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Clive J Petry, Nuria Sanz Marcos, Gracielle Pimentel, M Geoffrey Hayes, Michael Nodzenski, Denise M Scholtens, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, Ken K Ong, William L Lowe, David B Dunger
In addition to maternal genes and environmental exposures, variation in fetal imprinted genes could also affect maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Our objective was to test the associations between polymorphic variants in 16 imprinted genes and maternal mean arterial blood pressures in 1160 DNA trios from 2 established birth cohorts (the Cambridge Baby Growth and Wellbeing Studies) and seek replication in 1367 Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study participants. Significant univariate associations, all independent of fetal sex, were observed in the Cambridge cohorts, including FAM99A rs1489945 transmitted from the mother (P=2×10(-)(4)), DLK1 rs10139403 (mother; P=9×10(-)(4)), DLK1 rs12147008 (mother; P=1×10(-)(3)), H19 rs217222 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), SNRPN rs1453556 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), IGF2 rs6356 (father; P=1×10(-)(3)), and NNAT rs6066671 (father; P=1×10(-)(3))...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Michael A Huffman, Keiko Mouri, Keiko Shimizu, Fred B Bercovitch
Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is the main steroid product of the primate fetal adrenal during mid to late gestation and it plays a major role in providing estrogens needed for parturition. We tested the hypothesis that this hormone can indicate fetal health status and attempted to use fecal DHEAS (fDHEAS) to predict pregnancy outcome in Japanese macaques. The subjects were 16 adult females and 3 neonatal Japanese macaques living in captivity at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. We classified females that gave birth to healthy infants as successful and females that gave birth to dead infants as stillbirth (late fetal loss) and miscarriage (early fetal loss)...
October 19, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Gloria Isani, Enea Ferlizza, Aurora Cuoghi, Elisa Bellei, Emanuela Monari, Barbara Bianchin Butina, Carolina Castagnetti
Characterisation of the physiologic equine amniotic fluid (AF) proteome is a prerequisite to study its changes during diseases and discover new biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify by a proteomic approach the most abundant proteins of equine AF. AF samples were collected at parturition from 24 healthy mares that delivered healthy foals. All samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on 4-12% gels. A pool of the 24 samples, after SDS-PAGE, was cut in 25 slices, trypsin-digested and analysed by mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification...
October 11, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161238.].
2016: PloS One
Lisa A O'Hara, Renée Båge, Kjell Holtenius
BACKGROUND: Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Hwanhee Jang, Yohan Choi, Inkyu Yoo, Jisoo Han, Minjeong Kim, Hakhyun Ka
Objective: Prostaglandins (PGs) function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ABCC4 and SLCO2A1 are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta...
October 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Oat Peltoniemi, S Björkman, C Oliviero
In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Peter A Bos
Variation in the quality of parental care has a tremendous impact on a child's social-emotional development. Research investigating the predictors of this variability in human caregiving behavior has mostly focused on learning mechanisms. Evidence is currently accumulating for the complementary underlying role of steroid hormones and neuropeptides. An overview is provided of the hormones and neuropeptides relevant for human caregiving behavior. Then the developmental factors are described that stimulate variability in sensitivity to these hormones and neuropeptides, which may result in variability in the behavioral repertoire of caregiving...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Wang Nai Dong, Li Jing Jun, Wang Ai Bing, Zhu Zhe, Chang Yan, Mao Yu, Zan Yang, Wang Zan Feng, Deng Zhi Bang
In order to investigate whether PCV2b can be transmitted across the placenta in sows thereby causing vertical infection of fetuses, six sows in 75 day of pregnancy were either intramuscularly inoculated with a PCV2b culture supernatant (n = 4) or mock infected with cell culture supernatant (n = 2). At parturition, 3 newborn piglets from each litter were randomly selected and euthanatized prior to suckling. Samples of the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens, kidneys, hearts and lungs were collected for PCR, histopathological and immunohistochemical assays...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
B Dębski, T Nowicki, W Zalewski, M Ochota, J Mrowiec, J Twardoń
The estimation of acute phase proteins (APP), which are recognized as inflammation markers is a good method for animal health monitoring. Several factors such as obesity, age and sex are also known to modulate APP status. We evaluated the influence of pregnancy and lactation in 65 clinically healthy dairy Holstein-Friesian dairy cows, 2nd÷4th lactation, chosen from 3 different dairy farms located in South West part of Poland. Bovine C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin and fibrinogen were assayed using commercial ELISA kits...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Jacinta L Johnson, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman
The endogenous oxytocin system plays a vital role in facilitating parturition, lactation and social interaction in humans and other mammals. It also impacts on a number of important endocrine, immune and neurotransmitter systems. A well-regulated oxytocin system has been proposed to increase resilience, and therefore reduce the likelihood of an individual developing mental illness or substance dependence. This review discusses the adverse external influences that can modulate oxytocin receptor and protein levels and impact on substance use and mental health...
October 14, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Brajesh K Yadav, Shanker K Singh, Udayraj P Nakade, Vivek K Singh, Abhishek Sharma, Mukesh Srivastava, Brijesh Yadav, Yajuvendra Singh, Rajneesh Sirohi, Satish K Garg
Twelve apparently healthy multiparous parturient Sahiwal cows were allocated into two groups having six cows in each one. Six cows were supplemented with antioxidant mixture (mixture containing Cu, Mn, Cr, Zn, and vitamins A and D3) daily from 21 days before parturition till the day relative to calving. Whereas, remaining non-supplemented six cows were kept as the control group. Blood samples were obtained five times: at enrolment (21 days pre-partum), and again at days 0, +7, +14, and +21 relative to calving...
October 17, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Vipin Tyagi, M D Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Orsolya Balogh, Marie Roch, Stefanie Keller, Erika Michel, Iris M Reichler
In dogs, there is no diagnostic test to identify and differentiate fetal fluids from maternal urine in the event that a clear-yellowish vulvar discharge is observed pre-whelping. The objective of this study was to find a test that could easily and accurately identify rupture of the fetal membranes preceding parturition. Maternal urine, and amniotic fluid (AMF) and allantoic fluid (ALF) from only one fetus per bitch, were collected intraoperatively during cesarean section. Specific gravity (SG) was analyzed with a refractometer, whereas the presence of leukocytes, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, erythrocyte/hemoglobin (Hb), and the pH were assessed using a urine dipstick (Combur-Test)...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Ian Brockington
In addition to bipolar cycloid episodes, infective delirium and eclamptic psychosis, each of which has characteristic clinical features and course, brief episodes of delirium and stupor are also seen in the immediate aftermath of parturition. Several mothers have had similar episodes developing later in the first 10 days, and some have cyclical disorders with an unusual time base. Bipolar/cycloid disorders can start on day 1 or even earlier.
October 16, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Muren, Satoshi Kusuda, Osamu Doi, Hitomi Naito, Hisashi Hashikawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4...
September 8, 2016: Theriogenology
J S Osorio, F Batistel, E F Garrett, M M Elhanafy, M R Tariq, M T Socha, J J Loor
Supplying trace minerals in more bioavailable forms such as amino acid complexes (AAC) could help ameliorate the incidence of hoof disorders in peripartal dairy cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing metal AAC during the peripartal period on expression of 28 genes in corium tissue related to claw composition, oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and transcriptional regulation. Forty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a common diet from -30 to 30 d relative to parturition and were assigned to receive an oral bolus containing either inorganic trace minerals (INO) or AAC (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Amy C Hermesch, Amanda A Allshouse, Kent D Heyborne
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the onset of parturition throughout gestation. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Preterm Prediction Study. Time-to-spontaneous-birth-event (ie, "survival") methods were used to study the association of BMI with the timing of spontaneous onset of labor throughout gestation with indicated births censored at delivery. A Kaplan-Meier estimate of the probability of spontaneous labor was compared with a log rank test across five categories of BMI (kg/m): underweight (less than 18...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. METHODS: Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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