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Britton Trabert, Ronald C Eldridge, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Meredith S Shiels, Troy J Kemp, Chantal Guillemette, Patricia Hartge, Mark E Sherman, Louise A Brinton, Amanda Black, Anil K Chaturvedi, Allan Hildesheim, Sonja I Berndt, Mahboobeh Safaeian, Ligia Pinto, Nicolas Wentzensen
Inflammation is proposed to increase risk of developing endometrial cancer, but few prospective epidemiologic studies have investigated the relationship between circulating inflammation markers and endometrial cancer risk. In a nested case-control study within the PLCO Screening Trial we measured serum levels of 64 inflammation-related biomarkers in 284 incident endometrial cancer cases and 284 matched controls. Using multivariable logistic regression inflammation markers were evaluated individually and combined into a cross-validated inflammation score...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Georgie Powell, Zoe Meredith, Rebecca McMillin, Tom C A Freeman
According to Bayesian models, perception and cognition depend on the optimal combination of noisy incoming evidence with prior knowledge of the world. Individual differences in perception should therefore be jointly determined by a person's sensitivity to incoming evidence and his or her prior expectations. It has been proposed that individuals with autism have flatter prior distributions than do nonautistic individuals, which suggests that prior variance is linked to the degree of autistic traits in the general population...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Science
Matthew T Brodhead, Gina Warren Abston, Meredith Mates, Emily A Abel
We compared the results of a brief video-based multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment with no access to chosen activities (MSWO-NO) to the results of the same assessment with access (MSWO-WA) with four children with autism. We also compared instructor rankings of activities to MSWO-WA results. Strong to moderate correlations between MSWO-NO and MSWO-WA assessment results were found across all participants. The correlation between MSWO-WA and instructor rankings ranged from strong to low across all participants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Lara Varpio, Christina St Onge, Meredith Young
Among the challenges of navigating the promotion and tenure (P&T) process is the need to describe one's career using the language of P&T expectations, while also framing that language to reflect the unique work involved in health professions education (HPE) scholarship. Drawing on the distinction between denotative and connotative meanings of words, we describe how the language of P&T standards can hold different meanings depending on how they are contextualized in the HPE field and the communities therein...
October 20, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Christopher P Magas, Larry D Gruppen, Meredith Barrett, Priya H Dedhia, Gurjit Sandhu
BACKGROUND: The type of question asked elicits a particular response. The purpose of this study was to determine what types and levels of questions were asked in the operating room. These insights are important for understanding how questions are used to advance learners. METHODS: 12 laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations were observed and recorded at a single institution. Intraoperative questions asked by faculty were transcribed for all cases. Using revised Bloom's taxonomy, questions were classified into one of 5 levels: (1) remembering, (2) understanding, (3) applying, (4) analyzing, (5) evaluating...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Qiang Zhang, Yaqing Zhang, Joshua D Parsels, Ines Lohse, Theodore S Lawrence, Marina Pasca di Magliano, Yi Sun, Meredith A Morgan
Pancreatic cancers driven by KRAS mutations require additional mutations for tumor progression. The tumor suppressor FBXW7 is altered in pancreatic cancers, but its contribution to pancreatic tumorigenesis is unknown. To determine potential cooperation between Kras mutation and Fbxw7 inactivation in pancreatic tumorigenesis, we generated P48-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D);Fbxw7(fl/fl) (KFC(fl/fl)) compound mice. We found that KFC(fl/fl) mice displayed accelerated tumorigenesis: all mice succumbed to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) by 40 days of age, with PDA onset occurring by 2 weeks of age...
October 17, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
William Meredith-Owen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Paola Angelini, Meredith S Irwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Ahmad Alodaib, Nara Sobreira, Wendy A Gold, Lisa G Riley, Nicole J Van Bergen, Meredith J Wilson, Bruce Bennetts, David R Thorburn, Corinne Boehm, John Christodoulou
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing strategies have led to the discovery of many novel disease genes. We describe here a non-consanguineous family with two affected boys presenting with early onset of severe axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, intellectual disability, auditory neuropathy and chronic respiratory and gut disturbances. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on all family members and we identified compound heterozygous variants (c.[760C>A];[1528G>C];p.[(Gln254Lys);(Ala510Pro)] in the polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase 1 (PNPT1) gene in both affected individuals...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Rohit Kedia, Supriya Kulkarni, Meredith Ross, Vijay Shivaswamy
The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and public health care costs worldwide. The need for new, effective, and long-lasting drugs is urgent. Recent research has focused on the role of the inhibitors of sodium- glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2). Clinical trials have shown that SGLT-2 inhibitors have glycemic efficacy and weight-lowering potential. Dual drug therapy is a recommended therapy for patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes who need significant glycemic control...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Meredith J Bashaw, Florian Sicks, Rupert Palme, Franz Schwarzenberger, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Andre Ganswindt
BACKGROUND: Numbers of giraffes are declining rapidly in their native habitat. As giraffe research and conservation efforts increase, the demand for more complete measures of the impact of conservation interventions and the effects of captive environments on animal health and welfare have risen. We compared the ability of six different enzyme immunoassays to quantify changes in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) resulting from three sources: adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test, transport, and time of day that samples were collected...
October 18, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Lucas Brien Chartier, Licinia Simoes, Meredith Kuipers, Barb McGovern
Over the last decade, patient volumes in the emergency department (ED) have grown disproportionately compared to the increase in staffing and resources at the Toronto Western Hospital, an academic tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. The resultant congestion has spilled over to the ED waiting room, where medically undifferentiated and potentially unstable patients must wait until a bed becomes available. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the 90th percentile of wait time between triage and bed assignment (time-to-bed) by half, from 120 to 60 minutes, for our highest acuity patients...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Margaret T Dillon, Emily Buss, English R King, Ellen J Deres, Sarah N Obarowski, Meredith L Anderson, Marcia C Adunka
OBJECTIVE: Assess whether differences in speech perception are observed after exclusive listening experience with high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) versus fine structure processing (FSP) coding strategies. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned at initial activation of the external speech processor to receive the HDCIS or FSP coding strategy. Frequency filter assignments were consistent across subjects. The speech perception test battery included CNC words in quiet, HINT sentences in quiet and steady noise (+10 dB SNR), AzBio sentences in quiet and a 10-talker babble (+10 dB SNR), and BKB-SIN...
October 18, 2016: Cochlear Implants International
William C Scott, Christopher K Giardina, Andrew K Pappa, Tatyana E Fontenot, Meredith L Anderson, Margaret T Dillon, Kevin D Brown, Harold C Pillsbury, Oliver F Adunka, Craig A Buchman, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
HYPOTHESIS: The compound action potential (CAP) is a purely neural component of the cochlea's response to sound, and may provide information regarding the existing neural substrate in cochlear implant (CI) subjects that can help account for variance in speech perception outcomes. BACKGROUND: Measurement of the "total response" (TR), or sum of the magnitudes of spectral components in the ongoing responses to tone bursts across frequencies, has been shown to account for 40 to 50% of variance in speech perception outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Morgan C Shields, Meredith B Rosenthal
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the quality of inpatient psychiatric care. This study examined associations between performance on seven measures of inpatient psychiatric quality and hospital ownership. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of The Joint Commission's 2014 inpatient psychiatric hospital quality measures. The measures evaluate admission screening for violence risk, substance use, psychological trauma history, and patient strengths; use of seclusion and restraint; the practice of discharging patients on multiple antipsychotics; providing appropriate justification when patients are discharged on multiple antipsychotics; creation of continuing care plans; and transmission of care plans to the next level of care...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Hannah B Anastasio, Maureen Grundy, Meredith L Birsner, Karin J Blakemore
BACKGROUND: Gestational alloimmune liver disease, a form of profound liver failure in the newborn, is the main underlying cause of the entity formerly known as neonatal hemochromatosis. Antepartum maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been shown to prevent gestational alloimmune liver disease, which otherwise has a recurrence risk above 90% in subsequent pregnancies. CASE: A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 0120, presented early in gestation. Her previous pregnancy had been complicated by fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, and ultimately fatal fulminant neonatal liver failure...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Meredith J Luttrell, John R Halliwill
In humans, histamine is a molecular transducer of physical activity responses, and antihistamines modify > 25% of the genes responding to exercise. Although the upstream signal that results in release of histamine within exercising skeletal muscle remains to be identified, it is likely a fundamental exercise response and not an allergic reaction.
October 12, 2016: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
Kristen Lyall, Meredith Anderson, Martin Kharrazi, Gayle C Windham
Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical in early neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined whether neonatal TH levels influence risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study linked California neonatal screening data with live birth and Department of Developmental Services records to examine newborn TH levels in relation to ASD. Thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured in newborn bloodspots as part of routine screening, in 1996 and 2002, respectively. Mean levels of T4 and TSH were compared between ASD cases and non-cases...
October 14, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Katie R Hirsch, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N M Blue, Meredith G Mock, Eric T Trexler, Kristin S Ondrak
OBJECTIVES: Traditional evaluations of metabolic health may overlook underlying dysfunction in individuals who show no signs of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic health in overweight and obese adults using traditional and non-traditional cardiometabolic variables. A secondary purpose was to evaluate differences between overweight/obese and male/female cohorts, respectively. METHODS: Forty-nine overweight and obese adults (Mean ± SD; Age=35...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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