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Identical twins

Athina Vidaki, Vivian Kalamara, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Timothy D Spector, Jordana T Bell, Manfred Kayser
Monozygotic (MZ) twins are typically indistinguishable via forensic DNA profiling. Recently, we demonstrated that epigenetic differentiation of MZ twins is feasible; however, proportions of twin differentially methylated CpG sites (tDMSs) identified in reference-type blood DNA were not replicated in trace-type blood DNA. Here we investigated buccal swabs as typical forensic reference material, and saliva and cigarette butts as commonly encountered forensic trace materials. As an analog to a forensic case, we analyzed one MZ twin pair...
May 14, 2018: Genes
Yongchao Ma, Jihoon Lee, Yanliang Liu, Pesi Mwitumwa Hangoma, Woon Ik Park, Jae-Hong Lim, Yun Kyung Jung, Jung Hyun Jeong, Sung Heum Park, Kwangho Kim
A cost-effective fabrication method that can produce a remarkable enhancement in the device efficiency along with a reduction in the fabrication cost is one of the crucial requirements for the commercialization of perovskite-based solar cells. Here, we report a low-cost, printable, and highly effective synchronized-pressing annealing (SPA) method for inverted planar perovskite solar cells. In this method, two films are combined face-to-face for annealing, and separated as in a roll-to-roll process. Consequently, the SPA method provides two homogeneous highly crystalline MAPbI3 films with monolithic millimeter-scale crystalline grains by intermediate-induced crystallization engineering...
May 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Michael E Field, Jennifer J Laffin, Jonathan J Langberg, Nicholas H Von Bergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: HeartRhythm Case Reports
Rebecca Richards, Jayshree Patel, Kate Stevenson, SallyAnn Harbison
Epigenetics is an emerging area of interest in forensic science. DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic modification, can be applied to chronological age estimation, identical twin differentiation and body fluid identification. However, there is not yet an agreed, established methodology for targeted detection and analysis of DNA methylation markers in forensic research. Recently a massively parallel sequencing-based approach has been suggested. The use of massively parallel sequencing is well established in clinical epigenetics and is emerging as a new technology in the forensic field...
May 11, 2018: Electrophoresis
Miriam A Mosing, Fredrik Ullén
Though several studies show that genetic factors influence individual differences in musical engagement, aptitude, and achievement, no study to date has investigated whether specialization among musically active individuals in terms of choice of instrument and genre is heritable. Using a large twin cohort, we explored whether individual differences in instrument choice, instrument category, and the type of music individuals engage in can entirely be explained by the environment or are partly due to genetic influences...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
José Pino-Ortega, Javier García-Rubio, Sergio J Ibáñez
The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the inertial device WIMU (Realtrack Systems SL, Almería, Spain) for the assessment of the vertical jump, counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ). Fifteen soccer players were evaluated in two identical sessions separated by one week. In each session, participants performed three jumps of each type. The flight time was quantified by the inertial device WIMU and by a force platform (Twin Plates; Globus Sport and Health Technologies LLC, Codogné, Italy) at the same time...
2018: PeerJ
Ivo G Tzvetanov, Kiara A Tulla, Giuseppe D'Amico, Enrico Benedetti
Living donor intestinal transplantation (LDIT) has been improved leading to results comparable to those obtained with deceased donors. LDIT should be limited to specific indications and patient selection. The best indication is combined living donor intestinal/liver transplantation in pediatric recipients with intestinal and hepatic failure; the virtual elimination of waiting time may avoid the high mortality experienced by candidates on the deceased waiting list. Potentially, LDIT could be used in highly sensitized recipients to allow the application of de-sensitization protocols...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Karsten Lange, Jan Peise, Bernd Lücke, Ilka Kruse, Giuseppe Vitagliano, Iagoba Apellaniz, Matthias Kleinmann, Géza Tóth, Carsten Klempt
Modern quantum technologies in the fields of quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology require the creation and control of large ensembles of entangled particles. In ultracold ensembles of neutral atoms, nonclassical states have been generated with mutual entanglement among thousands of particles. The entanglement generation relies on the fundamental particle-exchange symmetry in ensembles of identical particles, which lacks the standard notion of entanglement between clearly definable subsystems...
April 27, 2018: Science
Yuki Moriyama, Edward M De Robertis
The formation of identical twins from a single egg has fascinated developmental biologists for a very long time. Previous work had shown that Xenopus blastulae bisected along the dorsal-ventral (D-V) midline (i.e., the sagittal plane) could generate twins but at very low frequencies. Here, we have improved this method by using an eyelash knife and changing saline solutions, reaching frequencies of twinning of 50% or more. This allowed mechanistic analysis of the twinning process. We unexpectedly observed that the epidermis of the resulting twins was asymmetrically pigmented at the tailbud stage of regenerating tadpoles...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matthew A Andersson
Schooling differences between identical twins are often utilized as a natural experiment to estimate returns to education. Despite longstanding doubts about the truly random nature of within-twin-pair schooling discordance, such discordance has not yet been understood comprehensively, in terms of diverse between- and within-family peer, academic, familial, social, and health exposures. Here, a predictive analysis using national U.S. midlife twin data shows that within-pair schooling differences are endogenous to a variety of childhood exposures...
April 23, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
A F Silva, J Vercruysse, C Vervaet, J P Remon, J A Lopes, T De Beer, M C Sarraguça
The present study aims at acquiring an in-depth process knowledge about a twin-screw granulation and fluid bed drying process performed on the commercially available continuous line. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring (BSPM) principles are used to describe and monitor the variables with a relevant time-related trajectory. The continuous granulator operates in a truly continuous manner and variables logged by this unit do not present time-relevant features. On the other hand, the fluid bed dryer is divided in six identical cells, which are sequentially filled and discharged, ensuring a continuous flow of material...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Woojin Cho, Nicholas Shepard, Vincent Arlet
PURPOSE: To describe the presence of congenital scoliosis in a genetically identical population as it relates to the possible genetic vs. environmental etiologic factors. METHODS: The authors describe three cases of congenital scoliosis in monozygotic twins. The first pair includes two 4-year-old girls presenting with mirror curves, one of whom had an associated stage I Chiari malformation. The second pair is a 4-year-old girl who presented with thoracic scoliosis, a T10-11 hemivertebra, and multilevel failure of segmentation in the lumbar spine whose identical sibling is unaffected...
April 18, 2018: European Spine Journal
Anna Pawełczyk, Katarzyna Sowa-Kasprzak, Dorota Olender, Lucjusz Zaprutko
The design and discovery of novel drug candidates are the initial and most probably the crucial steps in the drug development process. One of the tasks of medicinal chemistry is to produce new molecules that have a desired biological effect. However, even today the search for new pharmaceuticals is a very complicated process that is hard to rationalize. Literature provides many scientific reports on future prospects of design of potentially useful drugs. Many trends have been proposed for the design of new drugs containing different structures (dimers, heterodimers, heteromers, adducts, associates, complexes, biooligomers, dendrimers, dual-, bivalent-, multifunction drugs and codrugs, identical or non-identical twin drugs, mixed or combo drugs, supramolecular particles and various nanoindividuals...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amanda Suggs, Mathew Loesch, Harib Ezaldein, Luisa Christensen, Danyelle Dawes, Elma Baron
IMPORTANCE: Surveying identical twins allows us to qualitatively separate genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to acne severity. OBJECTIVE: To study a cohort of identical and fraternal twins to identify environmental factors that may influence acne severity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A survey was administered to 139 identical and fraternal twin multiples (279 subjects) at the Annual Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio on August 6-7, 2016...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Luke M Evans, Rasool Tahmasbi, Matt Jones, Scott I Vrieze, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Sayantan Das, Douglas W Bjelland, Teresa R de Candia, Jian Yang, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher, Matthew C Keller
Heritability is a fundamental parameter in genetics. Traditional estimates based on family or twin studies can be biased due to shared environmental or non-additive genetic variance. Alternatively, those based on genotyped or imputed variants typically underestimate narrow-sense heritability contributed by rare or otherwise poorly tagged causal variants. Identical-by-descent (IBD) segments of the genome share all variants between pairs of chromosomes except new mutations that have arisen since the last common ancestor...
March 28, 2018: Heredity
Francesc Font-Clos, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that obesity might have a Mendelian origin, but it is not clear if gene expression patterns observed in obese subjects are secondary to genetic traits or not. APPROACH: Here we test a transcriptomic signature of obesity previously identified by our group on a large cohort of twin subjects (TwinsUK). MAIN RESULTS: The results show that the signature correlates strongly both with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass...
April 26, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Gary J Lewis, Nicolas G Shakeshaft, Robert Plomin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism-like traits are associated with deficits in face memory ability, although it is not yet clear whether this deficit reflects a specific aspect of the ASD/autism-like phenotype. We addressed this issue using a neurotypical sample of adolescent twins (Ncomplete pairs  = 782) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed on face and object memory performance alongside two core aspects of autism-like traits: (i) difficulties with social behavior/interactions, and (ii) attention to detail...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Neeraja Purandare, Mallika Somayajulu, Maik Hüttemann, Lawrence I Grossman, Siddhesh Aras
Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing 10 (CHCHD10) and CHCHD2 (MNRR1) are homologous proteins with 58% sequence identity and belong to the twin CX9 C family of proteins that mediate cellular stress responses. Despite the identification of several neurodegeneration-associated mutations in the CHCHD10 gene, few studies have assessed its physiological role. Here, we investigated CHCHD10's function as a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria and the nucleus. We show that CHCHD10 copurifies with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and up-regulates COX activity by serving as a scaffolding protein required for MNRR1 phosphorylation, mediated by ARG (ABL proto-oncogene 2, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (ABL2))...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Andrew L Skinner, Andy Woods, Christopher J Stone, Ian Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafó
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.161076.].
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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