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Adult Children of Alcoholics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215936/alcohol-s-harm-to-children-findings-from-the-2015-united-states-national-alcohol-s-harm-to-others-survey
#1
Lauren M Kaplan, Madhabika B Nayak, Thomas K Greenfield, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and severity of alcohol's harm to children in the US and the relationship of the harmer to the child, and to examine caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol use, and exposure to harm due to a drinking spouse/partner or other family member as risk factors for alcohol's harm to children. STUDY DESIGN: We report data on 764 caregivers (defined as persons with parental responsibility for at least 1 child aged ≤17 years) from the 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey, a dual-frame national sample of US adults...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213828/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#2
Sebastian Kummer, Dirk Klee, Gerald Kircheis, Michael Friedt, Joerg Schaper, Dieter Häussinger, Ertan Mayatepek, Thomas Meissner
: The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI])...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#3
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193794/alcohol-policies-and-alcohol-related-motor-vehicle-crash-fatalities-among-young-people-in-the-us
#4
Scott E Hadland, Ziming Xuan, Vishnudas Sarda, Jason Blanchette, Monica H Swahn, Timothy C Heeren, Robert B Voas, Timothy S Naimi
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of death among young people in the United States. We examined the relationship between states' alcohol policy environments and alcohol-related MVC fatalities among children, adolescents, and young adults under the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. METHODS: We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), an assessment of 29 alcohol policies across 50 states and Washington, DC, developed with the assistance of an interdisciplinary Delphi panel...
February 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192234/meningococcal-carriage-in-dutch-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cohort-study
#5
Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Merijn W Bijlsma, Marlies A van Houten, Veerle M D Struben, Annaliesa S Anderson, Joseph Eiden, Hao Li, Kathrin U Jansen, Hal Jones, Nicholas Kitchin, Louise Pedneault, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Arie van der Ende
OBJECTIVES: Current information on rates and dynamics of meningococcal carriage is essential for public health policy. This study aimed to determine meningococcal carriage prevalence, its risk factors and duration in the Netherlands, where meningococcal C vaccine coverage is >90%. Several methods to identify serogroups of meningococcal carriage isolates among adolescent and young adults were compared. METHODS: Oropharyngeal swabs from 1715 subjects 13-23 years of age were collected in 2013-2014; 300 were prospectively followed over 8 months...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182748/beyond-experimentation-five-trajectories-of-cigarette-smoking-in-a-longitudinal-sample-of-youth
#6
Lauren M Dutra, Stanton A Glantz, Nadra E Lisha, Anna V Song
The first goal of this study was to identify the most appropriate measure of cigarette smoking for identifying unique smoking trajectories among adolescents; the second goal was to describe the resulting trajectories and their characteristics. Using 15 annual waves of smoking data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we conducted an exploratory latent class growth analysis to determine the best of four outcome variables for yearly smoking (cigarettes per day on days smoked, days smoked per month, mean cigarettes per day, and total cigarettes per month) among individuals aged 12 to 30 (n = 8,791)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176155/genetic-counseling-for-alcohol-addiction-assessing-perceptions-and-potential-utility-in-individuals-with-lived-experience-and-their-family-members
#7
Fayth M Kalb, Victoria Vincent, Teresa Herzog, Jehannine Austin
Though addictions to substances including alcohol are highly heritable, there have been no studies regarding the possible applicability of genetic counseling to this set of conditions. Adults (≥18 years old) with a personal and/or family history of alcohol addiction were recruited to participate in an online survey-based study comprising 43 questions about beliefs/concern about recurrence risk and etiology of alcohol addiction and its impact on childbearing decisions, and perceptions of potential utility of genetic counseling for alcohol addiction...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162008/clinical-implications-of-understanding-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-pediatric-nafld
#8
Jake P Mann, Massimiliano Raponi, Valerio Nobili
Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that characterise oxidative stress are generated in several cellular sites and their production is influence by multi-organ interactions. Areas covered: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main source of ROS in fatty liver and is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Both are caused by lipotoxicity and together these three factors form a cycle of progressive organelle damage, resulting in sterile inflammation and apoptosis...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158994/impact-of-communities-health-and-emotional-related-factors-on-smoking-use-comparison-of-joint-modeling-of-mean-and-dispersion-and-bayes-hierarchical-models-on-add-health-survey
#9
Jie Pu, Di Fang, Jeffrey R Wilson
BACKGROUND: The analysis of correlated binary data is commonly addressed through the use of conditional models with random effects included in the systematic component as opposed to generalized estimating equations (GEE) models that addressed the random component. Since the joint distribution of the observations is usually unknown, the conditional distribution is a natural approach. Our objective was to compare the fit of different binary models for correlated data in Tabaco use. We advocate that the joint modeling of the mean and dispersion may be at times just as adequate...
February 3, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140729/association-of-suicide-attempts-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-behaviors-with-substance-use-and-family-characteristics-among-children-and-adolescents-seeking-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#10
Neslim Guvendeger Doksat, Oguzhan Zahmacioglu, Arzu Ciftci Demirci, Gizem Melissa Kocaman, Ayten Erdogan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies in youth and adults suggest strong association between substance use disorders and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. There is paucity of studies exploring the association of substance use with history of suicide attempts (HSA) and NSSI in children and adolescents in Turkey. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the prevalence of NSSI and HSA and their relationship with substance use and family characteristics among youth seeking treatment for substance use in Turkey...
January 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127708/associations-between-hunter-type-a-b-personality-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-from-adolescence-through-young-adulthood
#11
Benjamin D Pollock, Wei Chen, Emily W Harville, Lydia A Bazzano
PURPOSE: Type A personality, characterized by action-oriented tendencies, has been linked to cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Alternatively, limited research has tested whether personality type A/B and cardiovascular (CVD) risk are linked prior to adulthood. Therefore, we used the Hunter-Wolf A/B personality score to determine whether personality type A/B is associated with traditional CVD risk factors during adolescence, and more importantly if personality type, or its individual type A components, are associated with cardiovascular risk through young adulthood...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111263/an-update-on-the-assessment-and-management-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-growing-medical-emergency-in-paediatric-populations
#12
REVIEW
Chiara Mameli, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Carla Carnovale, Erica Galli, Pilar Nannini, Davide Cervia, Cristiana Perrotta
In the last decades the increasing rate of obesity in children and adolescents worldwide has led to the onset in paediatric age of metabolic syndrome, a disease commonly associated to adulthood. Central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension are typical features of metabolic syndrome that seem to hesitate often in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and many other clinical conditions. Thus preventing and curing metabolic syndrome in paediatric patients is becoming an urgent need for public health...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107374/combining-social-norms-and-social-marketing-to-address-underage-drinking-development-and-process-evaluation-of-a-whole-of-community-intervention
#13
Sandra C Jones, Kelly Andrews, Kate Francis
Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068931/self-perceived-uselessness-and-associated-factors-among-older-adults-in-china
#14
Yuan Zhao, Jessica M Sautter, Li Qiu, Danan Gu
BACKGROUND: Self-perceived uselessness is associated with poor health and high mortality among older adults in China. However, it is unclear which demographic, psychosocial, behavioral and health factors are associated with self-perceived uselessness. METHODS: Data came from four waves (2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014) of the largest nationwide longitudinal survey of the population aged 65 and older in China (26,624 individuals contributed 48,476 observations). This study aimed to systematically investigate factors associated with self-perceived uselessness based on the proposed REHAB framework that includes resources (R), environments (E), health (H), fixed attributes (A) and behaviors (B)...
January 9, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032409/change-in-receptive-vocabulary-from-childhood-to-adulthood-associated-mental-health-education-and-employment-outcomes
#15
Rebecca Armstrong, Wendy Arnott, David A Copland, Katie McMahon, Asaduzzaman Khan, Jake M Najman, James G Scott
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that early language delays are associated with poorer long-term outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have explored the influence of change in language ability over time on adult outcomes. AIM: To examine the educational, vocational and mental health outcomes for adults accounting for different vocabulary developmental profiles over a 16-year period. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A total of 1914 participants of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) were categorized into four groups based on their vocabulary skills at 5 and 21 years: (1) persistently good (n = 1679), (2) persistently poor (n = 33), (3) improved (n = 160), and (4) deteriorated (n = 42)...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032306/the-efficacy-of-an-american-indian-culturally-based-risk-prevention-program-for-upper-elementary-school-youth-residing-on-the-northern-plains-reservations
#16
John J Usera
Culturally-based risk behavior prevention programs for American Indian elementary school children are sparse. Thus a group of American Indian educators collaborated in the creation of a program that helps children make healthy decisions based on their cultural and traditional value system. In this paper the effectiveness of Lakota Circles of Hope (LCH), an elementary school culturally-based prevention program was studied and evaluated. Three cohorts of fourth and fifth graders participated in a mixed methods quasi-experimental evaluative research design that included focus groups and surveys prior to and following the intervention...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993259/-alcohol-consumption-in-the-colombian-population-2015-national-mental-health-survey
#17
Ricardo Andrés de la Espriella Guerrero, Viviana Rodriguez, Carlos J Rincón, Diana Cabrera Morales, Sandy Johanna Pérez Rodríguez, Carlos Gómez-Restrepo
INTRODUCTION: National Survey of Mental Health (ENSM) in 2015 in Colombia asks, among other conditions, about alcohol consumption in people 12-17 years old, and 18 and older. Data were presented by age and region, with no cross-references to other categories of mental health problems, disorders, access to services, and health status. OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol consumption in Colombia, taking into account sociodemographic and clinical screening categories included...
December 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960229/automated-telephone-communication-systems-for-preventive-healthcare-and-management-of-long-term-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Pawel Posadzki, Nikolaos Mastellos, Rebecca Ryan, Laura H Gunn, Lambert M Felix, Yannis Pappas, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Steven A Julious, Liming Xiang, Brian Oldenburg, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Automated telephone communication systems (ATCS) can deliver voice messages and collect health-related information from patients using either their telephone's touch-tone keypad or voice recognition software. ATCS can supplement or replace telephone contact between health professionals and patients. There are four different types of ATCS: unidirectional (one-way, non-interactive voice communication), interactive voice response (IVR) systems, ATCS with additional functions such as access to an expert to request advice (ATCS Plus) and multimodal ATCS, where the calls are delivered as part of a multicomponent intervention...
14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933289/the-association-between-stress-measured-by-allostatic-load-score-and-physiologic-dysregulation-in-african-immigrants-the-africans-in-america-study
#19
Brianna A Bingham, Michelle T Duong, Madia Ricks, Lilian S Mabundo, Rafeal L Baker, Jean N Utumatwishima, Margaret Udahogora, David Berrigan, Anne E Sumner
INTRODUCTION: Allostatic load score (ALS) summarizes the physiological effect of stress on cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems. As immigration is stressful, ALS could be affected. OBJECTIVE: Associations between age of immigration, reason for immigration, and unhealthy assimilation behavior and ALS were determined in 238 African immigrants to the United States (age 40 ± 10, mean ± SD, range 21-64 years). METHODS: ALS was calculated using 10 variables from three domains; cardiovascular (SBP, DBP, cholesterol, triglyceride, homocysteine), metabolic [BMI, A1C, albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], and immunological [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)]...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922112/plasma-cathepsin-d-correlates-with-histological-classifications-of-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-and-responds-to-intervention
#20
Sofie M A Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Sander S Rensen, Veerle Bieghs, Tim Hendrikx, Patrick J van Gorp, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Mike L J Jeurissen, Marion J J Gijbels, Wim A Buurman, Anita C E Vreugdenhil, Jan Willem M Greve, Jogchum Plat, Marten H Hofker, Satish Kalhan, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patrick Lindsey, Ger H Koek, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by liver lipid accumulation and inflammation. The mechanisms that trigger hepatic inflammation are poorly understood and subsequently, no specific non-invasive markers exist. We previously demonstrated a reduction in the plasma lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D (CatD), in children with NASH compared to children without NASH. Recent studies have raised the concept that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults is distinct from children due to a different histological pattern in the liver...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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