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Adult Children of Alcoholics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164372/hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-c57bl-6j-mice-at-early-adulthood-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#1
Oladiran I Olateju, Muhammad A Spocter, Nina Patzke, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the process of adult neurogenesis in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (PND 56). Pregnant mice, and their in utero litters, were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentrations averaging 184 mg/dL (CA group). Two control groups, sucrose (CAc) and non-treated (NTc) control groups were also examined. The brains of pups at PND 56 from each experimental group were sectioned in a sagittal plane, and stained for Nissl substance with cresyl violet, and immunostained for Ki-67 which labels proliferative cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature neurons...
November 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162188/from-child-maltreatment-to-emerging-adult-problem-drinking-identification-of-a-multilevel-internalizing-pathway-among-african-american-youth
#2
Elizabeth D Handley, Fred A Rogosch, Dante Cicchetti
The present study tested the role of FKBP5 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) genetic variation in an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to emerging adult problem drinking among a sample of African American youth (N = 280) followed prospectively from ages 11 to 20. Specifically, whether childhood internalizing symptoms and emerging adult tension reduction alcohol expectancies sequentially mediate the effect of child maltreatment on emerging adult problem drinking and whether FKBP5 moderates these associations were investigated...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159847/more-or-less-likely-to-offend-young-adults-with-a-history-of-identified-developmental-language-disorders
#3
Maxine Winstanley, Roger T Webb, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining to criminality outcomes among those individuals with identified developmental language disorders (DLD) who have received such interventions. AIMS: To examine police-initiated contact and substance use outcomes of young adults with a history of identified DLD versus age-matched peers (AMP)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156932/-adequacy-of-the-dietary-intake-of-total-and-added-sugars-in-the-spanish-diet-to-the-recommendations-anibes-study
#4
Enma Ruiz, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
INTRODUCTION: The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: < 10% of the total energy (TE) intake in both adults and children. No updated information is available in Spain. OBJECTIVES: To examine total sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. METHODS: The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155356/refined-assessment-and-perspectives-on-the-cumulative-risk-resulting-from-the-dietary-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-in-the-danish-population
#5
Martin Olof Larsson, Vibe Sloth Nielsen, Niels Bjerre, Frank Laporte, Nina Cedergreen
Relatively few studies are available on realistic cumulative risk assessments for dietary pesticide exposure. Despite available studies showing low risk, public concern remains. A method to estimate realistic residue levels based on information from spraying journals and supervised residue trials was described in a previous publication. The present article proposes a new method to estimate average residue levels in imported foods based on residue monitoring data and knowledge about agronomic practices. The two methods were used in combination to estimate average pesticide residue levels in 47 commodities on the Danish market...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133255/high-prevalence-of-barrett-s-esophagus-and-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-after-repair-of-esophageal-atresia
#6
Floor W T Vergouwe, Hanneke IJsselstijn, Katharina Biermann, Nicole S Erler, René M H Wijnen, Marco J Bruno, Manon C W Spaander
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal atresia is rare, but improved surgical and intensive care techniques have increased rates of survival in children, so there are now many adults with this disorder. Many patients with esophageal atresia develop gastroesophageal reflux (GER), raising concerns about increased risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE; prevalence of 1.3%-1.6% in general population) and esophageal carcinoma. We assessed the prevalence of BE and esophageal carcinoma in this population. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 289 patients with esophageal atresia at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Erasmus MC University Medical Center in The Netherlands, from May 2012 through March 2017...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131843/vertigo-and-dizziness-in-adolescents-risk-factors-and-their-population-attributable-risk
#7
Filipp M Filippopulos, Lucia Albers, Andreas Straube, Lucia Gerstl, Bernhard Blum, Thyra Langhagen, Klaus Jahn, Florian Heinen, Rüdiger von Kries, Mirjam N Landgraf
OBJECTIVES: To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120830/areca-betel-nut-chewing-practices-of-adults-and-health-behaviors-of-their-children-in-the-freely-associated-states-micronesia-findings-from-the-children-s-healthy-living-chl-program
#8
Yvette C Paulino, Reynolette Ettienne, Rachel Novotny, Lynne R Wilkens, Moria Shomour, Cecilia Sigrah, Shelley D Remengesau, Emihner L Johnson, Julia M Alfred, Daisy F Gilmatam
BACKGROUND: Chewing areca (betel) nut has been deemed carcinogenic. The practice has become a public health concern in Micronesia. The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program included an areca (betel) nut questionnaire in a survey of household characteristics in the Freely Associated States (FAS). This paper describes areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and the health behaviors of their children. METHODS: A cross-section of 1200 children (2-8 year-olds) and their caregivers in Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Republic of Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and Yap were recruited...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120314/ethical-challenges-in-fasd-prevention-scientific-uncertainty-stigma-and-respect-for-women-s-autonomy
#9
Natalie Zizzo, Eric Racine
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095942/serum-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-levels-are-not-associated-with-either-histological-severity-or-treatment-response-in-children-and-adults-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Katherine P Yates, Ross Deppe, Megan Comerford, Howard Masuoka, Oscar W Cummings, James Tonascia, Naga Chalasani, Raj Vuppalanchi
AIM: Serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory molecule that could potentially serve as a biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to its correlation with degree of liver fibrosis. The aim of the current study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between serum HMGB1 levels and liver histology in adults and children with NAFLD participating in two large randomized controlled trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068775/children-exposed-to-alcohol-related-problems-and-dsm-5-alcohol-use-disorder-in-san-juan-puerto-rico
#11
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Glorisa Canino
This article estimates the proportion of children (17 and younger) exposed to an adult with an alcohol problem or alcohol use disorder (AUD) in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of 1,510 individuals 18-64 years of age. A total of 20.9% of children in sample households were exposed to an adult with an alcohol problem, and 5.7% were exposed to an adult with DSM-5 AUD. These considerable proportions suggest that alcohol treatment and family support programs should include help for adults in the family, and special support for exposed children in the household...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061439/incremental-validity-of-the-child-behavior-checklist-cbcl-and-the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq-in-vietnam
#12
Hoang-Minh Dang, Ha Nguyen, Bahr Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Valid but efficient psychiatric assessment is essential for mental health development in Asian low and middle-income countries. This study's objective was to assess the validity of Vietnamese versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Vietnam. METHODS: Measures were completed by a community sample of 1314 parents of children 6-16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces, and by parents of 208 children recruited from 3 psychiatric facilities in Hanoi...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045180/quantitative-liver-mri-biopsy-correlation-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-can-one-be-used-to-predict-the-other
#13
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Emma N Costello, Suraj D Serai, Kristin S Bramlage, Rohit Kohli, Stavra A Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between quantitative liver MRI measurements and liver biopsy findings in pediatric and young adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a registry that prospectively enrolls pediatric and young adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD at our tertiary medical center with parent or guardian and subject informed consent, as appropriate...
October 18, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036936/barriers-and-facilitators-for-health-behavior-change-among-adults-from-multi-problem-households-a-qualitative-study
#14
Gera E Nagelhout, Lette Hogeling, Renate Spruijt, Nathalie Postma, Hein de Vries
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from multi-problem households, as well as to identify ideas for a health promotion program. A qualitative study involving 25 semi-structured interviews was conducted among Dutch adults who received intensive family home care for multi-problem households...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965006/measuring-childhood-maltreatment-to-predict-early-adult-psychopathology-comparison-of-prospective-informant-reports-and-retrospective-self-reports
#15
Joanne B Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Jessie R Baldwin, Helen L Fisher
Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of childhood maltreatment requires clarification in order to inform the design of future studies investigating the mental health consequences of maltreatment. The present study assessed agreement between prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports of childhood maltreatment, as well as the comparative utility of both reports for predicting a range of psychiatric problems at age 18...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950404/benefits-to-children-who-participate-in-family-therapy-with-their-substance-using-mother
#16
Suzanne Bartle-Haring, Natasha Slesnick, Aaron Murnan
It is rare that family members other than the identified patient are followed over time in studies of therapy effectiveness. Family therapy is believed to be effective because it targets processes within the system that maintain symptoms. If these processes are changed, then all family members can benefit. Using a sample of 183 mother-child dyads from a study comparing family therapy for adult substance use versus an attention control, change in child's substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana) was estimated...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948665/performance-of-fibrosis-prediction-scores-in-paediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Jasmine A Jackson, Juna V Konomi, Michael V Mendoza, Alyssa Krasinskas, Ran Jin, Shelley Caltharp, Marialena Mouzaki, Miriam B Vos
AIM: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children. The phenotype of NAFLD varies widely, and non-invasive predictors of disease severity are scarce and are needed to tailor clinical management. METHODS: We compared liver fibrosis by histology with proposed non-invasive predictors of fibrosis, including alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), AST/ALT ratio, AST to platelet ratio index, fibrosis-4, paediatric NAFLD fibrosis index and paediatric NAFLD fibrosis score...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948432/screening-for-behavioral-health-conditions-in-primary-care-settings-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
Norah Mulvaney-Day, Tina Marshall, Kathryn Downey Piscopo, Neil Korsen, Sean Lynch, Lucy H Karnell, Garrett E Moran, Allen S Daniels, Sushmita Shoma Ghose
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that early recognition and treatment of behavioral health disorders can prevent complications, improve quality of life, and help reduce health care costs. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify and evaluate publicly available, psychometrically tested tools that primary care physicians (PCPs) can use to screen adult patients for common mental and substance use disorders such as depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders...
September 25, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939188/neural-and-psychological-characteristics-of-college-students-with-alcoholic-parents-differ-depending-on-current-alcohol-use
#19
Kathleen A Brown-Rice, Jamie L Scholl, Kelene A Fercho, Kami Pearson, Noah A Kallsen, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, Seth Olson, Amy Schweinle, Lee A Baugh, Gina L Forster
A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable)...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937538/severe-neonatal-cholestasis-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-genetics-immunostaining-mass-spectrometry
#20
Jing-Yu Gong, Kenneth D R Setchell, Jing Zhao, Wujuan Zhang, Brian Wolfe, Yi Lu, Karolin Lackner, A S Knisely, Neng-Li Wang, Chen-Zhi Hao, Mei-Hong Zhang, Jian-She Wang
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is caused by defects in sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1, encoded by CYP27A1), a key enzyme in the bile acid synthesis pathway. CTX usually presents as neurologic disease in adults or older children. The rare reports of CTX manifest as neonatal cholestasis assess the cholestasis as transient, with patient survival. Our experience differs. METHODS: Homozygous or compound heterozygous CYP27A1 mutations were detected in 8 neonatal cholestasis patients by whole exome sequencing, panel sequencing, or Sanger sequencing...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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