harriet L MacMillan
BACKGROUND: Physical punishment of children is an important public health concern. Yet, few studies have examined how physical punishment is related to other types of child maltreatment and violence across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine if harsh physical punishment (i.e., being pushed, grabbed, shoved, hit, and/or slapped without causing marks, bruises, or injury) is associated with an increased likelihood of more severe childhood maltreatment (i...
May 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532529/effect-of-childhood-nutrition-counselling-on-intelligence-in-adolescence-a-15-year-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#5
Tiago N Munhoz, Iná S Santos, Simone de M Karam, Jose Martines, Gretel Pelto, Raquel Barcelos, Helen Gonçalves, Neiva Cj Valle, Luciana Anselmi, Alicia Matijasevich
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the effects of an early childhood nutrition counselling intervention on intelligence (as measured by the intelligence quotient (IQ)) at age 15-16 years. DESIGN: A single-blind, cluster-randomised trial. SETTING: In 1998, in Southern Brazil, mothers of children aged 18 months or younger were enrolled in a nutrition counselling intervention (n 424). Counselling included encouragement and promotion of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months of age and continued breast-feeding supplemented by protein-, lipid- and carbohydrate-rich foods after age 6 months up to age 2 years...
May 23, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521872/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-with-special-focus-on-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#6
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516817/decreased-but-still-sufficient-iodine-intake-of-children-and-adults-in-the-netherlands
#7
Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman, Elly J M Buurma-Rethans, Arnold L M Dekkers, Caroline T M van Rossum
Sufficient I intake is important for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which play an important role in normal growth and development. Our aim was to estimate habitual I intake for the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate or excessive intakes. Further, we aimed to provide an insight into the dietary sources of I and the association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 (n 3819; 7-69 years), and from the Dutch food and supplement composition tables were used to estimate habitual I intake with a calculation model...
April 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505162/gender-differences-in-the-transmission-of-risk-for-antisocial-behavior-problems-across-generations
#8
Pin Li, Jill B Becker, Mary M Heitzeg, Michele L McClellan, Beth Glover Reed, Robert A Zucker
Previous studies have shown that children of alcohol use disorder (AUD) parents are more likely to develop alcohol problems as well as antisocial and other behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine gender discordance in the effect of early maternal and paternal influences on antisocial behaviors of boys and girls, as well as the environmental factors that moderate the parental effects. Specifically, we examined the effects of childhood and adulthood antisocial behavior of the parents on offspring antisocial behavior as young adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499112/polygenic-risk-personality-dimensions-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-problems-a-longitudinal-study
#9
James J Li, Jeanne E Savage, Kenneth S Kendler, Matthew Hickman, Liam Mahedy, John Macleod, Jaakko Kaprio, Richard J Rose, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use problems are common during adolescence and can predict serious negative outcomes in adulthood, including substance dependence and psychopathology. The current study examines the notion that alcohol use problems are driven by polygenic influences and that genetic influences may indirectly affect alcohol use problems through multiple pathways of risk, including variations in personality. METHOD: We used a genome-wide approach to examine associations between genetic risk for alcohol use problems, personality dimensions, and adolescent alcohol use problems in two separate longitudinal population-based samples, the Finnish Twin Cohort (FinnTwin12) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497760/the-intestinal-microbiome-and-paediatric-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Daniel H Leung, Dean Yimlamai
The intestinal microbiome has been the intense focus of recent study, but how the microbiota affects connected organs, such as the liver, has not been fully elucidated. The microbiome regulates intestinal permeability and helps to metabolise the human diet into small molecules, thus directly affecting liver health. Several studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis to the severity and progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease...
June 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494193/long-term-trends-in-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-manitoba-canada
#11
Salaheddin M Mahmud, Hasantha Sinnock, Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin, Gurpreet Pabla, Aleksandra K Wierzbowski, Songul Bozat-Emre
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains a significant public health problem in Manitoba, Canada although publically-funded pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 and PCV13) and polysaccharide (PPV23) vaccination programs exist. We analyzed routine surveillance and administrative health data to examine trends in IPD rates as these vaccines were introduced. Data on all individuals with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of IPD between 2001 and 2014 were obtained from the provincial Communicable Diseases Surveillance database and linked with Manitoba's provincial immunization registry and physician and hospital databases...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493364/explicating-the-role-of-empathic-processes-in-substance-use-disorders-a-conceptual-framework-and-research-agenda
#12
Suena H Massey, Rebecca L Newmark, Lauren S Wakschlag
ISSUES: Elucidating the role of empathic processes in developmental pathways to substance use disorders could have important implications for prevention. APPROACH: We searched the biomedical and social sciences literature to determine what is known about empathy and psychopathological manifestations of severe lack of empathy in the initiation, development and maintenance of psychoactive substance use. Thirty-seven empirical studies were identified and formally reviewed...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476615/deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice-following-acute-low-or-moderate-levels-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation
#13
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
May 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476148/the-effectiveness-of-a-supported-self-management-task-shifting-intervention-for-adult-depression-in-vietnam-communities-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Jill Murphy, Charles H Goldsmith, Wayne Jones, Pham Thi Oanh, Vu Cong Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are one of the leading causes of disease and disability worldwide. In Vietnam, although epidemiological evidence suggests that depression rates are on par with global averages, services for depression are very limited. In a feasibility study that was implemented from 2013 to 2015, we found that a Supported Self-management (SSM) intervention showed promising results for adults with depression in the community in Vietnam. This paper describes the Mental Health in Adults and Children: Frugal Innovations (MAC-FI) trial protocol that will assess the effectiveness of the SSM intervention, delivered by primary care and social workers, to community-based populations of adults with depression in eight Vietnamese provinces...
May 5, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449902/validation-of-the-epworth-sleepiness-scale-for-children-and-adolescents-using-rasch-analysis
#15
Kitty C Janssen, Sivanes Phillipson, Justen O'Connor, Murray W Johns
OBJECTIVE: A validated measure of daytime sleepiness for adolescents is needed to better explore emerging relationships between sleepiness and the mental and physical health of adolescents. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a widely used scale for daytime sleepiness in adults but contains references to alcohol and driving. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD) has been proposed as the official modified version of the ESS for children and adolescents...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#16
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplantation (LT) in 30% of adults, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in nontransplanted children. However, posttransplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric LT recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n = 318), 31% of those with any posttransplant biopsy (n = 271) had ≥ 1 biopsy with steatosis...
July 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411894/the-effects-of-dietary-factors-on-blood-pressure
#17
REVIEW
Lawrence J Appel
Evidence supports that multiple dietary factors affect blood pressure (BP). Dietary changes that effectively lower BP are weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased potassium intake, moderation of alcohol intake, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style and vegetarian dietary patterns. In view of the increasing levels of BP in children and adults and the continuing epidemic of BP-related cardiovascular and renal diseases, efforts to reduce BP in both nonhypertensive and hypertensive individuals are warranted...
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407146/high-rates-of-latent-tb-infection-in-contacts-and-the-wider-community-in-south-india
#18
Padmanesan Narasimhan, Chandini Raina MacIntyre, Dilip Mathai, James Wood
Background: We aimed to compare TB transmission rates between case and community households in Vellore, South India. Methods: 359 household contacts (HHC) and 363 community contacts (CC) were assessed with tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) between August 2010 and September 2011. Concordance test and multivariate risk factor assessment were conducted using logistic regression adjusted for clustering. Results: Latent TB infection (LTBI) positivity was similar between the two groups using both tests, with only moderate concordance observed between QFT and TST...
February 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403466/the-role-of-maternal-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-race-in-intergenerational-high-risk-smoking-behaviors
#19
Veronica A Pear, Lucia C Petito, Barbara Abrams
Introduction: A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods: Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children)...
May 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397375/elevation-of-circulating-microrna-levels-in-obese-children-compared-to-healthy-controls
#20
M D Thompson, M J Cismowski, M Serpico, A Pusateri, D R Brigstock
As childhood obesity increases, it is becoming important to understand the complications of obesity in children and develop novel biomarkers. Evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNA) are dys-regulated in obesity and may serve as sensitive and specific circulating biomarkers. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complication of obesity that ultimately requires a liver biopsy to determine disease severity. While studies have been conducted in adults, no study to date has examined circulating miRNAs in children with obesity and NAFLD...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
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