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Laura M Seske, William C Ralston, Louis J Muglia, James M Greenberg
Infant mortality rate is generally regarded as a fundamental indicator of population health and is often used to validate public health interventions. Hamilton County, Ohio, has one of the highest rates in the nation. Most deaths that do not occur in the hospital fall under the jurisdiction of a coroner/medical examiner. We reviewed all infant deaths evaluated by the Hamilton County Coroner from 2006 to 2013 in order to identify opportunities for public health interventions. We predicted that the majority of these infant deaths were unintentional, but preventable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Pearl L H Mok, Sussie Antonsen, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Roger T Webb
BACKGROUND: Younger or older parental age has been linked with a range of adverse offspring endpoints. We investigated associations between parental age and nine adverse offspring outcomes in three correlated domains: (i) Premature death: suicide, unnatural death, natural death; (ii) Psychiatric morbidity: any mental illness, suicide attempt, substance misuse; (iii) Criminality: violent offending, imprisonment, driving whilst intoxicated. METHODS: Persons born in Denmark 1966-1996 were followed from their 15th until 40th birthday or December 2011 (N=1,793,681)...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Dirk Louis P Schorkopf, Christos G Spanoudis, Leonard E G Mboera, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Rickard Ignell, Teun Dekker
BACKGROUND: There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tomoyuki Hioki, Hiroyuki Takama, Sumiko Makita, Masashi Akiyama
Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by the absence of skin at birth, typically involving the midline of the scalp. This is the first case report to highlight the usefulness of precise ultrasonography for diagnosing mild ACC. A 1-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for assessment of a bald patch found at birth. He was born to nonconsanguineous parents in spontaneous vaginal delivery with a vacuum extractor because of fetal distress and anomaly of rotation at 40 weeks of gestation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Leah J Hauser, Grant M Gebhard, Rachel Blumhagen, Nichole E Carlson, Cristina Cabrera-Muffly
OBJECTIVE: To identify resident applicant characteristics that increase the odds of matching to otolaryngology residency. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. METHODS: Residency applications to our institution from 2009 through 2013 were reviewed. The available data represented 81.1% of applicants to otolaryngology programs nationwide. Online public records were searched to determine whether an applicant matched to an otolaryngology residency position...
October 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Ana Paula Esteves Pereira, Saint Clair Gomes Junior, Ruth Guinsburg, Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Silvana Granado Gama, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Approximately 5-10 % of newborns require some form of resuscitationupon delivery; several factors, such as maternal abnormal conditions, gestational age and type of delivery could be responsible for this trend. This study aimed to describe the factors associated with the need for positive pressure ventilation (PPV) via a mask or endotracheal tube and the use of supplemental O2 in newborns with a gestational age greater than 34 weeks in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study and obtained data from the Birth in Brazil Survey...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho, Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini, Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding in the first hour after birth is important for the success of breastfeeding and in reducing neonatal mortality. Government policies are being developed in this direction, highlighting the accreditation of hospitals in the Baby-Friendly Hospital (BFH) initiative. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between delivery in a BFH (main exposure), compared to non BFH, and timely initiation of breastfeeding (outcome). METHODS: Data came from the "Birth in Brazil" survey, a nationwide hospital-based study of postpartum women and their newborns, coordinated by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Ejaz Ahmad, Mohammad S Jamal, Mohd Rehan, Mourad Assidi, Iftikhar A Tayubi, Samera F AlBasri, Osama S Bajouh, Rola F Turki, Adel M Abuzenadah, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohd A Beg, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB), birth at <37 weeks of gestation, is a significant global public health problem. World-wide, about 15 million babies are born preterm each year resulting in more than a million deaths of children. Preterm neonates are more prone to problems and need intensive care hospitalization. Health issues may persist through early adulthood and even be carried on to the next generation. Majority (70 %) of PTBs are spontaneous with about a half without any apparent cause and the other half associated with a number of risk factors...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Philip M Massey, Brent A Langellier, Tetine Sentell, Jennifer Manganello
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in health information seeking between U.S.-born and foreign-born populations in the U.S. DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2014 from the Health Information National Trends Survey were used in this study (n = 15,249). Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and predicted probabilities were used to examine health information seeking and sources of health information. RESULTS: Findings demonstrate that 59.3% of the Hispanic foreign-born population reported looking for health information, fewer than other racial/ethnic groups in the sample...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
N Nand, A R Deshmukh, R Mathur, V Chauhan, Brijlal
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathy. The incidence of Gitelman syndrome is 25 cases in 1 million among western population. This patient presented with loose stool, vomiting and sudden onset quadriparesis. Investigations revealed hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hypermagnesuria. Symptoms and hypokalemia improved after starting oral magnesium and potassium supplements. But the patient again presented with symptomatic hypokalemia and delivered a still born foetus with hydrocephalus...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Delphine Ropers, Aline Métris
Qualitative modeling approaches allow to provide a coarse-grained description of the functioning of cellular networks when experimental data are scarce and heterogeneous. We translate the primary literature data on the response of Escherichia coli to hyperosmotic stress caused by NaCl addition into a piecewise linear (PL) model. We provide a data file of the qualitative model, which can be used for simulation of changes of protein concentrations and of DNA coiling during the physiological response of the bacterium to the stress...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Peter Mathijs van Brussel, Bas van den Bogaard, Barbara A de Weijer, Jasper Truijen, Paul Ct Krediet, Ignace M Janssen, Arnold van de Laar, Karin A Kaasjager, Eric Fliers, Johannes J Van Lieshout, Mireille Johanna Serlie, Bert-Jan H van den Born
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) decreases in the first weeks after Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery. Yet, the pathophysiology of the BP lowering effects observed after gastric bypass surgery are incompletely understood. METHODS: We evaluated BP, systemic hemodynamics and baroreflex sensitivity in 15 obese women (mean age 42±7 yrs, body mass index 45±6 kg/m(2)) two weeks before and six weeks following Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: Six weeks after gastric bypass surgery mean body weight decreased by 13±5 kg (10%, p<0...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alfheidur Haraldsdottir, Laufey Steingrimsdottir, Unnur Valdimarsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Tamara B Harris, Lenore Launer, Lorelei A Mucci, Edward L Giovannucci, Hans-Olov Adami, Vilmundur Gudnason, Johanna E Torfadottir
BACKGROUND: Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908-1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the AGES-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jeremy W Coid, Kamaldeep Bhui, Deirdre MacManus, Constantinos Kallis, Paul Bebbington, Simone Ullrich
BACKGROUND: There is growing risk from terrorism following radicalisation of young men. It is unclear whether psychopathology is associated. AIMS: To investigate the population distribution of extremist views among UK men. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 3679 men, 18-34 years, in Great Britain. Multivariate analyses of attitudes, psychiatric morbidity, ethnicity and religion. RESULTS: Pro-British men were more likely to be White, UK born, not religious; anti-British were Muslim, religious, of Pakistani origin, from deprived areas...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
IbDanelo Cortez, Dmitry V Bulavin, Ping Wu, Erica L McGrath, Kathryn A Cunningham, Maki Wakamiya, John Papaconstantinou, Kelly T Dineley
A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α(AF/+)) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α(AF/+)) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α(AF/+) mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates...
October 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Reza Ranjbar, Mitra Ahmadi, Mojtaba Memariani
Salmonella is an important cause of food-borne infection worldwide. Detection of outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. relies on suitable and robust methods for genotyping. Little is known about the genetic diversity of the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Infantis strains isolated from human sources in Iran. In this study, 40 isolates of S. Infantis, which were previously recovered from patients with gastroenteritis or diarrhea in Tehran between years 2007 and 2009, were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ERIC-PCR...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Y Yang, Y D Du
Tick-borne encephalitis, also called forest encephalitis, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus. Central nervous system lesion is the major clinical symptom of tick-borne encephalitis, as an acute infectious disease, the case fatality rate is as high as 10%-20%. Virology experts consider it as a key and difficult point in recent years. This paper summarizes the progress in research of epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, outcome, diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Youmna M'ghirbi, Marwa Bèji, Beatriz Oporto, Fatma Khrouf, Ana Hurtado, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. METHODS: In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Bengt Zöller, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Whether high cardiovascular fitness is associated with reduced risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. The present study aims to determine whether high cardiovascular fitness reduces the risk of VTE. METHODS: A Swedish cohort of male conscripts (n = 773925) born in 1954-1970 with no history of previous VTE were followed from enlistment (1972-1990) until 2010. Data on cardiovascular fitness using a cycle ergonometric test (maximal aerobic workload in Watt [Wmax]) at conscription were linked with national hospital register data and the Multi-Generation Register...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Miriam Ethel Bentwich, Nomy Dickman, Amitai Oberman
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether gaps exist between caretakers from different ethno-cultural groups (Israeli-born Jews [Sabras], Israeli Arabs [Arabs], and migrants from Russia [Russians]) regarding their perceptions of autonomy and human dignity of patients with dementia. DESIGN: A mixed-methods research scheme was used, comprised of qualitative and quantitative methods, utilizing semi-structured interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Twenty formal caretakers participated in the qualitative portion, and approximately 200 caretakers were included in the quantitative portion...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
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