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Anna E Coghill, Eric A Engels, Maria J Schymura, Parag Mahale, Meredith S Shiels
Background: Although people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) are at higher risk for many cancers, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer rates are lower in this patient population. Because these tumors are often screen-detected, these inverse associations could be driven by HIV-related differences in utilization of cancer screening. Methods: We ascertained incident breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer in PLWHA using data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1996-2012)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Kevin McAdam, James Murphy, Alison Eldridge, Christopher Proctor, Clive Meredith
The concept of a risk continuum for tobacco and nicotine products has been proposed, which differentiates products according to their propensity to reduce toxicant exposure and risk. Cigarettes are deemed the most risky and medicinal nicotine the least. We assessed whether a Reduced-Toxicant Prototype (RTP) cigarette could sufficiently reduce exposure to toxicants versus conventional cigarettes to be considered a distinct category in the risk continuum. We present findings from both pre-clinical and clinical studies in order to examine the potential for reduced smoke toxicant emissions to lower health risks associated with cigarette smoking...
March 8, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Benedict T Costello, Dion Stub, James Hare, Andris H Ellims, Xinyu Wang, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard, Ziad Nehme, Michael Stephenson, Janet E Bray, Peter Cameron, Bill Barger, Ian T Meredith, David M Kaye, Leah Iles, Andrew J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly assumed to represent myocardial fibrosis; however, comparative human histological data are limited, and there is no consensus on the most accurate method for LGE quantitation. We evaluated the relationship between CMR assessment of regional fibrosis and infarct size assessment using serial biomarkers after ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: Ninety-three patients treated for STEMI (59±10 years, 86% male) underwent CMR 6 months after infarction...
February 21, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Lauren B Crawford, Meredith R Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Here we review the current literature regarding visual outcome after perinatal and childhood stroke. BACKGROUND: Visual deficits following stroke in adults are common and have been previously reviewed. Less is known about visual deficits following stroke in neonates and older children. Most of the literature regarding this subject has focused on preterm infants, or on other types of brain injury. This review summarizes the types of visual deficits seen in term infants following perinatal stroke and children following childhood stroke and predictors of outcome...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Matthew Morten, Adam Collison, Vanessa E Murphy, Daniel Barker, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, Joseph Meredith, Heather Powell, Paul D Robinson, Peter D Sly, Peter G Gibson, Joerg Mattes
BACKGROUND: The single-centre double-blind, randomised controlled Managing Asthma in Pregnancy (MAP) trial in Newcastle, Australia, compared a treatment algorithm using the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in combination with asthma symptoms (FeNO group) against a treatment algorithm using clinical symptoms only (clinical group) in pregnant asthmatic women (ANZ Clinical Trials Registry, number 12607000561482). The primary outcome was a 50% reduction in asthma exacerbations during pregnancy in the FeNO group...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Neil Bodagh, R Andrew Archbold, Roshan Weerackody, Meredith K D Hawking, Michael R Barnes, Aaron M Lee, Surjeet Janjuha, Charles Gutteridge, John Robson, Adam Timmis
OBJECTIVES: The electronic health record (EHR) is underused in the hospital setting. The aim of this service evaluation study was to respond to National Health Service (NHS) Digital's ambition for a paperless NHS by capturing routinely collected cardiac outpatient data in the EHR to populate summary patient reports and provide a resource for audit and research. DESIGN: A PowerForm template was developed within the Cerner EHR, for real-time entry of routine clinical data by clinicians attending a cardiac outpatient clinic...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Karl Krupp, Caitlyn D Placek, Meredith Wilcox, Kavitha Ravi, Vijaya Srinivas, Anjali Arun, Purnima Madhivanan
OBJECTIVE: According to the World Health Organization, about half of all pregnant women in India suffer from some form of anemia. While poor nutrition is the most common cause, social factors, such as gender and religion, also impact anemia status. This study investigates the relationship between anemia and socioeconomic and health-related factors among pregnant women in Mysore, India. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study conducted between January 2009 and 2012 SETTING: 144 rural villages ten or more kilometers outside of Mysore City received integrated antenatal care and HIV testing services provided by mobile medical clinic in their communities...
February 20, 2018: Midwifery
Peter Griffiths, Alejandra Recio-Saucedo, Chiara Dall'Ora, Jim Briggs, Antonello Maruotti, Paul Meredith, Gary B Smith, Jane Ball
AIMS: To identify nursing care most frequently missed in acute adult inpatient wards and determine evidence for the association of missed care with nurse staffing. BACKGROUND: Research has established associations between nurse staffing levels and adverse patient outcomes including in-hospital mortality. However, the causal nature of this relationship is uncertain and omissions of nursing care (referred as missed care, care left undone or rationed care) have been proposed as a factor which may provide a more direct indicator of nurse staffing adequacy...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Michael S Khazzam, Edward P Mulligan, Meredith Brunette-Christiansen, Zachary Shirley
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of rotator cuff pathology on sleep. The purpose of this study was to determine which patient-reported factors correlate with sleep disturbance in patients with rotator cuff disease. METHODS: A nonrandomized, cross-sectional cohort study was performed to evaluate the effects of rotator cuff disease on sleep quality. Data collected at time zero (before any treatment) included the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation rating, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, patient demographics, and medical comorbidities...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Clive P Morgan, Hongyu Zhao, Meredith LeMasurier, Wei Xiong, Bifeng Pan, Piotr Kazmierczak, Matthew R Avenarius, Michael Bateschell, Ruby Larisch, Anthony J Ricci, Ulrich Müller, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Hair cells of the inner ear transduce mechanical stimuli like sound or head movements into electrical signals, which are propagated to the central nervous system. The hair-cell mechanotransduction channel remains unidentified. We tested whether three transient receptor channel (TRP) family members, TRPV6, TRPM6 and TRPM7, were necessary for transduction. TRPV6 interacted with USH1C (harmonin), a scaffolding protein that participates in transduction. Using a cysteine-substitution knock-in mouse line and methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents selective for this allele, we found that inhibition of TRPV6 had no effect on transduction in mouse cochlear hair cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pauline Depuydt, Valentina Boeva, Toby D Hocking, Robrecht Cannoodt, Inge M Ambros, Peter F Ambros, Shahab Asgharzadeh, Edward F Attiyeh, Valérie Combaret, Raffaella Defferrari, Matthias Fischer, Barbara Hero, Michael D Hogarty, Meredith S Irwin, Jan Koster, Susan Kreissman, Ruth Ladenstein, Eve Lapouble, Geneviève Laureys, Wendy B London, Katia Mazzocco, Akira Nakagawara, Rosa Noguera, Miki Ohira, Julie R Park, Ulrike Pötschger, Jessica Theissen, Gian Paolo Tonini, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Luigi Varesio, Rogier Versteeg, Frank Speleman, John M Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Katleen De Preter
Background: Neuroblastoma is characterized by substantial clinical heterogeneity. Despite intensive treatment, the survival rates of high-risk neuroblastoma patients are still disappointingly low. Somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations have been shown to be associated with patient outcome, particularly in low- and intermediate-risk neuroblastoma patients. To improve outcome prediction in high-risk neuroblastoma, we aimed to design a prognostic classification method based on copy number aberrations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Cliodna McNulty, Meredith Hawking, Donna Lecky, Leah Jones, Rebecca Owens, André Charlett, Chris Butler, Philippa Moore, Nick Francis
Objectives: To determine whether local trainer-led TARGET antibiotic interactive workshops improve antibiotic dispensing in general practice. Methods: Using a McNulty-Zelen-design randomized controlled trial within three regions of England, 152 general practices were stratified by clinical commissioning group, antibiotic dispensing rate and practice patient list size, then randomly allocated to intervention (offered TARGET workshop that incorporated a presentation, reflection on antibiotic data, promotion of patient and general practice (GP) staff resources, clinical scenarios and action planning, 73 practices) or control (usual practice, 79 practices)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Shweta Teckchandani, Meredith Barad
The original version of this article contains an error in the gender listing of the first author in the Conflict of Interest statement.
March 6, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Hong Li, Heather M Byers, Alicia Diaz-Kuan, Miriam B Vos, Patricia L Hall, Silvia Tortorelli, Rani Singh, Matthew B Wallenstein, Meredith Allain, David P Dimmock, Ryan M Farrell, Shawn McCandless, Michael J Gambello
Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by aldolase B (ADOLB) deficiency resulting in an inability to metabolize fructose. The toxic accumulation of intermediate fructose-1-phosphate causes multiple metabolic disturbances, including postprandial hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, electrolyte disturbance, and liver/kidney dysfunction. The clinical presentation varies depending on the age of exposure and the load of fructose. Some common infant formulas contain fructose in various forms, such as sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Casey L Dagnall, Lindsay M Morton, Belynda D Hicks, Shengchao Li, Weiyin Zhou, Eric Karlins, Kedest Teshome, Salma Chowdhury, Kerrie S Lashley, Joshua N Sampson, Leslie L Robison, Gregory T Armstrong, Smita Bhatia, Gretchen A Radloff, Stella M Davies, Margaret A Tucker, Meredith Yeager, Stephen J Chanock
BACKGROUND: The recommended genomic DNA input requirements for whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays can limit the scope of molecular epidemiological studies. We performed a large-scale evaluation of whole genome amplified DNA as input into high-density, whole-genome Illumina® Infinium® SNP microarray. RESULTS: Overall, 6622 DNA samples from 5970 individuals were obtained from three distinct biospecimen sources and genotyped using gDNA and/or wgaDNA inputs...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Linda Martin, Bethany Sarosiek, Meredith Harrison, Traci Hedrick, James Isbell, Alexander Krupnick, Christine Lau, Hunter Mehaffey, Robert Thiele, Dustin Walters, Randal Blank
BACKGROUND: To minimize the stress of surgery, improve the patient experience, reduce variability and optimize resource utilization, we implemented a thoracic Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol and evaluated progress after one year. METHODS: Two protocols were developed: video assisted thoracic surgery (ERAS-VATS) and thoracotomy (ERAS-T). Each incorporated preoperative patient education, carbohydrate loading, opioid-sparing analgesia, conservative fluid management, and early ambulation...
March 3, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Meredith McGinley
While previous research has established links among multiple aspects of parenting, empathy, and prosocial behaviors in youth, little is known regarding the relations between helicopter parenting, a particular type of parental over control, and empathy and prosocial behaviors (Padilla-Walker, 2014). Because helicopter parenting could undermine empathic and prosocial outcomes by negatively impacting self-regulatory behaviors and promoting narcissistic tendencies (Padilla-Walker, 2014; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, Bauer, & Murphy, 2012; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, & Montgomery, 2013), the author sought to examine potential relationships among these constructs...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Meredith L Clements
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jennifer Yin Yee Kwan, Jie Su, Shao Hui Huang, Laleh S Ghoraie, Wei Xu, Biu Chan, Kenneth W Yip, Meredith Giuliani, Andrew Bayley, John Kim, Andrew J Hope, Jolie Ringash, John Cho, Andrea McNiven, Aaron Hansen, David Goldstein, John R de Almeida, Hugo J Aerts, John N Waldron, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Brian O'Sullivan, Scott V Bratman, Fei-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Distant metastasis (DM) is the main cause of death for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs); yet, there are few reliable predictors of DM in this disease. The role of quantitative imaging (ie, radiomic) analysis was examined to determine whether there are primary tumor features discernible on imaging studies that are associated with a higher risk of DM developing. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation therapy planning computed tomography scans were retrieved for all nonmetastatic p16-positive OPC patients treated with radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy at a single institution between 2005 and 2010...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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