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Adult Children of Alcoholics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#1
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longencker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324110/effects-of-metreleptin-in-pediatric-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#2
Rebecca J Brown, Cristina Adelia Meehan, Elaine Cochran, Kristina I Rother, David E Kleiner, Mary Walter, Phillip Gorden
Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of leptin-deficient children and adults with lipodystrophy. Objective: Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in leptin-deficient pediatric patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319814/time-specific-and-cumulative-effects-of-exposure-to-parental-externalizing-behavior-on-risk-for-young-adult-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Alexis C Edwards, Sara L Lönn, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that parental externalizing behavior (EB) is a robust risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in their children, and that this is due to both inherited genetic liability and environmental exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to parental EB vary as a function of timing and/or chronicity. METHODS: We identified biological parents with an alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or criminal behavior, during different periods of their child's upbringing, using Swedish national registries...
March 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318463/decreasing-the-overall-environmental-impact-of-the-dutch-diet-how-to-find-healthy-and-sustainable-diets-with-limited-changes
#5
Gerard Fh Kramer, Marcelo Tyszler, Pieter Van't Veer, Hans Blonk
OBJECTIVE: To find diets optimised on nutrition and environmental impact close to the current Dutch diet and to identify the most effective and acceptable options for mitigating environmental impact. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to optimise diets of Dutch men and women aged 9-69 years, divided into ten age-gender groups. The analysis included nutrient composition, a metric for popularity and life cycle assessments of 207 food products. Greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy use and land occupation were used to calculate a weighted score for the overall environmental impact...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268031/-content-analysis-of-food-adverts-aimed-at-children
#6
José Antonio Ponce-Blandón, Manuel Pabón-Carrasco, María de Las Mercedes Lomas-Campos
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. METHODS: Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. RESULTS: A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products...
March 3, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258877/all-terrain-vehicle-injury-in-children-and-youth-examining-current-knowledge-and-future-needs
#7
Andrea N Doud, Regina Moro, Stephen Gray Wallace, Michael D Smith, Marcia McCall, Laura J Veach, Thomas Pranikoff
BACKGROUND: All-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries remain a large public health problem in the United States and disproportionately affect American youth. Although children account for only 14-18% of ATV riders, they comprise 37-57% of those injured in ATV-related accidents. Since the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission began collecting data in 1982, 23% of ATV-related deaths have occurred in children. OBJECTIVE: With this review, we outline the major risk factors for injuries among young ATV riders in the United States and suggest research-based interventions to successfully modify such risk factors...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241825/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has emerged a major challenge because of it prevalence, difficulties in diagnosis, complex pathogenesis, and lack of approved therapies. As the burden of hepatitis C abates over the next decade, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will become the major form of chronic liver disease in adults and children and could become the leading indication for liver transplantation. This overview briefly summarizes the most recent data on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
February 28, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215936/alcohol-s-harm-to-children-findings-from-the-2015-united-states-national-alcohol-s-harm-to-others-survey
#9
Lauren M Kaplan, Madhabika B Nayak, Thomas K Greenfield, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and severity of alcohol's harm to children in the US and the relationship of the harmer to the child, and to examine caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol use, and exposure to harm due to a drinking spouse/partner or other family member as risk factors for alcohol's harm to children. STUDY DESIGN: We report data on 764 caregivers (defined as persons with parental responsibility for at least 1 child aged ≤17 years) from the 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey, a dual-frame national sample of US adults...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213828/screening-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#10
Sebastian Kummer, Dirk Klee, Gerald Kircheis, Michael Friedt, Joerg Schaper, Dieter Häussinger, Ertan Mayatepek, Thomas Meissner
The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI])...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196995/injection-drug-use-among-children-and-adolescents-in-india-ringing-the-alarm-bells
#11
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, Vinod Kumar Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Injection drug use (IDU) is intricately linked to preventive aspects for human immunodeficiency virus from a public health perspective. No large-scale data are yet available for injectable drug use among children and adolescents in India, apart from few anecdotal reports. AIMS AND METHODS: The present paper reports on the profile and substance use pattern of 509 child IDU users, among a total sample of over 4000 children using substances across 100 sites from 27 states and 2 UTs in India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193794/alcohol-policies-and-alcohol-related-motor-vehicle-crash-fatalities-among-young-people-in-the-us
#12
Scott E Hadland, Ziming Xuan, Vishnudas Sarda, Jason Blanchette, Monica H Swahn, Timothy C Heeren, Robert B Voas, Timothy S Naimi
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of death among young people in the United States. We examined the relationship between states' alcohol policy environments and alcohol-related MVC fatalities among children, adolescents, and young adults under the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. METHODS: We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), an assessment of 29 alcohol policies across 50 states and Washington, DC, developed with the assistance of an interdisciplinary Delphi panel...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192234/meningococcal-carriage-in-dutch-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cohort-study
#13
Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Merijn W Bijlsma, Marlies A van Houten, Veerle M D Struben, Annaliesa S Anderson, Joseph Eiden, Hao Li, Kathrin U Jansen, Hal Jones, Nicholas Kitchin, Louise Pedneault, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Arie van der Ende
OBJECTIVES: Current information on rates and dynamics of meningococcal carriage is essential for public health policy. This study aimed to determine meningococcal carriage prevalence, its risk factors and duration in the Netherlands, where meningococcal C vaccine coverage is >90%. Several methods to identify serogroups of meningococcal carriage isolates among adolescent and young adults were compared. METHODS: Oropharyngeal swabs from 1715 subjects 13-23 years of age were collected in 2013-2014; 300 were prospectively followed over 8 months...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182748/beyond-experimentation-five-trajectories-of-cigarette-smoking-in-a-longitudinal-sample-of-youth
#14
Lauren M Dutra, Stanton A Glantz, Nadra E Lisha, Anna V Song
The first goal of this study was to identify the most appropriate measure of cigarette smoking for identifying unique smoking trajectories among adolescents; the second goal was to describe the resulting trajectories and their characteristics. Using 15 annual waves of smoking data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we conducted an exploratory latent class growth analysis to determine the best of four outcome variables for yearly smoking (cigarettes per day on days smoked, days smoked per month, mean cigarettes per day, and total cigarettes per month) among individuals aged 12 to 30 (n = 8,791)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176155/genetic-counseling-for-alcohol-addiction-assessing-perceptions-and-potential-utility-in-individuals-with-lived-experience-and-their-family-members
#15
Fayth M Kalb, Victoria Vincent, Teresa Herzog, Jehannine Austin
Though addictions to substances including alcohol are highly heritable, there have been no studies regarding the possible applicability of genetic counseling to this set of conditions. Adults (≥18 years old) with a personal and/or family history of alcohol addiction were recruited to participate in an online survey-based study comprising 43 questions about beliefs/concern about recurrence risk and etiology of alcohol addiction and its impact on childbearing decisions, and perceptions of potential utility of genetic counseling for alcohol addiction...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162008/clinical-implications-of-understanding-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-pediatric-nafld
#16
Jake P Mann, Massimiliano Raponi, Valerio Nobili
Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that characterise oxidative stress are generated in several cellular sites and their production is influence by multi-organ interactions. Areas covered: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main source of ROS in fatty liver and is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Both are caused by lipotoxicity and together these three factors form a cycle of progressive organelle damage, resulting in sterile inflammation and apoptosis...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158994/impact-of-communities-health-and-emotional-related-factors-on-smoking-use-comparison-of-joint-modeling-of-mean-and-dispersion-and-bayes-hierarchical-models-on-add-health-survey
#17
Jie Pu, Di Fang, Jeffrey R Wilson
BACKGROUND: The analysis of correlated binary data is commonly addressed through the use of conditional models with random effects included in the systematic component as opposed to generalized estimating equations (GEE) models that addressed the random component. Since the joint distribution of the observations is usually unknown, the conditional distribution is a natural approach. Our objective was to compare the fit of different binary models for correlated data in Tabaco use. We advocate that the joint modeling of the mean and dispersion may be at times just as adequate...
February 3, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140729/association-of-suicide-attempts-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-behaviors-with-substance-use-and-family-characteristics-among-children-and-adolescents-seeking-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#18
Neslim Guvendeger Doksat, Oguzhan Zahmacioglu, Arzu Ciftci Demirci, Gizem Melissa Kocaman, Ayten Erdogan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies in youth and adults suggest strong association between substance use disorders and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. There is paucity of studies exploring the association of substance use with history of suicide attempts (HSA) and NSSI in children and adolescents in Turkey. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the prevalence of NSSI and HSA and their relationship with substance use and family characteristics among youth seeking treatment for substance use in Turkey...
April 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127708/associations-between-hunter-type-a-b-personality-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-from-adolescence-through-young-adulthood
#19
Benjamin D Pollock, Wei Chen, Emily W Harville, Lydia A Bazzano
PURPOSE: Type A personality, characterized by action-oriented tendencies, has been linked to cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Alternatively, limited research has tested whether personality type A/B and cardiovascular (CVD) risk are linked prior to adulthood. Therefore, we used the Hunter-Wolf A/B personality score to determine whether personality type A/B is associated with traditional CVD risk factors during adolescence, and more importantly if personality type, or its individual type A components, are associated with cardiovascular risk through young adulthood...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111263/an-update-on-the-assessment-and-management-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-growing-medical-emergency-in-paediatric-populations
#20
REVIEW
Chiara Mameli, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Carla Carnovale, Erica Galli, Pilar Nannini, Davide Cervia, Cristiana Perrotta
In the last decades the increasing rate of obesity in children and adolescents worldwide has led to the onset in paediatric age of metabolic syndrome, a disease commonly associated to adulthood. Central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension are typical features of metabolic syndrome that seem to hesitate often in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and many other clinical conditions. Thus preventing and curing metabolic syndrome in paediatric patients is becoming an urgent need for public health...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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