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Adult Children of Alcoholics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344053/an-overview-of-exposure-to-ethanol-containing-substances-and-ethanol-intoxication-in-children-based-on-three-illustrated-cases
#1
REVIEW
Kam Lun Hon, Alexander Kc Leung, Eddie Cheung, Bryan Lee, Michelle Mc Tsang, Alcy R Torres
Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334960/arsenic-exposure-and-risk-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-among-u-s-adolescents-and-adults-an-association-modified-by-race-ethnicity-nhanes-2005-2014
#2
Jennifer K Frediani, Eric A Naioti, Miriam B Vos, Janet Figueroa, Carmen J Marsit, Jean A Welsh
BACKGROUND: While associated with obesity, the cause of the rapid rise in prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children, which is highest among Hispanics, is not well understood. Animal experiments have demonstrated that arsenic exposure contributes to liver injury. Our objective was to examine the association between arsenic exposure and NAFLD in humans and to determine if race/ethnicity modifies the association. METHODS: Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations among those ≥12 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2014 were used to assess the cross-sectional association with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a marker of liver dysfunction...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327387/student-survey-trends-in-reported-alcohol-use-and-influencing-factors-in-australia
#3
John W Toumbourou, Bosco Rowland, Matin Ghayour-Minaie, Shauna Sherker, George C Patton, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a need to explain reported trends of reduced alcohol and drug (substance) use in school-aged children in Australia. This study used student survey data collected in the states of Victoria, Western Australia and Queensland to examine trends in substance use and associated influencing factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: Youth self-reports were examined from 11 cross-sectional surveys completed by 41 328 adolescents (average age 13.5 years, 52...
January 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315559/substance-use-through-adolescence-into-early-adulthood-after-childhood-diagnosed-adhd-findings-from-the-mta-longitudinal-study
#4
Brooke S G Molina, Andrea L Howard, James M Swanson, Annamarie Stehli, John T Mitchell, Traci M Kennedy, Jeffery N Epstein, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Benedetto Vitiello, Betsy Hoza
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings exist regarding long-term substance use (SU) risk for children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The observational follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) provides an opportunity to assess long-term outcomes in a large, diverse sample. METHODS: Five hundred forty-seven children, mean age 8.5, diagnosed with DSM-IV combined-type ADHD and 258 classmates without ADHD (local normative comparison group; LNCG) completed the Substance Use Questionnaire up to eight times from mean age 10 to mean age 25...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294679/childhood-trauma-social-networks-and-the-mental-health-of-adult-survivors
#5
F David Schneider, Cynthia A Loveland Cook, Joanne Salas, Jeffrey Scherrer, Ivy N Cleveland, Sandra K Burge
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of childhood trauma to the quality of social networks and health outcomes later in adulthood. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 254 adults seen in one of 10 primary care clinics in the state of Texas. Standardized measures of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), stressful and supportive social relationships, medical conditions, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life were administered. Using latent class analysis, subjects were assigned to one of four ACE classes: (a) minimal childhood abuse (56%), (b) physical/verbal abuse of both child and mother with household alcohol abuse (13%), (c) verbal and physical abuse of child with household mental illness (12%), and (d) verbal abuse only (19%)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248692/when-parents-supply-alcohol-to-their-children-exploring-associations-with-drinking-frequency-alcohol-related-harms-and-the-role-of-parental-monitoring
#6
Maria N Wilson, Donald B Langille, Rachel Ogilvie, Mark Asbridge
BACKGROUND: Youth obtain alcohol from many sources, including friends, siblings, parents and other adults. Whether parental supply, relative to other sources, is associated with experiencing a negative alcohol-related outcome is an area of considerable debate. Less well understood is whether the observed association is further contextualized by level of parental monitoring of the child. OBJECTIVES: This study has two main objectives: 1) determine if there is a relationship between parental supply, drinking frequency, and alcohol-related harms among youth; and 2) assess whether parental monitoring moderates this relationship...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248085/recommendations-on-arresting-global-health-challenges-facing-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Zohra S Lassi, Rehana A Salam, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities...
September 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240551/time-varying-effects-of-parental-alcoholism-on-depression
#8
Sunita Thapa, Arielle S Selya, Yvonne Jonk
INTRODUCTION: Children of alcoholic parents are at increased risk for lifetime depression. However, little is known about how this risk may change in magnitude across age, especially in mid-adulthood and beyond. METHODS: We used a nationally representative sample (N = 36,057) of US adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, wave III. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, we examined the relationship between parental alcoholism and outcomes of 1) major depressive disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and 2) DSM-5 persistent depressive disorder...
December 14, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230314/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-transdiagnostic-treatment-approach-in-reducing-violence-and-alcohol-abuse-among-families-in-zambia-study-protocol-of-the-violence-and-alcohol-treatment-vatu-trial
#9
J C Kane, S Skavenski Van Wyk, S M Murray, P Bolton, F Melendez, C K Danielson, P Chimponda, S Munthali, L K Murray
Background: Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is an urgent global health problem. Root causes for VAWG include the individual- and family-level factors of alcohol abuse, mental health problems, violence exposure, and related adverse experiences. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) have assessed the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing VAWG. This randomized controlled trial, part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls consortium, examines the effectiveness of a common elements treatment approach (CETA) for reducing VAWG and comorbid alcohol abuse among families in Zambia...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230167/changes-in-the-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-orexinergic-and-serotonergic-structures-forming-part-of-the-sleep-systems-of-adult-mice-exposed-to-intrauterine-alcohol
#10
Oladiran I Olateju, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure on certain neuronal systems involved with the sleep-wake cycle of C57BL/6J mice exposed to prenatal alcohol once they had reached 56 days post-natal. Pregnant mice were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentration (BAC)s averaging 1.84 mg/ml (chronic alcohol group, CA). Two control groups, an oral gavage sucrose control group (chronic alcohol control group, CAc) and a non-treated control group (NTc), were also examined...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227837/even-in-early-childhood-offspring-alcohol-expectancies-correspond-to-parental-drinking
#11
Emmanuel Kuntsche, Sandra Kuntsche
BACKGROUND: Research has found that children as young as preschoolers have an idea about the valence (positive vs. negative) and activation (arousal vs. sedation) of emotional change when adults drink alcohol. The development of alcohol expectancies at such a young age may be due to observed parental alcohol use. METHODS: Three measures of alcohol use (frequency, quantity and binge drinking) assessed among 115 fathers and 149 mothers were correlated with four alcohol expectancy factors (crossing valence and activation) of their offspring, aged three to six (70 boys and 82 girls)...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215054/in-vivo-redox-metabolic-imaging-of-mitochondria-assesses-disease-progression-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Ryosuke Nakata, Fuminori Hyodo, Masaharu Murata, Hinako Eto, Tomoko Nakaji, Takahito Kawano, Sayoko Narahara, Keiji Yasukawa, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Morimasa Tomikawa, Makoto Hashizume
Given the rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in both adults and children, the development of a non-invasive diagnostic method for assessing disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become an important research goal. Currently available non-invasive imaging technologies are only able to assess fat accumulation in the liver. Therefore, these methods are not suitable for a precise diagnosis of NASH. The standard diagnostic technique for NASH, liver biopsy, has several drawbacks, including the higher risk of complications that accompanies invasive procedures...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200564/family-loading-and-morbidity-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome
#13
Mahesh Desai, Mrunal Bandawar, Arun Kandasamy, Vivek Benegal
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance-use disorders often co-occur. Aim: Aim of this study was to look at the family loading of ADHD (in adults and children) in patients with alcohol-dependence syndrome (ADS) along with the estimation of morbidity risk (MR) for developing ADHD. Methods: Thirty-five male patients with ADS along with their 369 first-degree relatives (FDRs) - both children and adults - were recruited...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187397/the-spirochete-brachyspira-pilosicoli-enteric-pathogen-of-animals-and-humans
#14
REVIEW
David J Hampson
Brachyspira pilosicoli is a slow-growing anaerobic spirochete that colonizes the large intestine. Colonization occurs commonly in pigs and adult chickens, causing colitis/typhlitis, diarrhea, poor growth rates, and reduced production. Colonization of humans also is common in some populations (individuals living in village and peri-urban settings in developing countries, recent immigrants from developing countries, homosexual males, and HIV-positive patients), but the spirochete rarely is investigated as a potential human enteric pathogen...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164372/hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-c57bl-6j-mice-at-early-adulthood-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#15
Oladiran I Olateju, Muhammad A Spocter, Nina Patzke, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the process of adult neurogenesis in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (PND 56). Pregnant mice, and their in utero litters, were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentrations averaging 184 mg/dL (CA group). Two control groups, sucrose (CAc) and non-treated (NTc) control groups were also examined. The brains of pups at PND 56 from each experimental group were sectioned in a sagittal plane, and stained for Nissl substance with cresyl violet, and immunostained for Ki-67 which labels proliferative cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature neurons...
November 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162188/from-child-maltreatment-to-emerging-adult-problem-drinking-identification-of-a-multilevel-internalizing-pathway-among-african-american-youth
#16
Elizabeth D Handley, Fred A Rogosch, Dante Cicchetti
The present study tested the role of FKBP5 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) genetic variation in an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to emerging adult problem drinking among a sample of African American youth (N = 280) followed prospectively from ages 11 to 20. Specifically, whether childhood internalizing symptoms and emerging adult tension reduction alcohol expectancies sequentially mediate the effect of child maltreatment on emerging adult problem drinking and whether FKBP5 moderates these associations were investigated...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159847/more-or-less-likely-to-offend-young-adults-with-a-history-of-identified-developmental-language-disorders
#17
Maxine Winstanley, Roger T Webb, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining to criminality outcomes among those individuals with identified developmental language disorders (DLD) who have received such interventions. AIMS: To examine police-initiated contact and substance use outcomes of young adults with a history of identified DLD versus age-matched peers (AMP)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156932/-adequacy-of-the-dietary-intake-of-total-and-added-sugars-in-the-spanish-diet-to-the-recommendations-anibes-study
#18
Enma Ruiz, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
INTRODUCTION: The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: < 10% of the total energy (TE) intake in both adults and children. No updated information is available in Spain. OBJECTIVES: To examine total sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. METHODS: The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155356/refined-assessment-and-perspectives-on-the-cumulative-risk-resulting-from-the-dietary-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-in-the-danish-population
#19
Martin Olof Larsson, Vibe Sloth Nielsen, Niels Bjerre, Frank Laporte, Nina Cedergreen
Relatively few studies are available on realistic cumulative risk assessments for dietary pesticide exposure. Despite available studies showing low risk, public concern remains. A method to estimate realistic residue levels based on information from spraying journals and supervised residue trials was described in a previous publication. The present article proposes a new method to estimate average residue levels in imported foods based on residue monitoring data and knowledge about agronomic practices. The two methods were used in combination to estimate average pesticide residue levels in 47 commodities on the Danish market...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133255/high-prevalence-of-barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-after-repair-of-esophageal-atresia
#20
Floor W T Vergouwe, Hanneke IJsselstijn, Katharina Biermann, Nicole S Erler, René M H Wijnen, Marco J Bruno, Manon C W Spaander
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal atresia is rare, but improved surgical and intensive care techniques have increased rates of survival in children, so there are now many adults with this disorder. Many patients with esophageal atresia develop gastroesophageal reflux (GER), raising concerns about increased risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE; prevalence of 1.3%-1.6% in general population) and esophageal carcinoma. We assessed the prevalence of BE and esophageal carcinoma in this population. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 289 patients with esophageal atresia at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Erasmus MC University Medical Center in The Netherlands, from May 2012 through March 2017...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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