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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821999/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-the-hippocampus-following-in-utero-exposure-to-methylmercury-impairment-in-cell-signaling
#1
Luana Heimfarth, Jeferson Delgado, Moara Rodrigues Mignori, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
In this study, we assessed some hippocampal signaling cascades and behavioral impairments in 30-day-old rat pups prenatally exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Pregnant rats were exposed to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg MeHg by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 until parturition. We found increased anxiety-like and decreased exploration behavior evaluated by open field test and deficit of both short- and long-term memories by novel object recognition task, respectively, in MeHg-treated pups. Downregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and activated/hypophosphorylated (Ser9) GSK3β in MeHg-treated pups could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated Tau (Ser396) destabilizing microtubules and contributing to neural dysfunction in the hippocampus of these rats...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820400/alteration-in-expressions-of-rhoa-and-rho-kinases-during-pregnancy-in-rats-their-roles-in-uterine-contractions-and-onset-of-labour
#2
D Domokos, E Ducza, G Falkay, R Gaspar
Activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction via phosphorylation of myosin-light chain and myosin phosphatase. There are few data on the RhoA and ROCKs expression levels in rat uteri. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the mRNA and protein concentration of RhoA and ROCKs in rat uterus during pregnancy, during parturition and post-partum using real time PCR and Western blot analysis. The other purpose was to evaluate the effects of the ROCK (Y-27632, fasudil and RKI 1441) and RhoA inhibitors (simvastatin) on uterine contractility in isolated organ bath experiments...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819990/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-sedentary-lifestyle-on-susceptibility-of-adult-offspring-to-ozone-exposure-in-rats
#3
C J Gordon, P M Phillips, A F M Johnstone, J Schmid, M C Schladweiler, A Ledbetter, S J Snow, U P Kodavanti
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW...
August 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818752/risk-factors-for-on-farm-mortality-in-beef-suckler-cows-under-extensive-keeping-management
#4
Kerli Mõtus, Ulf Emanuelson
The on-farm mortality of cows in cow-calf herds has a significant influence on the economic efficiency of the farm. It is also an indicator of suboptimal animal health and welfare. The present study analysed the registry data of beef cows in Estonia from the years 2013 to 2015. The datasets incorporated 8084 parturitions of primiparous cows and 21,283 parturitions of 9234 multiparous cows. A Weibull proportional hazard random effect model was used for risk factor analysis, in which the on-farm mortality, including death and euthanasia, was the event of interest...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815782/influence-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-vitamin-e-on-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-concentrations-of-vitamin-a-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-blood-and-milk-of-dairy-cows
#5
S Schäfers, U Meyer, D von Soosten, L Hüther, C Drong, K Eder, E Most, A Tröscher, W Pelletier, A Zeyner, S Dänicke
The objective of this trial was to investigate the influences of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (Vit. E) and their interactions on fatty acid composition and vitamins in milk (α-tocopherol, retinol and β-carotene) as well as on α-tocopherol in blood of pluriparous cows from week 6 ante partum until week 10 post-partum (p.p.). We assigned 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows to four treatment groups with the treatment factors CLA and Vit. E at two levels in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Milk fatty acid composition and milk vitamins were analysed on lactation days 7 and 28...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813701/uterine-cervical-length-measurement-to-reduce-length-of-stay-in-patients-admitted-for-threatened-preterm-labor-a-randomized-trial
#6
Montse Palacio, Javier Caradeux, Miriam Sánchez, Teresa Cobo, Francesc Figueras, Oriol Coll, Eduard Gratacós, Vicenç Cararach
OBJECTIVE: To study whether knowledge of cervical length (CL) is useful in reducing the length of hospital stay in women admitted because of threatened preterm labor. METHODS: We performed a single-center, parallel, randomized trial at the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona. Inclusion criteria were single pregnancy, gestational age (GA) between 24+0 and 35+6 weeks, Bishop score <6, no parturition within 24-48 h after admission, and no clinical signs of chorioamnionitis, vaginal bleeding, or nonreassuring fetal status...
August 17, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813232/understanding-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#7
Zoltan Arany
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is the unexplained loss of maternal cardiac systolic function in the period surrounding parturition. PPCM affects women worldwide and is a leading cause of maternal mortality. The cause of PPCM has remained elusive until recently. We review here the epidemiology of PPCM, recent findings that strongly indicate hormonal and genetic contributions to the development of PPCM, and implications for the management of women with PPCM. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 69 is January 29, 2018...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805600/the-effect-of-oxytocin-and-kisspeptin-10-in-ovary-and-uterus-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#8
M Aslan, G Erkanli Senturk, H Akkaya, S Sahin, B Yılmaz
OBJECTIVE: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries result in damage to endothelial and parenchymal cells. Oxytocin (OXY) stimulates uterine contraction during parturition and myoepithelial cells during suckling. OXY has been used as a protective antioxidant. Kisspeptin plays a key role in the central control of reproductive functions and onset of puberty. Recent studies show that these reproductive hormones have protective potential as antioxidant. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Kisspeptin and OXY as antioxidants on I/R injured ovary and uterus of female rats...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800490/oxytocin-secretion-is-pulsatile-in-men-and-is-related-to-social-emotional-functioning
#9
Charumathi Baskaran, Franziska Plessow, Lisseth Silva, Elisa Asanza, Dean Marengi, Kamryn T Eddy, Patrick M Sluss, Michael L Johnson, Madhusmita Misra, Elizabeth A Lawson
The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in a range of physiological processes and social-emotional functioning in both sexes. In women, physiological stimuli, such as suckling and parturition, result in pulsatile release of OXT into the peripheral circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. However, data regarding OXT secretory patterns in men during a state of rest are limited. Further, the relationship between secretory dynamics of OXT and emotional measures has never been evaluated...
July 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799182/questionnaire-investigation-to-clarify-the-occurrence-rate-and-characteristics-of-maternal-rejection-behavior-in-japanese-black-cattle-bos-taurus
#10
Daisuke Kohari, Azusa Takakura
We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was 'Occurred from the first birth (65...
August 10, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780101/effect-of-prepartum-exercise-pasture-turnout-or-total-confinement-on-hoof-health
#11
R A Black, S R van Amstel, P D Krawczel
Lameness is a major welfare concern in the dairy industry, and access to physical activity during the dry period may improve hoof health. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forced exercise, pasture turnout, or total confinement of dry cows on horn growth and wear and sole thickness. Twenty-nine primiparous and 31 multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey-Holstein crossbred (n = 2) dairy cows were assigned to either total confinement (n = 20), exercise (n = 20), or pasture (n = 20) treatments at dry-off using rolling enrollment from January to November 2015...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768834/placentome-nutrient-transporters-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-proteins-are-altered-by-the-methionine-supply-during-late-gestation-in-dairy-cows-and-are-associated-with-newborn-birth-weight
#12
Fernanda Batistel, Abdulrahman Sm Alharthi, Ling Wang, Claudia Parys, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Felipe C Cardoso, Juan J Loor
Background: To our knowledge, most research demonstrating a link between maternal nutrition and both fetal growth and offspring development after birth has been performed with nonruminants. Whether such relationships exist in large ruminants is largely unknown.Objective: We aimed to investigate whether increasing the methionine supply during late pregnancy would alter uteroplacental tissue nutrient transporters and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and their relation with newborn body weight.Methods: Multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755579/estradiol-cypionate-aided-treatment-for-experimentally-induced-ascending-placentitis-in-mares
#13
Bruna R Curcio, Igor F Canisso, Fernanda M Pazinato, Luciana A Borba, Lorena S Feijó, Vitoria Muller, Ilusca S Finger, Ramiro E Toribio, Carlos E W Nogueira
The overall goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic combinations of estradiol cypionate (ECP, a long-acting estrogen) and altrenogest (ALT, a long-acting progestin) in addition to basic treatment for placentitis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS) and flunixin meglumine (FM). Specific outcomes measured in this experiment were (i) time from induction of bacterial placentitis to delivery, and foal parameters (high-risk, survival, and birth weight); and (ii) serum steroid concentrations (progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17β-estradiol, and cortisol) in response to treatment...
March 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754971/in-vivo-raman-spectral-analysis-of-impaired-cervical-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-delayed-parturition
#14
Christine M O'Brien, Jennifer L Herington, Naoko Brown, Isaac J Pence, Bibhash C Paria, James C Slaughter, Jeff Reese, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Monitoring cervical structure and composition during pregnancy has high potential for prediction of preterm birth (PTB), a problem affecting 15 million newborns annually. We use in vivo Raman spectroscopy, a label-free, light-based method that provides a molecular fingerprint to non-invasively investigate normal and impaired cervical remodeling. Prostaglandins stimulate uterine contractions and are clinically used for cervical ripening during pregnancy. Deletion of cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1), an enzyme involved in production of these prostaglandins, results in delayed parturition in mice...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751877/autoimmune-abnormalities-of-postpartum-thyroid-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Flavia Di Bari, Roberta Granese, Maria Le Donne, Roberto Vita, Salvatore Benvenga
The year following parturition is a critical time for the de novo appearance or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disease. The vast majority of postpartum thyroid disease consists of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) and the minority by Graves' disease and non-autoimmune thyroiditis. PPT has a worldwide prevalence ranging from 1 to 22% and averaging 5% based on a review published in 2012. Several factors confer risk for the development of PPT. Typically, the clinical course of PPT is characterized by three phases: thyrotoxic, hypothyroid, and euthyroid phase...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750212/cortisol-concentration-of-regrown-hair-and-hair-from-a-previously-unshorn-area-in-dairy-cows
#16
Ueli Braun, Nicolas Michel, Markus R Baumgartner, Michael Hässig, Tina Maria Binz
This study determined cortisol concentrations in hair that had grown for one month and in hair from a previously unshorn area and examined the effects of calendar month, pregnancy and illness on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cows. The study was conducted over a one-year period using 27 cows. Electric clippers were used to collect two hair samples per cow each month. The first sample (A sample) consisted of hair that had grown for one month in a pre-clipped area and the second sample (B sample) comprised all hair from a previously unshorn area...
July 9, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749295/serial-ultrasound-to-estimate-fetal-growth-curves-in-southern-tamandua-tamandua-tetradactyla
#17
Rachel Thompson, Tiffany M Wolf, Heather Robertson, Margarita Woc Colburn, Alexis Moreno, Anneke Moresco, Anne Elise Napier, Sally A Nofs
From 2012 to 2015, 16 pregnancies were monitored by ultrasonography in nine tamanduas ( Tamandua tetradactyla ) housed in three zoological facilities. Sonographic measurements were recorded to establish fetal growth curves using thoracic and skull landmarks described for giant anteaters ( Myrmecophaga tridactyla ). All pregnancies resulted in the uncomplicated delivery of healthy offspring, thus gestational development was considered normal. These data may be used as a reference for normal fetal development with potential for estimating parturition date in the absence of breeding data...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749285/diagnosis-of-pregnancy-in-barbary-sheep-ammotragus-lervia-using-a-bovine-assay-for-pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins
#18
Benjamin Lamglait, Thomas Rambaud
Pregnancy diagnosis is an important part in reproduction management of wild ruminants involved in free-ranging and captive programs. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are placenta-expressed proteins released into maternal blood circulation. Tests with high specificity have been developed and validated in domestic species and have been used in some wild ungulate species. One hundred and seventeen serum samples collected from 72 mature female Barbary sheep ( Ammotragus lervia ) were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747528/embryo-implantation-evolved-from-an-ancestral-inflammatory-attachment-reaction
#19
Oliver W Griffith, Arun R Chavan, Stella Protopapas, Jamie Maziarz, Roberto Romero, Gunter P Wagner
The molecular changes that support implantation in eutherian mammals are necessary to establish pregnancy. In marsupials, pregnancy is relatively short, and although a placenta does form, it is present for only a few days before parturition. However, morphological changes in the uterus of marsupials at term mimic those that occur during implantation in humans and mice. We investigated the molecular similarity between term pregnancy in the marsupials and implantation in eutherian mammals using the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) as a model...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746946/endocrine-factors-determining-immune-polarization-during-perinatal-transition
#20
Barna Vásárhelyi, Tivadar Tulassay
In utero the skewness of the adaptive immune system towards Th2 ('antiinflammatory') direction and low of Th1/Th2 cell ratio defend the fetus against rejection by the maternal immune system. Th2 dominance at birth is also of importance as it prevents uncontrolled inflammatory processes during parturition. This condition should change rapidly after birth. In an extrauterine milieu that is inherent with exposure to microorganisms, Th1 ('proinflammatory') polarization (i. e. increased Th1 cytokine production along with high Th1/Th2 ratio) are required to maintain an efficient immune response...
July 26, 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
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