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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453936/metallic-twin-grain-boundaries-embedded-in-mose2-monolayers-grown-by-molecular-beam-epitaxy
#1
Yujing Ma, Sadhu Kolekar, Horacio Coy Diaz, Johannes Aprojanz, Ilio Miccoli, Christoph Tegenkamp, Matthias Batzill
Twin grain boundaries in MoSe2 are metallic and undergo a metal to insulator Peierls transition at low temperature. Growth of MoSe2 by molecular beam epitaxy results in the spontaneous formation of a high density of these twin grain boundaries, likely as a mechanism to incorporation Se-deficiency in the film. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the grain boundary network that is formed in homoepitaxially grown MoSe2, and for MoSe2 grown heteroepitaxially on MoS2- and HOPG- substrates. No statistically relevant variation of the grain boundary concentration has been found for the different substrates, indicating that the grain boundary formation is substrate independent and depends mainly on the growth conditions...
April 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434717/relative-genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-variations-in-human-retinal-electrical-responses-quantified-in-a-twin-study
#2
Taha Bhatti, Ambreen Tariq, Ting Shen, Katie M Williams, Christopher J Hammond, Omar A Mahroo
PURPOSE: To estimate heritability of parameters of human retinal electrophysiology and to explore which parameters change with age. DESIGN: Prospective, classic twin study. PARTICIPANTS: Adult monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs recruited from the TwinsUK cohort. METHODS: Electroretinogram responses were recorded using conductive fiber electrodes in response to stimuli incorporating standards set by the International Society for the Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision...
April 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429683/biokinetics-of-yttrium-and-comparison-with-its-geochemical-twin-holmium
#3
Richard Wayne Leggett
The transition metal yttrium (Y, atomic number 39) is chemically similar to elements in the lanthanide family (atomic numbers 57-71) and is found with the lanthanides in rare earth ores. Yttrium and the lanthanide holmium are referred to as geochemical twins because they generally show little fractionation from metamorphic or weathering processes, due to their closely similar chemical properties and nearly identical ionic radii. Extensive measurements on rocks, soils, and meteorites indicate that the Y/Ho mass concentration ratio rarely falls far from the so-called chondritic or solar system ratio of ~26...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414014/do-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorders-and-section-iii-personality-trait-domains-reflect-the-same-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors
#4
T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R F Krueger, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, T H Rosenström, S H Aggen, S C South, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, K S Kendler, N O Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. METHODS: We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412046/the-epigenetic-mechanism-for-discordance-of-autoimmunity-in-monozygotic-twins
#5
REVIEW
Zhongyuan Xiang, Yuanqing Yang, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu
Monozygotic twins share an identical DNA sequence but are not truly "identical". In fact, when it comes to health and disease, they may often display some level of phenotypic discordance. The cause of this discordance is often unknown. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs-mediated regulation regulate gene expression and are sensitive to external stimuli. These modifications may be seen to bridge the gap between genetics and the environment. Over the years, the importance of epigenetics as a primary mechanism for the role that the environment plays in defining phenotype has been increasingly appreciated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407410/variable-clinical-course-of-identical-twin-neonates-with-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-presenting-coincidentally-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Seth A Hollander, Norah Alsaleh, Maura Ruzhnikov, Kristen Jensen, David N Rosenthal, David A Stevenson, Melanie Manning
Alström Syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. We report monozygotic twin infants who presented concurrently with symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Following their initial presentation, one twin improved both echocardiographically and functionally while the other twin showed a progressive decline in ventricular function and worsening CHF symptoms requiring multiple hospitalizations and augmentation of heart failure therapy...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373485/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-dgat1-missense-mutation-associated-with-congenital-diarrhea
#7
Nina L Gluchowski, Chandramohan Chitraju, Joseph A Picoraro, Niklas Mejhert, Shirly Pinto, Winnie Xin, Daniel S Kamin, Harland S Winter, Wendy K Chung, Tobias C Walther, Robert V Farese
Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 and -2 (DGAT1 and DGAT2) catalyze triglyceride biosynthesis in humans. Biallelic loss of function mutations in human DGAT1 result in severe congenital diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of DGAT1 led to dose- related diarrhea in human clinical trials. Here we identify a previously unknown DGAT1 mutation in identical twins of South Asian descent. These male patients developed watery diarrhea shortly after birth, with protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368239/apoptosis-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Tatsuo Tomita
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells after an asymptomatic period over years. Insulitis activates antigen presenting cells, which trigger activating CD4+ helper-T cells, releasing chemokines/cytokines. Cytokines activate CD8+ cytotoxic -T cells, which lead to β-cell destruction. Apoptosis pathway consists of extrinsic (receptor-mediated) and intrinsic (mitochondria-driven) pathway. Extrinsic pathway includes Fas pathway to CD4+-CD8+ interaction, whereas intrinsic pathway includes mitochondria-driven pathway at a balance between pro-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) 2 and Bcl-xL and anti-apoptotic Bad, Bid, and Bik proteins...
April 3, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367950/a-bright-triggered-twin-photon-source-in-the-solid-state
#9
T Heindel, A Thoma, M von Helversen, M Schmidt, A Schlehahn, M Gschrey, P Schnauber, J-H Schulze, A Strittmatter, J Beyer, S Rodt, A Carmele, A Knorr, S Reitzenstein
A non-classical light source emitting pairs of identical photons represents a versatile resource of interdisciplinary importance with applications in quantum optics and quantum biology. To date, photon twins have mostly been generated using parametric downconversion sources, relying on Poissonian number distributions, or atoms, exhibiting low emission rates. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate the efficient, triggered generation of photon twins using the energy-degenerate biexciton-exciton radiative cascade of a single semiconductor quantum dot...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360375/the-path-to-new-therapies-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-illness
#10
Edward M Scolnick
Schizophrenia and bipolar illness are two of the most serious forms of mental illness. Until relatively recently, almost nothing was known about the molecular pathogenesis of either illness. The single largest risk factor that predisposes people to schizophrenia or bipolar illness is genetic risk. Heritability is high, and the incidence is significantly higher in identical twins than in nonidentical twins. Despite decades of work aimed at identifying the genes involved in these two illnesses, virtually no progress had been made until the past decade...
April 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359493/twin-to-twin-heart-transplantation-a-unique-event-with-a-25-year-follow-up
#11
David Blitzer, Grace Yedlicka, Joshua Manghelli, John Dentel, Randall Caldwell, John W Brown
Solid organ transplantation in pediatric patients has been a reality since 1954, when the first kidney transplantation was successfully performed between identical twins. We report the long-term outcomes, with more than 25 years of follow-up, in a patient born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) who received a heart transplant from a dizygotic twin. While we would not wish for this situation to reoccur, we hope that in reporting it, we can add to the discussion surrounding pediatric heart transplantation and the management of HLHS...
April 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357110/identical-twins-with-mature-cystic-teratomas-treated-with-laparoscopic-surgery-two-case-reports
#12
Yasushi Mabuchi, Nami Ota, Aya Kobayashi, Yuko Tanizaki, Sawako Minami, Kazuhiko Ino
Mature cystic teratomas are the most common among all ovarian neoplasms, representing 30-40% of the cases. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been only two reports of mature cystic teratomas occurring in identical twins to date. We herein report a case of identical twins with mature cystic teratomas who were treated with laparoscopic surgery. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a tumor in the right ovary. The patient underwent laparoscopic resection of the ovarian tumor and the pathological diagnosis was benign mature cystic teratoma...
February 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349276/novel-phenotypes-of-pyridox-am-ine-5-phosphate-oxidase-deficiency-and-high-prevalence-of-c-445_448del-mutation-in-chinese-patients
#13
Jiao Xue, Xingzhi Chang, Yuehua Zhang, Zhixian Yang
To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese patients with pyridox(am)ine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency. The clinical presentations and the responses to treatments were analyzed in 4 patients. Blood and urinary metabolic screenings, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and epilepsy-related genes detection were performed in all patients. Patient 1 and 2 were identical twin brothers, who were born at 35(+5) w gestation with a sign of encephalopathy. Their seizures started within the first day and could not be controlled by pyridoxine or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) completely...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348015/sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-monozygotic-twins-identical-at-rest-but-not-during-arousal
#14
Linda C Lundblad, John J Eskelin, Tomas Karlsson, B Gunnar Wallin, Mikael Elam
Microneurographic recordings of human muscle sympathetic nerve activity responses to sudden sensory stimuli (ie, arousal) have revealed 2 intraindividually reproducible response profiles in healthy young males that predict different neural and blood pressure responses to more sustained stress. Approximately 50% of subjects inhibit muscle sympathetic nerve activity during arousal, whereas the remaining 50% do not, and the latter group displays a markedly greater blood pressure increase in response to arousal, as well as during and after 3 minutes of mental arithmetic...
May 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299660/etv6-runx1-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-in-identical-twins
#15
Anthony M Ford, Mel Greaves
Acute leukaemia is the major subtype of paediatric cancer with a cumulative risk of 1 in 2000 for children up to the age of 15 years. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a biologically and clinically diverse disease with distinctive subtypes; multiple chromosomal translocations exist within the subtypes and each carries its own prognostic relevance. The most common chromosome translocation observed is the t(12;21) that results in an in-frame fusion between the first five exons of ETV6 (TEL) and almost the entire coding region of RUNX1 (AML1)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291427/incidence-clinical-features-and-treatment-of-familial-moyamoya-in-pediatric-patients-a-single-institution-series
#16
Jonathan Gaillard, Jennifer Klein, Daniel Duran, Armide Storey, R Michael Scott, Kristopher Kahle, Edward R Smith
OBJECTIVE Limited data exist on familial moyamoya in children. The purpose of this study was to characterize presentation and outcomes of pediatric moyamoya patients who have relatives diagnosed with moyamoya. METHODS The authors performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of a case series including all surgically treated children with moyamoya with first- or second-degree relatives with moyamoya. Clinical and radiographic characteristics were analyzed, along with surgical outcomes. RESULTS A total of 537 patients underwent surgery for moyamoya during the study period...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290499/the-evolution-of-extreme-cooperation-via-shared-dysphoric-experiences
#17
Harvey Whitehouse, Jonathan Jong, Michael D Buhrmester, Ángel Gómez, Brock Bastian, Christopher M Kavanagh, Martha Newson, Miriam Matthews, Jonathan A Lanman, Ryan McKay, Sergey Gavrilets
Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins)...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287591/cell-lineage-analyses-and-gene-function-studies-using-twin-spot-marcm
#18
Hung-Chang Shen, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Pei-Chi Chung, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) is a positive mosaic labeling system that has been widely applied in Drosophila neurobiological studies to depict intricate morphologies and to manipulate the function of genes in subsets of neurons within otherwise unmarked and unperturbed organisms. Genetic mosaics generated in the MARCM system are mediated through site-specific recombination between homologous chromosomes within dividing precursor cells to produce both marked (MARCM clones) and unmarked daughter cells during mitosis...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275565/left-ventricular-rotational-mechanics-in-identical-twins-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-from-the-magyar-twin-study
#19
Attila Nemes, Zsolt Kovács, Anita Kalapos, Péter Domsik, Tamás Forster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249216/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-uniqueness-of-the-anterior-dentition-in-orthodontically-treated-patients-and-twins
#20
A Franco, G Willems, P H C Souza, O M Tanaka, W Coucke, P Thevissen
Dental uniqueness can be proven if no perfect match in pair-wise morphological comparisons of human dentitions is detected. Establishing these comparisons in a worldwide random population is practically unfeasible due to the need for a large and representative sample size. Sample stratification is an option to reduce sample size. The present study investigated the uniqueness of the human dentition in randomly selected subjects (Group 1), orthodontically treated patients (Group 2), twins (Group 3), and orthodontically treated twins (Group 4) in comparison with a threshold control sample of identical dentitions (Group 5)...
February 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
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