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Akriti S Sahay, Anjali T Jadhav, Deepali P Sundrani, Girija N Wagh, Savita S Mehendale, Sadhana R Joshi
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during human placentation and parturition and have been shown to be associated with oxidative stress. Placental regional changes in oxygen availability and oxidative stress indices may influence regional differences in expression of MMPs. This study examines the protein and mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in different regions of the placenta in normotensive control (NC) women and women with preeclampsia (PE). Fifty-two NC women and 43 women with PE (18 delivered at term [T-PE] and 25 delivered preterm [PT-PE]) were recruited...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Rémi Gschwind, Thierry Fournier, Marie-José Butel, Sandra Wydau-Dematteis
Some diseases seem to have a developmental origin. Today, the microbiota is recognized as a determinant in health and diseases and one important step is its establishment in the neonate. Some variations in its composition including an imbalance (also called dysbiosis) have been associated to several pathologies. Recent studies suggest a bacterial colonization in the non-pregnant uterus, in the amniotic fluid and in the placenta, which were previously thought sterile. So, during deve-lopmental phases, the fetus could have encounter bacteria in utero...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Vikash Kumar, Jancy Gupta
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the antibiotic use in dairy animals and to trace its usage pattern among the small, medium, and large dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India. Materials and Methods: Karnal and Kurukshetra districts from Eastern region of Haryana state were purposively selected, and four villages from each district were selected randomly. From each village, 21 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling by categorizing into small, medium, and large farmers constituting a total of 168 farmers as respondents...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Meeti Punetha, A K Roy, H M Ajithakumar, Irshad Ahmed Para, Deepanshu Gupta, Mahendra Singh, Jaya Bharati
Background and Aim: Probiotics are the living microorganism which when administered improves the digestion and health of the animal. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) improves the humoral and innate immunity of the animal. Prilled fat is a hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride which has been reported to promote the release of cytokines from macrophages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic and prilled fat during transition stage in Karan Fries (KF) cows...
February 2018: Veterinary World
R M Ferreira, T L Conti, R L Gonçalves, L A Souto, J N S Sales, M F Sá Filho, F M Elliff, P S Baruselli
Timed AI has become a potential tool to bypass postpartum acyclicity, yet only a small percentage of the world bovine herd is inseminated. Most females are still subjected to bull mating; therefore, the frequent occurrence of postpartum anestrus may compromise their reproductive efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an approach that allows the early conception of postpartum primiparous beef cows that are exposed to natural breeding (NB). For this purpose, 350 primiparous Nelore cows 35-65 d postpartum were allocated into three groups: Control (no hormonal treatment), TNB (hormonal protocol for timed-NB without equine chorionic gonadotropin; eCG) and TNB + eCG (hormonal protocol for TNB with eCG) groups...
April 4, 2018: Theriogenology
Olga Szaluś-Jordanow, Michał Czopowicz, Lucjan Witkowski, Agata Moroz, Marcin Mickiewicz, Tadeusz Frymus, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Emilia Bagnicka, Jarosław Kaba
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on heart diameters and function in goats. Transthoracic echocardiography of 12 female dairy goats of two Polish regional breeds was performed. A Mindray M7 diagnostic ultrasound system with Phased Array transducer was used. Simultaneously, electrocardiography was recorded. All animals were examined four times - at mating season, at the end of the first trimester, at the end of the second trimester and just before kidding. Eleven measurements were taken each time: aortic and left atrial diameter (AoD and LAD), right and left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (RVIDd and LVIDd), left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVIDs), inter-ventricular septum thickness in diastole and systole (IVSd and IVSd) and left ventricular posterior wall in diastole and systole (LVPWd and LVPWs), maximum left and right ventricular outflow tract velocity (RVOT Vmax and LVOT Vmax)...
March 8, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
K A Beauchemin
Many early studies laid the foundation for our understanding of the mechanics of chewing, the physiological role of chewing for the cow, and how chewing behavior is affected by dietary characteristics. However, the dairy cow has changed significantly over the past decades, as have the types of diets fed and the production systems used. The plethora of literature published in recent years provides new insights on eating and ruminating activity of dairy cows. Lactating dairy cows spend about 4.5 h/d eating (range: 2...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
W J Zang, H Li, Z F Zhang, R QuZhen, Y Z CuoMu, D K Zhang, J Luo, J J Loor, H L Zheng
During lactation, large amounts of calcium are exported from the mammary gland into milk to ensure skeletal growth of the offspring. Recent studies revealed that serotonin (5-HT) is essential to stimulate skeletal calcium resorption for milk synthesis. Our objective was to explore the correlation between circulating 5-HT and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) concentrations around parturition in dairy goats. We also investigated the effect of 5-HT on PTHrP expression in cultured primary goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Levi J Heffelfinger, Kelley M Stewart, Anthony P Bush, James S Sedinger, Neal W Darby, Vernon C Bleich
Climate models predict that shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are likely to occur across the globe. Changing climate will likely have strong effects on arid environments as a result of increased temperatures, increasing frequency and intensity of droughts, and less consistent pulses of rainfall. Therefore, understanding the link between patterns of precipitation, temperature, and population performance of species occupying these environments will continue to increase in importance as climatic shifts occur within these natural ecosystems...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Seung-Hee Loh, Bark-Lynn Lew, Woo-Young Sim
Telogen effluvium is categorized in nonscarring alopecia, which shows scalp hair thinning and shedding diffusely resulting from inducing factors such as physiological stressful events and several acute or chronic diseases. It usually appears in female patients following parturition, as well as after febrile disease, major surgery, emotional stress, abrupt diet, chronic illness, or the taking of certain medication pills. Two patients who both recalled an operational history of hair transplantation visited our department with their frontal and both temporal hair loss...
April 2018: Annals of Dermatology
C J Slater, E L Endres, S R Weaver, A A Cheng, M R Lauber, S F Endres, E Olstad, A DeBruin, P M Crump, E Block, L L Hernandez
Hypocalcemia affects almost 50% of all dairy cows. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that infusions of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP) increase circulating calcium concentrations in the Holstein transition cow. It is unknown whether feeding a negative DCAD diet alters the relationship between 5-HTP and hypocalcemia. The main objective of this study was to determine whether feeding a negative dietary cation-anion difference (-DCAD) diet before calving in conjunction with 5-HTP treatment could further diminish the magnitude of hypocalcemia at the time of calving...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S Haga, M Miyaji, M Nakano, H Ishizaki, H Matsuyama, K Katoh, S G Roh
Blood α-tocopherol (α-Toc) concentrations decline gradually throughout the prepartum period, reaching the nadir after calving in dairy cows. The 6 α-Toc-related molecules [α-Toc transfer protein (TTPA); afamin; scavenger receptor class B, Type I; ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; tocopherol-associated protein (SEC14L2); and cytochrome P450 family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2 (CYP4F2)] are expressed in liver and other peripheral tissues. These molecules could regulate α-Toc transport, blood concentrations, and metabolism of α-Toc...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
C Lee, A W Tebbe, J M Campbell, W P Weiss
Spray-dried plasma protein (SDP) compared with blood meal (BM) may contain various functional and active components that may benefit animal health. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of feeding SDP or BM on production and blood profile in dairy cows during the transition and early-lactation periods. Seventy-two Holstein cows at 14 d before calving were used in a randomized block design. During the prepartum period, cows were fed a typical late-gestation diet containing BM (100 g/cow per day; 100BM, n = 24) or SDP (100 g/cow per day; 100SDP; n = 48)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P R Batista, C Gobello, A Rube, J P Barrena, N E Re, P G Blanco
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the uterine artery blood flow during the second half of normal pregnancy in small breed dogs and to determine the RI reference values of this artery in these bitches. Fifty-two, 1.5-6.5 kg, purebred healthy pregnant bitches were included in this study. Doppler ultrasonographic examinations of the uterus were performed every 10 days from Day 30 of the estrous cycle to parturition. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of the uterine artery were measured while RI [(PSV-EDV)/PSV] was automatically calculated...
March 21, 2018: Theriogenology
Mario Caba, Gabriela González-Mariscal, Enrique Meza
Clock gene oscillations are necessary for a successful pregnancy and parturition, but little is known about their function during lactation, a period demanding from the mother multiple physiological and behavioral adaptations to fulfill the requirements of the offspring. First, we will focus on circadian rhythms and clock genes in reproductive tissues mainly in rodents. Disruption of circadian rhythms or proper rhythmic oscillations of clock genes provoke reproductive problems, as found in clock gene knockout mice...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Edward Dere, Linnea M Anderson, Susan M Huse, Daniel J Spade, Elizabeth McDonnell-Clark, Samantha J Madnick, Susan J Hall, Luísa Camacho, Sherry M Lewis, Michelle M Vanlandingham, Kim Boekelheide
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical that has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). There is growing concern that early life exposures to EDCs, such as BPA, can adversely affect the male reproductive tract and function. This study was conducted as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA) to further delineate the toxicities associated with continuous exposure to BPA from early gestation, and to comprehensively examine the elicited effects on testes and sperm...
March 26, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Liang Ma, Bao-Jun Sun, Peng Cao, Xing-Han Li, Wei-Guo Du
Temperature variability is predicted to increase in the coming century due to climate change. However, the biological impact of increased temperature variability on animals remains largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally exposed gravid viviparous lizards (Eremias multiocellata) to two thermal environments [constant daily maximum (CDM) versus variable daily maximum (VDM) treatment with the same average temperature] to address maternal and offspring responses to increased variability in ambient temperature...
March 28, 2018: Oecologia
Maria Vilain Rørvang, Birte L Nielsen, Mette S Herskin, Margit Bak Jensen
The event of giving birth is an essential part of animal production. In dairy cattle production, there are substantial economical and welfare-related challenges arising around the time of parturition, and hence increased focus on efficient management of the calving cow. Drawing on the research literature on prepartum maternal behavior, this review compares cattle to other members of the ungulate clade with the aim of understanding the biological basis of bovine prepartum behavior with main emphasis on dairy cows...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yuki Kimura, Shingo Haneda, Takahiro Aoki, Hidefumi Furuoka, Wataru Miki, Natsuko Fukumoto, Motozumi Matsui, Yasuo Nambo
The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) and ultrasonographic images of uteroplacental tissues were investigated in 35 pregnant heavy draft horses in Months 7-12 of pregnancy. The mares were divided into three groups: those pathologically diagnosed as placentitis (placentitis group, n=3); those who had abortion, premature birth, or fetal malformation (abnormal group, n=7); and those who had no abnormal findings (normal group, n=25). In the normal group, CTUP increased as pregnancy progressed from Months 7 (median, 7...
2018: Journal of Equine Science
Janis Hausmann, Carolin Deiner, Amlan K Patra, Irmgard Immig, Alexander Starke, Jörg R Aschenbach
The aim of this study was to test whether a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds (also termed 'essential oils') and biotin (PBLC+B) could decrease the mobilization of body reserves and ketosis incidence in postpartum dairy cows. We compared non-supplemented control (CON) cows with cows receiving monensin (MON) as a controlled-release capsule at d -21, and with cows receiving PBLC+B from day (d) -21 before calving until calving (Phase 1) and further until d 37 after calving (Phase 2), followed by PBLC+B discontinuation from d 38 to d 58 (Phase 3)...
2018: PloS One
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