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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169104/reconciling-ethical-and-economic-conceptions-of-value-in-health-policy-using-the-capabilities-approach-a-qualitative-investigation-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing
#1
Mia Kibel, Meredith Vanstone
When evaluating new morally complex health technologies, policy decision-makers consider a broad range of different evaluations, which may include the technology's clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and social or ethical implications. This type of holistic assessment is challenging, because each of these evaluations may be grounded in different and potentially contradictory assumptions about the technology's value. One such technology where evaluations conflict is Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)...
November 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167214/pushing-beyond-the-limit-a-novel-clinical-sign-of-thoracic-aortic-dissection
#2
Thomas Meredith, Pankaj Jain, Michael Feneley
The timely diagnosis of aortic dissection is notoriously confounded by unreliable symptomatology. We present a previously unreported clinical sign: thoracic pain reproduced by abdominal palpation. Our case illustrates the dependence of traditional clinical features on the anatomical location of an aortic dissection and lends weight to the concept of aortic pain as being a dynamic product of inter-related changes in intraluminal pressure, volume, wall stress and diameter. The clinical sign we describe may be very specific of acute aortic pathology...
November 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166028/synthesis-of-n-oxyureas-by-substitution-and-cope-type-hydroamination-reactions-using-o-isocyanate-precursors
#3
Meredith A Allen, Ryan A Ivanovich, Dilan E Polat, André M Beauchemin
Oxy-carbamate O-isocyanate precursors facilitate access to synthetically valuable N-oxyureas via substitution with amines. This work exploits the reactivity of suitable O-isocyanate precursors, identified by a thorough study highlighting the different reactivity of isocyanate masking groups. This led to bench-stable O-isocyanate precursors, offering improved versatility in the synthesis of N-oxyureas, and demonstrates the controlled reactivity of masked O-isocyanates. Suitable precursors also enabled the first example of Cope-type hydroamination of unsaturated hydroxyureas...
November 22, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165696/which-sleep-health-characteristics-predict-all-cause-mortality-in-older-men-an-application-of-flexible-multivariable-approaches
#4
Meredith L Wallace, Katie Stone, Stephen F Smagula, Martica H Hall, Burcin Simsek, Deborah M Kado, Susan Redline, Tien N Vo, Daniel J Buysse
Objectives: Sleep is multidimensional, with domains including duration, timing, continuity, regularity, rhythmicity, quality, and sleepiness/alertness. Individual sleep characteristics representing these domains are known to predict health outcomes. However, most studies consider sleep characteristics in isolation, resulting in an incomplete understanding of which sleep characteristics are the strongest predictors of health outcomes. We applied three multivariable approaches to robustly determine which sleep characteristics increase mortality risk in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep study...
November 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162798/persistence-and-reversal-of-plasmid-mediated-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Allison J Lopatkin, Hannah R Meredith, Jaydeep K Srimani, Connor Pfeiffer, Rick Durrett, Lingchong You
In the absence of antibiotic-mediated selection, sensitive bacteria are expected to displace their resistant counterparts if resistance genes are costly. However, many resistance genes persist for long periods in the absence of antibiotics. Horizontal gene transfer (primarily conjugation) could explain this persistence, but it has been suggested that very high conjugation rates would be required. Here, we show that common conjugal plasmids, even when costly, are indeed transferred at sufficiently high rates to be maintained in the absence of antibiotics in Escherichia coli...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162178/childhood-maltreatment-moderates-the-effect-of-combat-exposure-on-cingulum-structural-integrity
#6
Layla Banihashemi, Meredith L Wallace, Lei K Sheu, Michael C Lee, Peter J Gianaros, Robert P Mackenzie, Salvatore P Insana, Anne Germain, Ryan J Herringa
Limbic white matter pathways link emotion, cognition, and behavior and are potentially malleable to the influences of traumatic events throughout development. However, the impact of interactions between childhood and later life trauma on limbic white matter pathways has yet to be examined. Here, we examined whether childhood maltreatment moderated the effect of combat exposure on diffusion tensor imaging measures within a sample of military veterans (N = 28). We examined five limbic tracts of interest: two components of the cingulum (cingulum, cingulate gyrus, and cingulum hippocampus [CGH]), the uncinate fasciculus, the fornix/stria terminalis, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161343/distinct-reorganization-of-collagen-architecture-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-premature-cervical-remodeling
#7
Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy, Meredith Akins, Breanna Tetreault, Kate Luby-Phelps, Mala Mahendroo
Previous work has identified divergent mechanisms by which cervical remodeling is achieved in preterm birth (PTB) induced by hormone withdrawal (mifepristone) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our current study aims to document how collagen architecture is modified to achieve premature cervical remodeling in mice treated with LPS as a model of infection induced inflammation. Cervices were collected on gestation day (d) 15 from mice with premature cervical ripening induced by LPS and compared to d15 and d18 controls as well as a hormone withdrawal preterm birth model...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160742/university-affiliated-alcohol-marketing-enhances-the-incentive-salience-of-alcohol-cues
#8
Bruce D Bartholow, Chris Loersch, Tiffany A Ito, Meredith P Levsen, Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Kimberly A Fleming, Paul Bolls, Brooke K Carter
We tested whether affiliating beer brands with universities enhances the incentive salience of those brands for underage drinkers. In Study 1, 128 undergraduates viewed beer cues while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results showed that beer cues paired with in-group backgrounds (logos for students' universities) evoked an enhanced P3 ERP component, a neural index of incentive salience. This effect varied according to students' levels of identification with their university, and the amplitude of the P3 response prospectively predicted alcohol use over 1 month...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160021/sleep-timing-is-associated-with-diet-and-physical-activity-levels-in-9-11-year-old-children-from-dunedin-new-zealand-the-pedals-study
#9
Harriet A L Harrex, Sheila A Skeaff, Katherine E Black, Brittany K Davison, Jillian J Haszard, Kim Meredith-Jones, Robin Quigg, Pouya Saeedi, Lee Stoner, Jyh E Wong, Paula M L Skidmore
It is well documented that short sleep duration is associated with excess body weight and poor food intake in children. It has been suggested that sleep timing behaviour may also be an important predictor of weight and other related behaviours, independent of sleep duration; however, there is a lack of research investigating these relationships. The present study investigated sleep timing in association with diet and physical activity levels in 439 children aged 9-11 years old from New Zealand. Sleep and physical activity data were collected using accelerometry, and food choice using a short food-frequency questionnaire...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158270/in-vitro-activity-of-the-siderophore-cephalosporin-cefiderocol-against-carbapenem-non-susceptible-and-multidrug-resistant-isolates-of-gram-negative-bacilli-collected-worldwide-in-2014-2016
#10
Meredith A Hackel, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano, Roger Echols, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
The in vitro activity of the investigational siderophore cephalosporin, cefiderocol (formerly S-649266), was determined against a 2014-2016, 52-country, worldwide collection of clinical isolates of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (n=1,022), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (n=368), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=262), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=217), and Burkholderia cepacia (n=4) using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard broth microdilution method...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158011/extended-adjuvant-intermittent-letrozole-versus-continuous-letrozole-in-postmenopausal-women-with-breast-cancer-sole-a-multicentre-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#11
Marco Colleoni, Weixiu Luo, Per Karlsson, Jacquie Chirgwin, Stefan Aebi, Guy Jerusalem, Patrick Neven, Erika Hitre, Marie-Pascale Graas, Edda Simoncini, Claus Kamby, Alastair Thompson, Sibylle Loibl, Joaquín Gavilá, Katsumasa Kuroi, Christian Marth, Bettina Müller, Seamus O'Reilly, Vincenzo Di Lauro, Andrea Gombos, Thomas Ruhstaller, Harold Burstein, Karin Ribi, Jürg Bernhard, Giuseppe Viale, Rudolf Maibach, Manuela Rabaglio-Poretti, Richard D Gelber, Alan S Coates, Angelo Di Leo, Meredith M Regan, Aron Goldhirsch
BACKGROUND: In animal models of breast cancer, resistance to continuous use of letrozole can be reversed by withdrawal and reintroduction of letrozole. We therefore hypothesised that extended intermittent use of adjuvant letrozole would improve breast cancer outcome compared with continuous use of letrozole in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We did the multicentre, open-label, randomised, parallel, phase 3 SOLE trial in 240 centres (academic, primary, secondary, and tertiary care centres) in 22 countries...
November 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157322/developmental-relations-between-amygdala-volume-and-anxiety-traits-effects-of-informant-sex-and-age
#12
Katherine Rice Warnell, Meredith Pecukonis, Elizabeth Redcay
Although substantial human and animal evidence suggests a role for the amygdala in anxiety, literature linking amygdala volume to anxiety symptomatology is inconclusive, with studies finding positive, negative, and null results. Clarifying this brain-behavior relation in middle to late childhood is especially important, as this is a time both of amygdala structural maturation and the emergence of many anxiety disorders. The goal of the current study was to clarify inconsistent findings in previous literature by identifying factors moderating the relation between amygdala volume and anxiety traits in a large sample of typically developing children aged 6-13 years (N = 72)...
November 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155731/the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-a-versatile-in-vivo-model-to-study-host-microbe-interactions
#13
Luca Issi, Meredith Rioux, Reeta Rao
We demonstrate a method using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study microbial interaction. Microbes are introduced via the diet making the intestine the primary location for disease. The nematode intestine structurally and functionally mimics mammalian intestines and is transparent making it amenable to microscopic study of colonization. Here we show that pathogens can cause disease and death. We are able to identify microbial mutants that show altered virulence. Its conserved innate response to biotic stresses makes C...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155652/cdc-support-for-global-public-health-emergency-management
#14
Daniel J Brencic, Meredith Pinto, Adrienne Gill, Michael H Kinzer, Luis Hernandez, Omer G Pasi
Recent pandemics and rapidly spreading outbreaks of infectious diseases have illustrated the interconnectedness of the world and the importance of improving the international community's ability to effectively respond. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), building on a strong foundation of lessons learned through previous emergencies, international recognition, and human and technical expertise, has aspired to support nations around the world to strengthen their public health emergency management (PHEM) capacity...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155001/postoperative-pain-following-posterior-iliac-crest-bone-graft-harvesting-in-spine-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#15
Evan D Sheha, Dennis S Meredith, Grant D Shifflett, Benjamin T Bjerke, Sravisht Iyer, Jennifer Shue, Joseph Nguyen, Russel C Huang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Post-operative pain at the site of bone graft harvest for posterior spine fusion is reported to occur in 6% to 39% of cases. However, the area around the posterior, superior iliac spine is a frequent site of referred pain for many structures. Therefore, many postoperative spine patients may have pain in the vicinity of the posterior iliac crest that may not in fact be caused by bone graft harvesting. The literature may then overestimate the true incidence of postoperative iliac crest pain...
November 14, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154610/identity-concealment-in-transgender-adults-a-qualitative-assessment-of-minority-stress-and-gender-affirmation
#16
Brian A Rood, Meredith R Maroney, Jae A Puckett, Ariel K Berman, Sari L Reisner, David W Pantalone
Minority individuals might conceal their identity in social contexts in an effort to avoid stigma and victimization. Unfortunately, identity concealment is thought to impact psychological distress in transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. Thus, through 30 in-depth interviews, we sought to understand if and how identity concealment was experienced by TGNC individuals. Findings indicated that (a) TGNC identity concealment is a source of stress, (b) individuals might conceal their TGNC identity based on social context, (c) concealment of assigned sex and gender history can function to affirm one's true gender identity, and (d) concealment of gender history is a rejection of one's assigned sex...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151199/loneliness-in-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#17
Meredith Greene, Nancy A Hessol, Carla Perissinotto, Roland Zepf, Amanda Hutton Parrott, Cameron Foreman, Robert Whirry, Monica Gandhi, Malcolm John
We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-positive adults age ≥ 50 in San Francisco to evaluate the frequency of loneliness, characteristics of those who reported loneliness, and the association of loneliness with functional impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants (N = 356) were predominately male (85%); 57% were white; median age was 56. 58% reported any loneliness symptoms with 24% reporting mild, 22% moderate and 12% severe loneliness. Lonely participants were more likely to report depression, alcohol and tobacco use, and have fewer relationships...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150069/effect-of-a-mobile-health-sensor-driven-asthma-management-platform-on-asthma-control
#18
Meredith A Barrett, Olivier Humblet, Justine E Marcus, Kelly Henderson, Ted Smith, Nemr Eid, J Wesley Sublett, Andrew Renda, LaQuandra Nesbitt, David Van Sickle, David Stempel, James L Sublett
BACKGROUND: Asthma inflicts a significant health and economic burden in the United States. Self-management approaches to monitoring and treatment can be burdensome for patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a digital health management program on asthma outcomes. METHODS: Residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma were enrolled in a single-arm pilot study. Participants received electronic inhaler sensors that tracked the time, frequency, and location of short-acting β-agonist (SABA) use...
November 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148980/-just-don-t-be-creepy-a-phenomenological-study-of-the-experiences-of-men-in-massage-therapy
#19
Amanda Baskwill, Meredith Vanstone
Background Societal expectations around traditional binary gender roles result in some professions being considered "men's work" or "women's work". Massage therapy (MT) is one such profession that, despite being predominantly female, is joined by an increasing number of men with a desire to help others. Methods This descriptive phenomenological study asked male massage therapists in Ontario, Canada, about their experience of gender in their professional lives. Fourteen men shared their experiences of practice, which included discriminatory hiring and patient preferences for female practitioners...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148537/adenomatoid-tumors-of-the-male-and-female-genital-tract-are-defined-by-traf7-mutations-that-drive-aberrant-nf-kb-pathway-activation
#20
Benjamin Goode, Nancy M Joseph, Meredith Stevers, Jessica Van Ziffle, Courtney Onodera, Eric Talevich, James P Grenert, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Joanna J Phillips, Karuna Garg, Joseph T Rabban, Charles Zaloudek, David A Solomon
Adenomatoid tumors are the most common neoplasm of the epididymis, and histologically similar adenomatoid tumors also commonly arise in the uterus and fallopian tube. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, we performed genomic profiling on a cohort of 31 adenomatoid tumors of the male and female genital tracts. We identified that all tumors harbored somatic missense mutations in the TRAF7 gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the family of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs)...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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