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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467995/transitional-female-sacrum-dimensions-alterations-in-dorsal-pelvic-structure-and-potential-obstetric-implications
#1
Niladri Kumar Mahato
Objectives: The space available within the female pelvis is determined by the morphology of all bony components constituting the pelvic skeleton. Although several studies have investigated the impact of hip-bone structural variations in on parturition, the potential effects of commonly occurring lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) variations have been underreported. This descriptive morphometric study reports dimensions of the female sacrum associated LSTV variations and suggests their probable mechanistic effects on normal labor...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467407/maternal-obesity-induced-decreases-in-plasma-hepatic-and-uterine-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-labour-is-reversed-through-improved-nutrition-at-conception
#2
Ronan Muir, Ge Liu, Raheela Khan, Anatoly Shmygol, Siobhan Quenby, Robert Alan Gibson, Beverly Muhlhausler, Matthew Elmes
Maternal obesity is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labour, potentially through decreased synthesis of prostaglandins that stimulate myometrial contractions. We assessed the impact of maternal obesity on concentrations of precursor fatty acids (FA) for prostaglandin synthesis and whether any changes could be reversed by improved nutrition post-conception. Wistar rats were fed control (CON) or High-Fat, High-cholesterol (HFHC) diets 6 weeks before mating. At conception half the dams switched diets providing 4 dietary groups: (1) CON, (2) HFHC, (3) CON-HFHC or (4) HFHC-CON...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466648/reproductive-pattern-of-the-large-fruit-eating-bat-artibeus-amplus-chiroptera-phyllostomidae-in-the-venezuelan-andes
#3
Damián Ruiz-Ramoni, Paolo Ramoni-Perazzi, Mariana Muñoz-Romo
Bimodal polyestry is the most common reproductive pattern in tropical bats, and it consists in producing one offspring per female twice a year. Reproductive patterns are closely related to rainfall regimes, frequently occurring twice a year in tropical regions. The goal of our study was to determine the reproductive pattern of the large fruit-eating bat, Artibeus amplus Handley, 1987 in a cave in the Venezuelan Andes inhabited by a large, stable colony. Thus, in this study we describe for the first time this important biological aspect of this unknown Neotropical bat species through the examination of external reproductive characteristics of males (inguinal or scrotal testes) and females (pregnant, lactating, post-lactating), based on 211 individuals (120 males and 91 females) captured between September 2008 and August 2009, in Cueva del Parque Las Escaleras, Estado Táchira, Venezuela...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466451/implementing-a-novel-movement-based-approach-to-inferring-parturition-and-neonate-caribou-calf-survival
#4
Maegwin Bonar, E Hance Ellington, Keith P Lewis, Eric Vander Wal
In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463282/longitudinal-study-of-age-specific-pattern-of-coronavirus-infection-in-lyle-s-flying-fox-pteropus-lylei-in-thailand
#5
Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Prateep Duengkae, Aingorn Chaiyes, Thongchai Kaewpom, Apaporn Rodpan, Sangchai Yingsakmongkon, Sininat Petcharat, Patcharakiti Phengsakul, Pattarapol Maneeorn, Thiravat Hemachudha
BACKGROUND: Bats are natural reservoirs for several highly pathogenic and novel viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) (mainly Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus). Lyle's flying fox (Pteropus lylei)'s roosts and foraging sites are usually in the proximity to humans and animals. Knowledge about age-specific pattern of CoV infection in P. lylei, prevalence, and viral shedding at roosts and foraging sites may have an impact on infection-age-structure model to control CoV outbreak. METHODS: P...
February 20, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458446/early-development-and-reproductive-lifespan-of-rabbit-females-implications-of-growth-rate-rearing-diet-and-body-condition-at-first-mating
#6
E Martínez-Paredes, L Ródenas, J J Pascual, D Savietto
Factors influencing early development such as birth weight, nest competition, and the diet received during rearing have been proposed as elements conditioning the future reproductive performance of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) females. To evaluate their effects, we followed the life of 1513 females from birth to time of death, culling or censoring (animals alive at a fixed date). Between 0 and 63 days of age 353 females died. From the remaining 1160 females, 864 were chosen based on their birth weight to be transferred from the selection to the production farm...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454686/differential-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-oral-calcium-based-on-postpartum-plasma-calcium-concentration-in-holstein-cows
#7
B M Leno, R C Neves, I M Louge, M D Curler, M J Thomas, T R Overton, J A A McArt
Our objectives were to determine (1) the effect of a single dose of an oral Ca bolus within 24 h after parturition on plasma Ca concentration, (2) the response of primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows to this supplementation strategy, and (3) differential responses based on plasma Ca at enrollment. For objective 1, cows from 1 commercial dairy in New York State were enrolled within 19 h after parturition (mean ± standard deviation = 8.3 ± 5.3 h) and randomized within parity group (first, second, and ≥third) to control [CON (n = 25); no placebo] or a single dose bolus treatment [BOL (n = 25); 3 oral Ca boluses supplying 54 to 64 g of Ca]...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453435/evidence-of-a-gene-environment-interaction-of-nodal-variants-and-inflammation-in-preterm-birth
#8
Lisa M Starr, Taghreed Heba, Daniel Dufort
OBJECTIVE: NODAL has been implicated in timing of parturition and immune regulation. We investigated the relationship between NODAL polymorphisms, infection/inflammation, and preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: For this secondary analysis, 613 women (189 preterm and 424 term) from the Montreal Prematurity Study were genotyped for NODAL polymorphisms and assessed for bacterial vaginosis and placental inflammation. RESULT: NODAL polymorphisms were not associated with preterm birth...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452854/assessment-of-the-temperature-cut-off-point-by-a-commercial-intravaginal-device-to-predict-parturition-in-piedmontese-beef-cows
#9
A Ricci, V Racioppi, B Iotti, A Bertero, K F Reed, O B Pascottini, L Vincenti
Dystocic parturitions have an adverse impact on animal productivity and therefore the profitability of the farm. In this regard, accurate prediction of calving is essential since it allows for efficient and prompt assistance of the dam and the calf. Numerous approaches to predict parturition have been studied, among these, measurement of intravaginal temperature (IVT) is the most effective method at the field level. Thus, objectives of this experiment were, 1) to find an IVT cut-off to predict calving within 24 h, and 2) to clarify the use of IVT as an automated method of calving detection in housed beef cows...
February 10, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451831/high-dose-perinatal-folic-acid-supplementation-alters-insulin-sensitivity-in-sprague-dawley-rats-and-diminishes-the-expression-of-adiponectin
#10
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Funmileyi Olubajo Awobajo, Gabriel Olorunleke Oludare, Adekunle Mofolorunso
The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic acid supplementation (FAS) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and expression of adiponectin in rats. The study included 20 female rats divided into two groups: control group and FAS group (receiving high folic acid supplemented diet). Both groups of female rats were mated and pregnancy confirmed...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450815/factors-affecting-reproductive-performance-in-dromedary-camel-herds-in-saudi-arabia
#11
Ahmed Ali, Derar Derar, Abdulhadi Alsharari, Assaf Alsharari, Rashid Khalil, Tariq I Almundarij, Yaser Alboti, Fahd Al-Sobayil
A survey of 7122 dromedary camels in 115 herds in Saudi Arabia was used to estimate the effects of herd size (HZ; < 25 vs. 25-49 vs. 50-100 vs. > 100 camels), herder/camels ratio (H/C; 1:< 25 vs. 1:25-50 vs. 1:> 50), manager experience (ME; < 5 vs. 5-10 vs. > 10 years), male/females ratio (M/F), housing system (HS; free vs. closed vs. mixed), length of the breeding season (winter vs. winter and spring vs. fall, winter and spring), age at first mating (3 vs. > 3 years), and time of mating after parturition (≤ 3 vs...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447339/integrated-microrna-and-mrna-network-analysis-of-the-human-myometrial-transcriptome-in-the-transition-from-quiescence-to-labor
#12
William E Ackerman, Irina A Buhimschi, Douglas Brubaker, Sean Maxwell, Kara M Rood, Mark R Chance, Hongwu Jing, Sam Mesiano, Catalin S Buhimschi
We conducted integrated transcriptomics network analyses of miRNA and mRNA interactions in human myometrium to identify novel molecular candidates potentially involved in human parturition. Myometrial biopsies were collected from women undergoing primary Cesarean deliveries in well-characterized clinical scenarios: 1) spontaneous term labor (TL, n = 5); 2) term non-labor (TNL, n = 5); 3) spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) with histologic chorioamnionitis (PTB-HCA, n = 5); and 4) indicated PTB non-labor (PTB-NL, n = 5)...
February 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445454/rumen-protected-methionine-during-the-peripartal-period-in-dairy-cows-and-its-effects-on-abundance-of-major-species-of-ruminal-bacteria
#13
Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Ahmed A Elolimy, Zheng Zhou, Vincenzo Lopreiato, Joshua C McCann, Juan J Loor
Background: Extensive degradation of amino acids in the rumen via microbial deamination decreases the post-ruminal availability of dietary indispensable amino acids. Together with the normal decrease in voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) around parturition in dairy cows, microbial metabolism contributes to a markedly negative balance of indispensable amino acids, including methionine which may be the first-limiting for milk production. The main objective of the current study was to profile changes in major bacterial species with key functions in cellulose and hemicellulose digestion, xylan breakdown, proteolytic action, propionic acid production, lactate utilization and ruminal biohydrogenation in cows supplemented with rumen-protected Methionine (SM; Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA, USA) from -23 through 30 d relative to parturition...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445376/investigating-relationships-between-reproduction-immune-defenses-and-cortisol-in-dall-sheep
#14
Cynthia J Downs, Brianne V Boan, Thomas D Lohuis, Kelley M Stewart
Life-history theory is fundamental to understanding how animals allocate resources among survival, development, and reproduction, and among traits within these categories. Immediate trade-offs occur within a short span of time and, therefore, are more easily detected. Trade-offs, however, can also manifest across stages of the life cycle, a phenomenon known as carryover effects. We investigated trade-offs on both time scales in two populations of Dall sheep ( Ovis dalli dalli ) in Southcentral Alaska. Specifically, we (i) tested for glucocorticoid-mediated carryover effects from the breeding season on reproductive success and immune defenses during parturition and (ii) tested for trade-offs between immune defenses and reproduction within a season...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440172/a-distinct-oncogenerative-multinucleated-cancer-cell-serves-as-a-source-of-stemness-and-tumor-heterogeneity
#15
David Diaz-Carballo, Sahitya Saka, Jacqueline Klein, Tobias Rennkamp, Ali Haydar Acikelli, Sascha Malak, Holger Jastrow, Gunther Wennemuth, Clemens B Tempfer, Inge Schmitz, Andrea Tannapfel, Dirk Strumberg
The effects of anticancer treatments on cell heterogeneity and their proliferative potential play an important role in tumor persistence and metastasis. However, little is known about de-polyploidization, cell fate, and physiological stemness of the resulting cell populations. Here we describe a distinctive cell type termed "pregnant" P1 cells found within chemotherapy refractory ovarian tumors, which generate and gestate daughter generation Gn-cells intracytoplasmically. Release of Gn-cells occurred by ejection through crevices in P1 cell membrane by body contractions or using a funiculus-like structure...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436640/-corrigendum-roles-and-mechanisms-of-trpc3-and-the-plc%C3%AE-pkc-cpi-17-signaling-pathway-in-regulating-parturition
#16
Jing Chen, Dongming Zheng, Hong Cui, Sishi Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Caixia Liu
Subsequent to the publication of the above paper, the authors have realized that there were errors in Fig. 1 on page 902; essentially, the experimental data described as being 'Preterm' and 'Infected preterm' should have been labelled as 'Full‑term without labor' and 'Preterm', respectively. Note that these errors in Fig. 1 were not reflected in the published figure legend. The corrected version of Fig. 1 is shown here. The authors sincerely apologize for this mistake, and regret any inconvenience this mistake has caused...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433895/selected-serum-acute-phase-proteins-in-peripartum-sows-and-evaluation-of-their-diagnostic-usefulness
#17
Karol Wierzchosławski, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
Lactation impairment in sows is a frequent and significant clinical problem. Due to a complex aetiopathogenesis, early diagnosis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) is difficult and so far has usually been based on physical examination performed in the first days after farrowing. To date no data have been provided on the diagnostic usefulness of acute phase proteins (APP) in early diagnosis of peripartum disorders, including lactation disorders in sows. This study aimed at measuring the serum concentration of selected APP (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP)) in sows with physiological and pathological course of the peripartum period and at evaluating the possibility of utilising the studied markers in the early diagnosis of lactation disorders...
February 7, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432755/pelvic-muscles-mechanical-response-to-strains-in-the-absence-and-presence-of-pregnancy-induced-adaptations-in-a-rat-model
#18
Tatiana Catanzarite, Shannon Bremner, Caitlin L Barlow, Laura Bou-Malham, Shawn O'Connor, Marianna Alperin
BACKGROUND: Maternal birth trauma to the pelvic floor muscles is thought to be consequent to mechanical demands placed on these muscles during fetal delivery that exceed muscle physiological limits. The above is consistent with studies of striated limb muscles that identify hyperelongation of sarcomeres, the functional muscle units, as the primary cause of mechanical muscle injury and resultant muscle dysfunction. However, pelvic floor muscles' mechanical response to strains have not been examined at a tissue level...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430972/the-behaviour-of-pelvic-floor-muscles-during-uterine-contractions-in-spontaneous-and-oxytocin-induced-labour
#19
Nazan Karahan, Hediye Arslan, Çetin Çam
Term pregnant women were divided into oxytocin infusion and control groups. The electrical activities of pelvic floor muscles (PFM) were recorded at rest and during contractions electromyographically. The beginning and the end of each contraction were marked on the recorded electromyographic trace. A trace was regarded as 'negative' if no increase in electrical activity was observed and 'positive' if increased electrical activity was observed during the contractions. To evaluate the relative frequency of the areas of electrical activity during uterine contractions (UC) a 'positive electrical activity percentage' was used and calculated as: (total count of positive electrical activity areas)/(total count of UC) × 100...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428758/the-unfolded-protein-response-is-involved-in-both-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#20
Shinichi Yonekura, Megumi Tsuchiya, Yukako Tokutake, Moeko Mizusawa, Miwa Nakano, Makoto Miyaji, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Satoshi Haga
The unfolded protein response (UPR) describes a process involved in the homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the differentiation of secretory cells. At present, the roles of UPR in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cattle are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the expression of UPR-related genes in Holstein cows during the developmental and lactating stages of the mammary gland tissue. To investigate the roles of UPR during the differentiation of mammary epithelial cells (MEC), we used MAC-T cells, a line of MEC...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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