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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653388/factors-associated-with-colostrum-immunoglobulin-g-concentration-in-northern-victorian-dairy-cows
#1
A J Phipps, D S Beggs, A J Murray, P D Mansell, M F Pyman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of first-milking colostrum samples produced on four northern-Victorian dairy farms that meet industry standards in terms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and to identify risk factors that affect colostrum quality. METHODS: Colostrum IgG concentrations from 442 dairy cows on four farms were estimated using a Brix refractometer and risk factors for colostrum IgG concentration were determined using multivariable logistic regression...
July 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645895/multiparity-improves-outcomes-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-female-mice-despite-features-of-increased-metabovascular-risk
#2
Rodney M Ritzel, Anita R Patel, Monica Spychala, Rajkumar Verma, Joshua Crapser, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anna Schrecengost, Evan R Jellison, Liang Zhu, Venugopal Reddy Venna, Louise D McCullough
Females show a varying degree of ischemic sensitivity throughout their lifespan, which is not fully explained by hormonal or genetic factors. Epidemiological data suggest that sex-specific life experiences such as pregnancy increase stroke risk. This work evaluated the role of parity on stroke outcome. Age-matched virgin (i.e., nulliparous) and multiparous mice were subjected to 60 min of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion and evaluated for infarct volume, behavioral recovery, and inflammation. Using an established mating paradigm, fetal microchimeric cells present in maternal mice were also tracked after parturition and stroke...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644831/inflammatory-and-vascular-placental-lesions-are-associated-with-neonatal-amplitude-integrated-eeg-recording-in-early-premature-neonates
#3
Dorit Paz-Levy, Letizia Schreiber, Offer Erez, Sharon Goshen, Justin Richardson, VIadimir Drunov, Orna Staretz Chacham, Eilon Shany
INTRODUCTION: Placental histologic examination can assist in revealing the mechanism leading to preterm birth. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between intrauterine pathological processes, morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and their long term outcome. Neonatal brain activity is increasingly monitored in neonatal intensive care units by amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) and indices of background activity and sleep cycling patterns were correlated with long term outcome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637121/iatrogenic-syringomyelia-secondary-to-lumboperitoneal-shunt-altered-by-the-raised-intra-abdominal-pressure-of-pregnancy
#4
James Kersey, William Cato-Addison, Damian Holliman
We report a case of a 37 year old female with syringomyelia secondary to lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt. Syrinx regression occurred with raised intra-abdominal pressure due to pregnancy and subsequently redeveloped after parturition. To our knowledge a case of pregnancy associated syringomyelia regression has not been previously reported.
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632532/postpartum-tubal-sterilization-making-the-case-for-urgency
#5
Michael G Richardson, Sarah J Hall, Lisa C Zuckerwise
The parturient who requests postpartum sterilization has given consideration to and has made decisions regarding this aspect of her medical care long before her delivery. She arrives at parturition expecting the postpartum procedure to be performed as intended. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has reaffirmed its opinion that postpartum sterilization is an urgent procedure, owing to the safety and superior effectiveness of tubal sterilization via minilaparotomy in the immediate postpartum period, and the adverse consequences for mothers, babies, and society when the procedure is not actualized as desired and intended...
June 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624282/effect-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-and-stress-signaling-and-kidney-specific-functions-in-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cells
#6
E Chiappisi, R Ringseis, K Eder, D K Gessner
Recent studies demonstrated induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tissues of cows after parturition, but knowledge about the effect of ER stress on important cellular processes, such as critical signaling and metabolic pathways, in cattle is scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of ER stress induction on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBF1) pathway in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, a widely used in vitro model in ruminant research...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624274/effect-of-nutritional-immunomodulation-and-heat-stress-during-the-dry-period-on-subsequent-performance-of-cows
#7
Thiago F Fabris, Jimena Laporta, Fabiana N Corra, Yazielis M Torres, David J Kirk, Derek J McLean, J D Chapman, Geoffrey E Dahl
Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622381/cell-free-dna-release-by-mouse-placental-explants
#8
Mark Phillippe, Sharareh Adeli
Although suggested that "fetal" cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is derived from trophoblast cells, the exact origin is unclear. The studies in this report sought to demonstrate that placental tissue releases cfDNA in parallel with cell death, that the size range of cfDNA is similar to that found in maternal plasma, and that the cfDNA fragments are able to stimulate a proinflammatory cytokine response. Placentas were harvested from near term pregnant CD-1 mice and cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12/FBS media in 8% or 21% O2. After centrifugation to remove cells and cellular debris, the cfDNA was extracted from the media and quantified by DNA spectrophotometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601035/effects-of-dietary-cla-supplementation-parity-and-different-concentrate-levels-before-calving-on-immunoglobulin-g1-g2-and-m-concentrations-in-dairy-cows
#9
Melanie Eger, Jana Horn, Jamal Hussen, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Maria Scharf, Ulrich Meyer, Sven Dänicke, Hartwig Bostedt, Gerhard Breves
Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves...
June 2, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600854/impact-of-intramammary-tilmicosin-infusion-as-a-dry-cow-therapy
#10
M Mohammadsadegh
Three hundred subclinically infected quarters of 259 Holstein cows infected with gram-positive bacteria were selected via quota sampling based on the California Mastitis Test (CMT) result and were divided randomly and equally into treatment and test groups. Quarters of test group (n = 150 in 128 cows) were treated with an intramammary infusion of tilmicosin, and quarters of the control group (n = 150 in 131 cows) were treated with cloxacillin as a traditional intramammary infusion of dry cow (DC) ointment...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594774/cervical-evaluation-from-ancient-medicine-to-precision-medicine
#11
Helen Feltovich
Since ancient times, cervical assessment for predicting timing of delivery has relied primarily on digital (subjective) assessment of dilatation, softening, and length. To date, transvaginal ultrasound cervical length is the only one of these parameters that meets criteria for a biomarker; no objective, quantitative measure of cervical dilatation or softening has gained clinical acceptance. This review discusses how the cervix has been assessed from ancient times to the present day and how a precision medicine approach could improve understanding of not only the cervix, but also parturition in general...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587668/alterations-of-hair-cortisol-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-in-mother-infant-dyads-with-maternal-childhood-maltreatment
#12
K Schury, A M Koenig, D Isele, A L Hulbert, S Krause, M Umlauft, S Kolassa, U Ziegenhain, A Karabatsiakis, F Reister, H Guendel, J M Fegert, I-T Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) has severe effects on psychological and physical health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major stress system of the body, is dysregulated after CM. The analysis of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in scalp hair presents a new and promising methodological approach to assess chronic HPA axis activity. This study investigated the effects of CM on HPA axis activity in the last trimester of pregnancy by measuring the two important signaling molecules, cortisol and DHEA in hair, shortly after parturition...
June 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583613/associations-between-activity-of-arginase-or-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-mmp-8-and-metritis-in-periparturient-dairy-cattle
#13
Benjamin E Voelz, Madumali Kalubowilage, Stefan H Bossmann, Deryl L Troyer, Ricardo C Chebel, Luís G D Mendonça
Metritis, a uterine disease caused by bacterial infection, is highly prevalent in dairy cattle after parturition. Uterine disease has negative effects on milk production and reproductive efficiency. Finding markers or indicators that can predict cows at greater risk for uterine disease could be beneficial to mitigating these deleterious effects. This study investigates the immune-derived enzymes arginase and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) as potential markers for development of metritis in dairy cows. In a retrospective matched case-control study, 53 lactating Holstein cows diagnosed with metritis were matched and paired to 53 lactating Holstein control cows...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583611/pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins-pags-concentrations-in-water-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-during-gestation-and-the-postpartum-period
#14
O Barbato, L Menchetti, N M Sousa, A Malfatti, G Brecchia, C Canali, J F Beckers, V L Barile
For the first time in literature this study describes the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) profile of buffalo cows during gestation and the post-partum period using antiserum raised against PAG-molecules purified from buffalo placenta (AS#860). Ninety-eight buffalo cows, belonging to a buffalo herd subjected to a synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) program, were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were taken on days 0 (AI), 23, 25, 28, 30 and then biweekly until the end of pregnancy. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonography on days 28 and 45, and by rectal palpation from day 60 onwards...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583599/serum-concentration-dynamic-of-energy-homeostasis-hormones-leptin-insulin-thyroid-hormones-and-cortisol-throughout-canine-pregnancy-and-lactation
#15
L Cardinali, A Troisi, J P Verstegen, L Menchetti, A Elad Ngonput, C Boiti, S Canello, R Zelli, A Polisca
Pregnancy and lactation represent critical periods of canine reproductive life and different hormones are required to maintain homeostasis and the correct energy requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate leptin, insulin, triiodotyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and cortisol serum concentrations to better describe the canine maternal energy metabolism. Twelve Bloodhound bitches that had at least one litter and were considered to be healthy submitted blood samples every 15 days starting from day 0 (ovulation) throughout pregnancy up to the end of lactation (day 120)...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583592/preliminary-study-on-plasma-proteins-in-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-female-dogs
#16
Marek Szczubiał, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Roman Dąbrowski, Magdalena Krawczyk, Marta Kankofer
In this study, we used a combined approach based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the plasma protein composition in pregnant female dogs and compared it with non-pregnant female dogs. We used the plasma samples obtained from four female dogs during I, II, and III thirds of pregnancy, three days after parturition, as well as from four non-pregnant female dogs in diestrus phase. Analysis of 2-DE gel image exhibited of 249 protein spots...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579762/prepartal-energy-intake-alters-blood-polymorphonuclear-leukocyte-transcriptome-during-the-peripartal-period-in-holstein-cows
#17
A Agrawal, M J Khan, D E Graugnard, M Vailati-Riboni, S L Rodriguez-Zas, J S Osorio, J J Loor
In the dairy industry, cow health and farmer profits depend on the balance between diet (ie, nutrient composition, daily intake) and metabolism. This is especially true during the transition period, where dramatic physiological changes foster vulnerability to immunosuppression, negative energy balance, and clinical and subclinical disorders. Using an Agilent microarray platform, this study examined changes in the transcriptome of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) due to prepartal dietary intake. Holstein cows were fed a high-straw, control-energy diet (CON; NEL = 1...
2017: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574938/chronic-anterior-pelvic-instability-diagnosis-and-management
#18
Michael D Stover, Adam I Edelstein, Joel M Matta
Chronic anterior pelvic ring instability can cause pain and disability. Pain typically is localized to the suprapubic area or inner thigh; often is associated with lower back or buttock pain; and may be exacerbated by activity, direct impact, or pelvic ring compression. Known etiologies of chronic anterior pelvic ring instability include pregnancy, parturition, trauma, insufficiency fractures, athletics, prior surgery, and osteitis pubis. Diagnosis often is delayed. Physical examination may reveal an antalgic or waddling gait, tenderness over the pubic bones or symphysis pubis, and pain with provocative maneuvers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552208/the-omo-kibish-i-pelvis
#19
Ashley S Hammond, Danielle F Royer, John G Fleagle
Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) from southern Ethiopia is the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens skeleton currently known (196 ± 5 ka). A partial hipbone (os coxae) of Omo I was recovered more than 30 years after the first portion of the skeleton was recovered, a find which is significant because human pelves can be informative about an individual's sex, age-at-death, body size, obstetrics and parturition, and trunk morphology. Recent human pelves are distinct from earlier Pleistocene Homo spp. pelves because they are mediolaterally narrower in bispinous breadth, have more vertically oriented ilia, lack a well-developed iliac pillar, and have distinct pubic morphology...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551194/effects-of-shortening-the-close-up-period-length-coupled-with-increased-supply-of-metabolizable-protein-on-performance-and-metabolic-status-of-multiparous-holstein-cows
#20
T Amirabadi Farahani, H Amanlou, M Kazemi-Bonchenari
This experiment was conducted to compare conventional (CON; 21 d) and shortened (SH; 10 d) close-up period, and evaluate the effect of shortened close-up period combined with feeding different metabolizable protein (MP) levels on dry matter (DM) intake, metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows with similar parity, body weight (BW), and previous lactation milk yield were divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 24) received the far-off diet from -60 to -21 d (CON), and the second group (n = 24) received same far-off diet from -60 to -10 d (SH) relative to expected parturition...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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