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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109606/short-communication-glutamine-modulates-inflammatory-responses-to-lipopolysaccharide-in-ex-vivo-bovine-endometrium
#1
Pablo G Noleto, João Paulo E Saut, I Martin Sheldon
Bacteria infect the endometrium lining the uterus of cattle after parturition, and clearance of these microbes depends on a robust innate immune response to bacterial molecules, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Endometrial inflammation is characterized by secretion of the cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and the chemokine IL-8. However, animals often fail to clear invading bacteria and develop uterine disease if they are in negative energy balance, with reduced abundance of glucose and glutamine, which are substrates for energy in tissues...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109586/elevation-of-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-affects-glucose-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-parturition
#2
M Zarrin, L Grossen-Rösti, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109180/the-intrauterine-renin-angiotensin-system-sex-specific-effects-on-the-prevalence-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#3
Kirsty G Pringle, Tamas Zakar, Eugenie R Lumbers
Preterm birth (PTB) is the single largest cause of death in infants and young children. The rate of PTB is significantly higher in male infants, particularly those that are born very preterm. Here we present evidence to suggest that the decidual renin-angiotensin system may play a role in inhibiting inflammation and maintaining the integrity of the fetal membranes during pregnancy, and that sex-specific alterations in the intrauterine RAS could contribute to the increased risk of PTB in male babies. Women carrying female fetuses have high levels of expression of decidual prorenin at term...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101117/maternal-mortality-ratio-and-causes-of-death-in-iri-between-2009-and-2012
#4
Marzieh Vahiddastjerdy, Nasrin Changizi, Abas Habibollahi, Leila Janani, Zahra Farahani, Farah Babaee
Objective: The Maternal Mortality Ratio is an important health indicator. We presented the distribution and causes of maternal mortality in Islamic Republic of Iran. Materials and methods: After provision of an electronic Registry system for date entry, a descriptive-retrospective data collection had been performed for all maternal Deaths in March 2009- March 2012. All maternal deaths and their demographic characteristic were identified by using medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) during pregnancy, labor, and 42 days after parturition...
September 2016: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093111/efficacy-of-tildipirosin-metaphylaxis-for-the-prevention-of-respiratory-disease-otitis-and-mortality-in-pre-weaned-holstein-calves
#5
A G V Teixeira, J A A McArt, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2)...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092610/effects-of-antioxidant-vitamins-a-d-e-and-trace-elements-cu-mn-se-zn-on-some-metabolic-and-reproductive-profiles-in-dairy-cows-during-transition-period
#6
A Omur, A Kirbas, E Aksu, F Kandemir, E Dorman, O Kaynar, O Ucar
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of some antioxidant vitamins and trace elements on some metabolic and postpartum reproductive profiles in dairy cows during transition period. In the study, altogether 20 clinically healthy Brown Swiss dairy cows (aged 4-5 years-old) under the same management and feeding conditions in periparturient period were used. The animals were divided into two equal groups: control (C) and treatment (T) group (n=10 for each group). Vitamins (A, D, E) and trace elements (Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) were administered intramuscularly into the cows of the T group, while isotonic saline, as placebo, was injected subcutaneously into those in the C group...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091908/effect-of-tramadol-on-rabbit-uterine-contractile-activity-induced-in-late-pregnancy
#7
A A Yakovleva, L A Nazarova, V M Prokopenko, N G Pavlova
Effect of Tramadol infusion (5 mg/ml) on oxytocin-induced uterine contractile activity was studied in chronic experiment on female rabbits with different degrees of biological readiness for parturition. In case of sufficient biological readiness for parturition, Tramadol did not change the number of uterine contractions, but increased the amplitude and duration of each contraction against the background of increased creatine phosphate consumption by the myometrium. At the same time, Tramadol infusion to females without biological readiness for partirition suppressed induced uterine contractile activity by reducing the amplitude of each uterine contraction...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#8
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#9
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088405/evaluation-of-factors-associated-with-immunoglobulin-g-fat-protein-and-lactose-concentrations-in-bovine-colostrum-and-colostrum-management-practices-in-grassland-based-dairy-systems-in-northern-ireland
#10
A Dunn, A Ashfield, B Earley, M Welsh, A Gordon, S J Morrison
The objectives of this study were to investigate colostrum feeding practices and colostrum quality on commercial grassland-based dairy farms, and to identify factors associated with colostrum quality that could help inform the development of colostrum management protocols. Over 1 yr, background information associated with dairy calvings and colostrum management practices were recorded on 21 commercial dairy farms. Colostrum samples (n = 1,239) were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and IgG concentration. A subset was analyzed for somatic cell count and total viable bacteria count...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078817/birth-of-puppies-of-predetermined-sex-after-artificial-insemination-with-a-low-number-of-sex-sorted-frozen-thawed-spermatozoa-in-field-conditions
#11
Yun-Fang Wei, Fang-Liang Chen, Shu-Sheng Tang, Ai-Guo Mao, Li-Guang Li, Lu-Guang Cheng, Chao Chen, Fei-Xiang Li, Bin Wang, Tao Xu, Yue-Jun Zhang, Jing Li, Jiu-Sheng Wan
The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sex ratios after artificial insemination in dogs under field conditions. Semen was cryopreserved as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a cell sorter. Sixty female dogs were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa of 100 × 10(6) unsorted (a dose in practice) and 4 × 10(6) sorted (X and Y group, respectively). A total of 20 dogs became pregnant and 126 puppies were born from the three groups. The percentage of parturition was similar for the X (5/20; 25...
January 11, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078553/expression-of-apoptosis-regulatory-genes-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-diabetes
#12
Hossein Haghir, Javad Hami, Nassim Lotfi, Mostafa Peyvandi, Simagol Ghasemi, Mehran Hosseini
Diabetes during pregnancy impairs the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and causes cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring. However, the exact mechanism by which the maternal diabetes affects the development of the brain remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and the numerical density of degenerating dark neurons (DNs) in the hippocampus of offspring at the first postnatal two weeks...
January 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076749/epigenetic-changes-of-hepatic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sheep-male-offspring-undernourished-in-utero
#13
Stella Chadio, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Stylliani Taka, Emmanouil Liandris, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elias Plakokefalos
The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation on hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression and to determine whether such effects are mediated through epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from Day 0 to 30 (R1) or from Day 31 to 100 of gestation (R2) or a 100% diet throughout gestation (Control). After parturition lambs were fed to appetite. At 10 months of age offspring were euthanised and livers were removed...
January 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070590/-automated-parturition-control-in-primi-and-multiparous-cows-of-a-simmental-and-holstein-crossbred-herd
#14
Matthias Dippon, Wolfram Petzl, Dorothee Lange, Holm Zerbe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Perinatal calf mortality is a current problem in dairy farming with regards to ethics and economic losses. Optimizing calving management by frequent monitoring helps increasing the survival rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the breed and parity dependent applicability of a recently introduced automated parturition control system with regards to its reliability in the field. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven days prior to the calculated calving date the automated parturition control system was applied intravaginally in 23 primiparous and 31 multiparous cows in a Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Simmental (FV) crossbred herd...
January 10, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070294/habitat-performance-relationships-of-a-large-mammal-on-a-predator-free-island-dominated-by-humans
#15
Andrew M Allen, Augusta Dorey, Jonas Malmsten, Lars Edenius, Göran Ericsson, Navinder J Singh
The demographic consequences of changes in habitat use driven by human modification of landscape, and/or changes in climate, are important for any species. We investigated habitat-performance relationships in a declining island population of a large mammal, the moose (Alces alces), in an environment that is predator-free but dominated by humans. We used a combination of demographic data, knowledge of habitat selection, and multiannual movement data of female moose (n = 17) to understand how space use patterns affect fecundity and calf survival...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068953/pregnant-human-peripheral-leukocyte-migration-during-several-late-pregnancy-clinical-conditions-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#16
Jun Takeda, Xin Fang, David M Olson
BACKGROUND: Parturition at term and preterm is characterized by sterile inflammatory processes occurring in the absence of infection whereby peripheral leukocytes infiltrate gestational tissues in response to chemotactic signals. In response to a homing signal, recruited leukocytes undergo diapedesis and extravasate through capillaries, migrating into stromal tissue. There they interact with resident immune and stromal cells to produce a mixture of matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandins and cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 that in turn transform the uterus from pregnancy to parturition...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066113/lactogenic-activity-of-teramnus-labialis-linn-fruit-with-special-reference-to-the-estimation-of-serum-prolactin-and-cortisol-level-in-nursing-rats
#17
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Amrita Bhaiji, Dev Das Santani
AIM: The objective of the study was to investigate the lactogenic activity of methanolic extract of Teramnus labialis (L.) fruit (MTLF) on rats. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nursing rats (200-250 g) with their suckling pups were selected and were divided into five groups (n = 6). Group I treated as control (distil water); Group II treated as standard (domperidone), and Group III, IV, and V were orally administered with MTLF at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight, respectively and continued for l4(th) day of parturition...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064290/referral-of-pregnant-women-to-dentists-and-advice-for-dental-visit-by-medical-nurses
#18
S Sharif, N Saddki, A Yusoff
OBJECTIVE: Dental attendance among pregnant women has been low although they frequently experience oral health problems. Nurses who provide antenatal health care are well positioned to advise and refer their pregnant patients to dentists. this study aimed to assess the practices of medical nurses regarding advice for dental visits and referral of their pregnant patients to dentists. METHODS: A total of 202 medical nurses who provide antenatal health care at Ministry of Health facilities in the district of Kota bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia were included in this cross-sectional study...
October 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052333/on-the-prenatal-initiation-of-t-cell-development-in-the-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#19
Victoria L Hansen, Robert D Miller
Thymus-dependent lymphocytes (T cells) are a critical cell lineage in the adaptive immune system of all jawed vertebrates. In eutherian mammals the initiation of T cell development takes place prenatally and the offspring of many species are born relatively immuno-competent. Marsupials, in contrast, are born in a comparatively altricial state and with a less well developed immune system. As such, marsupials are valuable models for studying the peri- and postnatal initiation of immune system development in mammals...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044958/bilateral-axillary-accessory-breast-tissue-revealed-by-pregnancy
#20
Florin Grama, Ștefan Voiculescu, Ema Vîrga, Traean Burcoş, Daniel Cristian
We illustrate a rare case of a 28 year-old woman with bilateral axillary masses, which were uncovered during her first pregnancy only and grew progresively in size ever since. On local examination, there were two 5/3/5 cm masses with benign clinical characteristics, developed apparently on the axillary extension of the mammary gland. During lactation, a milk-like liquid was evacuated through a brownish, rudimentary, nipple located in the center of each axillary masses. One year after parturition, the MRI showed bilateral axillary breast tissue appearance, separated from the eutopic mammary gland, but having similar signal intensity...
November 2016: Chirurgia
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