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Jennifer L Herington, Christine O'Brien, Michael F Robuck, Wei Lei, Naoko Brown, J Chris Slaughter, Bibhash C Paria, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Jeff Reese
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandins stimulate uterine contractions and prepare the cervix for parturition. Prior reports suggest Cox-1 (Ptgs1) knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed parturition due to impaired luteolysis, yet the mechanism for late-onset delivery remains unclear. Here, we examined key factors for normal onset of parturition to determine whether any could account for the delayed parturition phenotype. Pregnant Cox-1KO mice did not display altered timing of embryo implantation or post-implantation growth...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
Aline Gomes da Silva, Mário Fonseca Paulino, Edenio Detmann, Henrique Jorge Fernandes, Lincoln da Silva Amorim, Román Enrique Maza Ortega, Victor Valério de Carvalho, Josilaine Aparecida da Costa Lima, Felipe Henrique de Moura, Mariana Benevides Monteiro, Jéssika Almeida Bitencourt
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of the most important factors that affect animal performance, and it therefore also impacts on financial results in beef systems. In this way, finding the best strategy for feeding supplements is of paramount importance. Aiming to evaluate the effect of supplement feeding strategies for beef cows in the last third of gestation, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, 35 pregnant Nellore cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with four treatments: control, which received no supplement; supplementation for the last 30 d of gestation (30-d; 3...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Junpei Yamashita, Yukika Kawabata, Kataaki Okubo
Oxytocin, a mammalian neuropeptide primarily synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, mediates a variety of physiological and behavioral processes ranging from parturition and lactation to affiliation and prosociality. Multiple studies in rodents have shown that the expression of the oxytocin gene (Oxt) is stimulated by estrogen, while androgen has no apparent effect. However, this finding is not consistent across all studies, and no study has examined sex steroid regulation of Oxt or its orthologs in other animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Michael H Ferkin
Two competing hypotheses have been used to explain species and sex differences in the effects of food availability on the sexual behavior of mammals. One hypothesis, the metabolic fuels hypothesis, posits that individuals, primarily females, forgo reproduction when faced with food deprivation and invest their limited resources in behaviors not associated with reproduction. The other hypothesis, the reproduction at all costs hypothesis, states that individuals, males and females, continue to reproduce or increase their reproductive behavior when faced with food deprivation...
August 24, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
C J Härter, L D Lima, H G O Silva, D S Castagnino, A R Rivera, K T Resende, I A M A Teixeira
It has been suggested that maintenance requirements are similar among animals of different physiological stages; however, important physiological changes occur in the maternal body during pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for the maintenance of pregnant dairy goats and to estimate their efficiency of energy and protein utilization for maintenance and pregnancy. We used 66 multiparous pregnant goats having 49.0 ± 1.59 kg initial BW (around the third or fourth parturition) arranged in a randomized block design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme including slaughter at different days of pregnancy (DOP; 80, 110, and 140 d) and feed restriction (0, 20, and 40% feed restriction)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Olufadekemi T Kunle-Alabi, Opeyemi O Akindele, Yinusa Raji
BACKGROUND: Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. METHODS: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
L Grossen-Rösti, E C Kessler, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Supplementing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is supposed to spare glucose due to the milk fat-depressing effect of the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, and allows repartitioning nutrients despite an energy deficiency in early lactation. However, there is still a lack of knowledge in terms of the dynamic pattern of the glucose turnover in transition dairy cows. We hypothesized that dairy cows supplemented with CLA have an altered rate of glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity during early lactation. We conducted three consecutive hyperglycaemic clamps (HGC) in weeks -2, +2 and +4 relative to parturition in Holstein cows supplemented daily either with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Reyhaneh Hooshmandabbasi, Holm Zerbe, Stefan Bauersachs, Noelita M de Sousa, Alois Boos, Karl Klisch
In cows, retained fetal membranes (RFM) are a major problem in reproduction. The timely detachment of fetal membranes after parturition requires well coordinated maturation processes in the placenta. One feature of placental maturation in cows is a prepartal decline in the number of binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) in the fetal chorion. Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a group of proteins, produced by trophoblast cells in artiodactyls. We studied aspects of PAG expression in cows with and without RFM...
September 25, 2017: Theriogenology
Anne Brigitte Kruse, Anja C Kuerschner, Mirjam Kunze, Johan P Woelber, Ali Al-Ahmad, Annette Wittmer, Kirstin Vach, Petra Ratka-Krueger
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and microbiological gingival changes during pregnancy in women without periodontal disease. Additionally, these parameters were to be compared in women with high risk for preterm birth and women with a normal course of pregnancy. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Group I consisted of 40 subjects at high risk for preterm birth, while group II involved 49 subjects with a normal course of pregnancy. The control group (III) was made up of 50 non-pregnant women...
October 2, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Shreya Patel, James A Hartman, William G Helferich, Jodi A Flaws
Genistein is a phytoestrogen found in soy and soy-based products. Previously, we found that genistein adversely affected estradiol levels and follicle growth in vitro. Proper hormone production and follicle growth are key regulators of normal fertility. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein adversely affects female fertility and pregnancy outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we dosed sexually mature female CD-1 mice (35days) with 0, 300, 500, or 1000ppm genistein for 30, 60, 150, and 240days. At the end of the dosing periods, we measured mating rate, pregnancy rate, fertility rate, gestation time, parturition time, pup mortality, litter size, average pup weight, and estradiol and progesterone levels...
September 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
S F Rinaldi, S Makieva, P T Saunders, A G Rossi, J E Norman
STUDY QUESTION: Is labour, both at term and preterm, associated with alterations in decidual lymphocyte densities and widespread changes to the decidual transcriptome? SUMMARY ANSWER: The onset of parturition, both at term and preterm, is associated with widespread gene expression changes in the decidua, many of which are related to inflammatory signalling, but is not associated with changes in the number of any of the decidual lymphocyte populations examined. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Given its location, directly at the maternal-foetal interface, the decidua is likely to play a pivotal role in the onset of parturition, however, the molecular events occurring in the decidua in association with the onset of labour, both at term and preterm, remain relatively poorly defined...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
Anna Migdał, Łukasz Migdał, Agata Zagrajczuk, Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Adam Okólski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased levels of prolactin (PRL) on the concentration of immunoglobulins in the blood, colostrum and milk of mares. The study was conducted on 12 mares of the Polish Pony breed (6 in the control and 6 in the experimental group). To induce hyperprolactinaemia in mares of the experimental group, 750 mg sulpiride was administered orally once a day. The initial PRL concentration was 52.22 ± 11.21 ng/ml in the control group and 49.39 ± 10.12 ng/ml in the experimental group...
September 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Sophie Zatta, Hubert Rehrauer, Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Mariusz Pawel Kowalewski
BACKGROUND: In the domestic dog, corpora lutea (CL) are the only source of progesterone (P4), both in pregnant and non-pregnant cycles because there is no placental steroidogenesis. The absence of an endogenous luteolysin in absence of pregnancy results in long-lasting physiological pseudopregnancy, strongly contrasting with the acute luteolysis observed prepartum. The underlying biological mechanisms and the involvement of P4 signalling remain, however, not fully understood. Therefore, here, next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on CL from the late luteal phase and compared with normally luteolyzing CL collected at the prepartum P4 decrease...
September 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
Annalia Lombardi, Sofia Makieva, Sara F Rinaldi, Felice Arcuri, Felice Petraglia, Jane E Norman
BACKGROUND: Uterine extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling occurs throughout pregnancy and at parturition. Imbalanced availability of key mediators in ECM degradation, namely, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), is implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor (PTL). OBJECTIVES: Examine the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors TIMPs in (a) the mouse uterus throughout normal gestation, at labor, and during inflammation-induced PTL and (b) the human term and preterm myometrium...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Paul L Wood, Barry A Ball, Kirsten Scoggin, Mats H Troedsson, Edward L Squires
Amniotic fluid is essential for the growth and maturation of the fetus prior to parturition. While our knowledge of human amniotic fluid is extensive, current data for equine amniotic fluid is limited. We therefore undertook a detailed lipidomics analysis of equine amniotic fluid. Using a non-targeted high-resolution mass spectrometric lipidomics analysis of equine amniotic fluid, we were able to characterize a diverse array of individual lipids. This non-biased analytical approach detected, for the first time, the presence of (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy-fatty acids (OAHFA) with up to 52 carbon chain lengths in amniotic fluid...
September 20, 2017: Theriogenology
E Domonkos, V Borbélyová, L Kolátorová, T Chlupáčová, D Ostatníková, J Hodosy, L Stárka, P Celec
Maternal hyperandrogenism during pregnancy might have metabolic and endocrine consequences on the offspring as shown for the polycystic ovary syndrome. Despite numerous experiments, the impact of prenatal hyperandrogenic environment on postnatal sex steroid milieu is not yet clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal testosterone excess on postnatal concentrations of luteinizing hormone, corticosterone and steroid hormones including testosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone, estradiol and 7beta-hydroxy-epiandrosterone in the offspring of both sexes...
September 26, 2017: Physiological Research
J Wawrzykowski, M Franczyk, M Hoedemaker, M Pries, B Streuff, M Kankofer
Parturition is one of the most important events in reproduction. Regardless of many studies, exact time for pregnancy termination and onset of parturition is impossible to determine. The aim of this study was to describe and to compare protein profile of plasma from healthy pregnant cows (n = 6) at following five time points: 2 weeks, 1 week before, at parturition, 1 week and 2 weeks after parturition to search for possible protein markers of parturition. Plasma samples were analysed by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, and selected spots were identified by mass spectrometry...
September 24, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Pierrick Poisbeau, Valery Grinevich, Alexandre Charlet
Originally confined to the initiation of parturition and milk ejection after birth, the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is now recognized as a critical determinant of social behavior and emotional processing. It accounts for the modulation of sensory processing and pain perception as OT displays a potent analgesic effect mediated by OT receptors (OTRs) expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In our chapter, we will first systemically analyze known efferent and afferent OT neuron projections, which form the anatomical basis for OT modulation of somatosensory and pain processing...
September 24, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
S Bühler, J Frahm, W Liermann, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
Effects of energy supply and nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation on the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and on ROS production in PMN of periparturient cows differing in parity were examined. 29 pluriparous and 18 primiparous cows were allocated to four different feeding groups from 42days prepartum until 100days postpartum. They were fed either a ration with a low concentrate proportion of 30% (LC) or a high concentrate proportion of 60% (HC)...
September 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Rosemary S E Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R Ladyman, Hollian R Phillipps, Amanda Wyatt, Ulrich Boehm, David R Grattan
Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of prolactin action in the MPOA using complementary genetic strategies in mice. We characterized prolactin-responsive neurons within the MPOA at different hormonal stages and delineated their projections in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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