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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342973/effects-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-glycosides-for-milk-fever-prevention-on-serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dairy-cows
#1
Heinrich Bachmann, Michael Lanz, Susanne Kehrle, Wolfgang Bittner, Annick Toggenburger, Georg A Mathis, Walter Rambeck
Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342606/increased-anaplerosis-of-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-decreased-meal-size-and-energy-intake-of-cows-in-the-postpartum-period
#2
Laura B Gualdrón-Duarte, Michael S Allen
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of anaplerosis of the tricarboxylic acid cycle on feeding behavior and energy intake of cows in the postpartum period. We infused propionic acid (PA) and glycerol (GL) continuously into the abomasum and hypothesized that PA will decrease meal size and energy intake compared with GL because PA enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle, likely stimulating oxidation of acetyl CoA and satiety compared with GL. Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted using 20 Holstein cows between 3 and 22 d postpartum (8 cows in Exp...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341393/cell-specific-immuno-localization-of-progesterone-receptor-alpha-in-the-rabbit-ovary-during-pregnancy-and-after-parturition
#3
Mahmoud Abd-Elkareem
Progesterone receptor alpha (PRA) has a central coordinator role in the ovarian functions in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of PRA in the rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition. The rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition had moderate cytoplasmic and moderate to intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the ovarian surface epithelial cells, stromal cells and interstitial gland cells. The PRA was also present in granulosa cells and theca interna cells of the growing, small antral and mature Graafian follicles...
March 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333087/magnetically-bioprinted-human-myometrial-3d-cell-rings-as-a-model-for-uterine-contractility
#4
Glauco R Souza, Hubert Tseng, Jacob A Gage, Arunmani Mani, Pujan Desai, Fransisca Leonard, Angela Liao, Monica Longo, Jerrie S Refuerzo, Biana Godin
Deregulation in uterine contractility can cause common pathological disorders of the female reproductive system, including preterm labor, infertility, inappropriate implantation, and irregular menstrual cycle. A better understanding of human myometrium contractility is essential to designing and testing interventions for these important clinical problems. Robust studies on the physiology of human uterine contractions require in vitro models, utilizing a human source. Importantly, uterine contractility is a three-dimensionally (3D)-coordinated phenomenon and should be studied in a 3D environment...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331359/pregnancy-suppresses-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-chronic-constriction-injury-in-rats-through-the-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE
#5
Yoshiko Onodera, Megumi Kanao-Kanda, Hirotsugu Kanda, Tomoki Sasakawa, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Takayuki Kunisawa
PURPOSE: Pregnancy-induced analgesia develops during late pregnancy, but it is unclear whether this analgesia is effective against neuropathic pain. The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying pregnancy-induced analgesia have not been investigated. We examined the antinociceptive effect of pregnancy-induced analgesia in a neuropathic pain model and the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Iba-1, and c-Fos in the spinal dorsal horn just before parturition...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323983/autophagic-degradation-of-collagen-1a1-by-cortisol-in-human-amnion-fibroblasts
#6
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Chao Liu, Jiangwen Lu, Wenjiao Li, Rujuan Zuo, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen is the crucial factor determining the tensile strength of the membranes. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 exists in fetal membranes. It remains undetermined whether cortisol contributes to collagen reduction in fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for collagen reduction in human amnion fibroblasts, the major source of collagens in the membranes...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#7
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321493/the-costs-of-locomotor-activity-maximum-body-temperatures-and-the-use-of-torpor-during-the-active-season-in-edible-dormice
#8
Claudia Bieber, Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Sylvain Giroud, Thomas Ruf
Measuring T b during the active season can provide information about the timing of reproduction and the use of short bouts of torpor and may be used as a proxy for the locomotor activity of animals (i.e., maximum T b). This kind of information is especially important to understand life-history strategies and energetic costs and demands in hibernating mammals. We investigated T b throughout the active season in edible dormice (Glis glis), since they (i) have an expensive arboreal life-style, (ii) are known to show short bouts of torpor, and (iii) are adapted to pulsed resources (mast of beech trees)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318590/supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-during-the-transition-period-influences-whole-blood-immune-response-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#9
M Vailati-Riboni, Z Zhou, C B Jacometo, A Minuti, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
Methionine, together with Lys, is the most limiting AA for milk production in dairy cows. Besides its crucial role in milk production, Met and its derivate metabolites (e.g., glutathione, taurine, polyamines) are well-known immunonutrients in nonruminants, helping support and boost immune function and activity. In the present study, the effects of Met or choline, as its precursor, were investigated using an ex vivo whole blood challenge. The study involved 33 multiparous Holstein cows (from a larger cohort with a factorial arrangement of treatments) assigned from d -21 to +30 relative to parturition to a basal control (CON) diet, CON plus rumen-protected Met (MET, Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) at a rate of 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318587/technical-note-mining-data-from-on-farm-electronic-equipment-to-identify-the-time-dairy-cows-spend-away-from-the-pen
#10
A J Thompson, D M Weary, M A G von Keyserlingk
The electronic equipment used on farms can be creatively co-opted to collect data for which it was not originally designed. In the current study, we describe 2 novel algorithms that harvest data from electronic feeding equipment and data loggers used to record standing and lying behavior, to estimate the time that dairy cows spend away from their pen to be milked. Our 2 objectives were to (1) measure the ability of the first algorithm to estimate the time cows spend away from the pen as a group and (2) determine the capability of a second algorithm to estimate the time it takes for individual cows to return to their pen after being milked...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318576/risk-factors-associated-with-postpartum-subclinical-hypocalcemia-in-dairy-cows
#11
R C Neves, B M Leno, T Stokol, T R Overton, J A A McArt
Our study objectives were to evaluate the association of prepartum plasma Mg concentrations with subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) classification at parturition and to evaluate the association of other cow-level risk factors with SCH classification at calving or at 2 d in milk (DIM). A total of 301 animals from 2 dairy herds located in New York were enrolled in a cohort study. Blood samples were collected at approximately 1 wk before the expected calving date, within 4 h of calving, and at 2 DIM. Prepartum samples had plasma macromineral concentrations (Ca, K, Mg, P), albumin, and β-hydroxybutyrate analyzed...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317612/hormonal-electrolytic-and-electrocardiographic-evaluations-in-bitches-with-eutocia-and-dystocia
#12
Carla Regina Barbieri Simões, Flávia Gardilin Vassalo, Maria Lúcia Gomes Lourenço, Fabiana Ferreira de Souza, Eunice Oba, Mateus José Sudano, Nereu Carlos Prestes
The objective of the study was to assess clinical alterations, electrocardiographic, hematological, biochemical, hemogasometric, electrolytic, and hormone plasma concentrations in bitches with eutocia and dystocia. Overall, 28 bitches (dystocia, n = 22 and eutocia, n = 6) were assessed. The evaluations were performed at 2 time points, M1 (1 hour prepartum-eutocia group and cesarean or clinical intervention-dystocia group) and M2 (postpartum-eutocia or dystocia group and anesthetic recovery-dystocia group). The main clinical finding was the hypothermia (mean: 36...
December 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317126/pharmacokinetics-of-ceftiofur-sodium-in-equine-pregnancy
#13
M L Macpherson, S Giguère, M A Pozor, E Runcan, T W Vickroy, S A Benson, M H T Troedsson, J N Hatzel, J Larson, E Vanden Berg, A A Kelleman, L C Sanchez, M M LeBlanc
Eleven pregnant pony mares (D270-326) were administered ceftiofur sodium intramuscularly at 2.2 mg/kg (n = 6) or 4.4 mg/kg (n = 5), once daily. Plasma was obtained prior to ceftiofur administration and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hr after administration. Eight pony mares were re-enrolled in the study at least 3 days from expected foaling to ensure steady-state concentrations of drug at the time of foaling. Mares were administered ceftiofur sodium (4.4 mg/kg, IM) daily until foaling. Parturition was induced using oxytocin 1 hr after ceftiofur sodium administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299153/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-spotted-fever-group-rickettsioses-and-q-fever-in-laikipia-and-maasai-mara-kenya
#14
David Ndeereh, Gerald Muchemi, Andrew Thaiyah
Many factors contribute to misdiagnosis and underreporting of infectious zoonotic diseases in most sub-Saharan Africa including limited diagnostic capacity and poor knowledge. We assessed the knowledge, practices and attitudes towards spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR) and Q fever amongst local residents in Laikipia and Maasai Mara in Kenya. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to a total of 101 respondents including 51 pastoralists, 17 human health providers, 28 wildlife sector personnel and 5 veterinarians...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297180/human-variation-in-pelvic-shape-and-the-effects-of-climate-and-past-population-history
#15
Lia Betti
The human pelvis is often described as an evolutionary compromise (obstetrical dilemma) between the requirements of efficient bipedal locomotion and safe parturition of a highly encephalized neonate, that has led to a tight fit between the birth canal and the head and body of the foetus. Strong evolutionary constraints on the shape of the pelvis can be expected under this scenario. On the other hand, several studies have found a significant level of pelvic variation within and between human populations, a fact that seems to contradict such expectations...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294426/polymorphism-in-5-untranslated-region-of-heat-shock-protein-70-gene-as-marker-of-post-partum-anoestrus-in-murrah-buffaloes
#16
R Kumar, M Ghosh, N Kumar, A K Balhara, M Gupta, R K Sharma, I Singh
The enormous production potential of buffaloes has never been accomplished due to various reproductive insufficiencies. Among them, post-partum anoestrus, a multifactorial disorder, is predominant but any genetic association is yet to be established. This study focused to identify novel polymorphisms in heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene and its possible association with post-partum anoestrus in Murrah buffaloes. A 579-bp fragment from 5' untranslated region of HSP70 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from blood genomic DNA of 614 animals maintained under similar management conditions...
March 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293384/hyperammonemia-crisis-following-parturition-in-a-female-patient-with-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficiency
#17
Jun Kido, Tatsuya Kawasaki, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Hidenobu Kamohara, Takashi Ohba, Shirou Matsumoto, Fumio Endo, Kimitoshi Nakamura
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is an X-linked disorder, with an estimated prevalence of 1 per 80000 live births. Female patients with OTCD develop metabolic crises that are easily provoked by non-predictable common disorders, such as genetic (private mutations and lyonization) and external factors; however, the outcomes of these conditions may differ. We resuscitated a female patient with OTCD from hyperammonemic crisis after she gave birth. Hyperammonemia after parturition in a female patient with OTCD can be fatal, and this type of hyperammonemia persists for an extended period of time...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292896/loss-of-lmod1-impairs-smooth-muscle-cytocontractility-and-causes-megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-hypoperistalsis-syndrome-in-humans-and-mice
#18
Danny Halim, Michael P Wilson, Daniel Oliver, Erwin Brosens, Joke B G M Verheij, Yu Han, Vivek Nanda, Qing Lyu, Michael Doukas, Hans Stoop, Rutger W W Brouwer, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Orazio J Slivano, Alan J Burns, Christine K Christie, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Alice S Brooks, Dick Tibboel, Suowen Xu, Zheng Gen Jin, Tono Djuwantono, Wei Yan, Maria M Alves, Robert M W Hofstra, Joseph M Miano
Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital visceral myopathy characterized by severe dilation of the urinary bladder and defective intestinal motility. The genetic basis of MMIHS has been ascribed to spontaneous and autosomal dominant mutations in actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a smooth muscle contractile gene. However, evidence suggesting a recessive origin of the disease also exists. Using combined homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing, a genetically isolated family was found to carry a premature termination codon in Leiomodin1 (LMOD1), a gene preferentially expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288806/effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-wifi-signal-2-45ghz-on-postnatal-development-and-behavior-in-rat-influence-of-maternal-restraint
#19
Haifa Othman, Mohamed Ammari, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh Abdelmelek
The present study was carried out to investigate the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress (and 2.45GHz WiFi signal exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. 24 pregnant albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint occurred 2h/day along gestation till parturition. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation...
March 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284692/a-reaction-norm-sire-model-to-study-the-effect-of-metabolic-challenge-in-early-lactation-on-the-functional-longevity-of-dairy-cows
#20
N-T Ha, A R Sharifi, J Heise, M Schlather, U Schnyder, J J Gross, F Schmitz-Hsu, R M Bruckmaier, H Simianer
Due to the discrepancy of the high energy demand for rapidly increasing milk production and limited feed intake in the transition period around parturition, dairy cows require considerable metabolic adaptations. We hypothesize that some cows are genetically less suited to cope with these metabolic needs than others, leading to adverse follow-up effects on longevity. To test this, we designed a reaction norm model in which functional lifetime was linked to the metabolic challenge in the beginning of the first lactation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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