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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156094/multiple-transmissions-of-chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-in-one-family
#1
Armin Rashidi, Karam Obeid, Joshua Hill, Erica D Warlick, Daniel J Weisdorf
Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (ciHHV-6) can be transmitted from parent to child or via allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a case of ciHHV-6 transmitted via syngeneic HCT, and vertically across three generations. ciHHV-6 was transmitted from a parent to the patient and her identical twin, and from the patient to her son. The patient underwent syngeneic HCT as rescue from chemotherapy-induced aplasia during which ciHHV-6 was re-transmitted to her, this time from her identical twin...
November 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154643/gender-nonconformity-of-identical-twins-with-discordant-sexual-orientations-evidence-from-childhood-photographs
#2
Tuesday M Watts, Luke Holmes, Jamie Raines, Sheina Orbell, Gerulf Rieger
Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We therefore assessed gender nonconformity via ratings of photographs from childhood and adulthood. These ratings came from independent observers naïve to study hypotheses. Identical twins with discordant sexual orientations (24 male pairs, 32 female pairs) visibly differed in their gender nonconformity from mid-childhood, with higher levels of gender nonconformity observed in the nonstraight twins...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154458/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-major-depression-targeting-neuronal-plasticity
#3
REVIEW
Shusaku Uchida, Hirotaka Yamagata, Tomoe Seki, Yoshifumi Watanabe
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses as it affects more than 350 million people globally. Major depressive disorder is etiologically complex and disabling. Genetic factors play a role in the etiology of major depression. However, identical twin studies have shown high rates of discordance, indicating non-genetic mechanisms as well. For instance, stressful life events increase the risk of depression. Environmental stressors also induce stable changes in gene expression within the brain that may lead to maladaptive neuronal plasticity in regions implicated in disease pathogenesis...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153442/functional-mri-study-to-examine-possible-emotional-connectedness-in-identical-twins-a-case-study
#4
Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Kalliopi Platoni, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Nikolaos L Kelekis, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos
In the present case study, we investigated possible emotional connectedness between monozygotic twins by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During the experimental condition, Twin 2 was randomly selected to participate in the neuroimaging protocol while Twin 1 participated in the experimental condition outside the MRI scanner (none of them was aware of the experimental procedure). The experimental condition included two sessions with visual and acoustic stimuli, respectively. Between the two experimental conditions, there was a 2-min break with Twin 1 (i...
October 23, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136105/same-genes-different-brains-neuroanatomical-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-musical-training
#5
Örjan de Manzano, Fredrik Ullén
Numerous cross-sectional and observational longitudinal studies show associations between expertise and regional brain anatomy. However, since these designs confound training with genetic predisposition, the causal role of training remains unclear. Here, we use a discordant monozygotic (identical) twin design to study expertise-dependent effects on neuroanatomy using musical training as model behavior, while essentially controlling for genetic factors and shared environment of upbringing. From a larger cohort of monozygotic twins, we were able to recruit 18 individuals (9 pairs) that were highly discordant for piano practice...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109840/identical-twins-with-crouzon-syndrome-eight-year-follow-up-genetic-considerations-and-operative-management
#6
Mark S Lloyd, Jeffrey G Trost, David Y Khechoyan, Larry H Hollier, Edward P Buchanan
A case report of monozygotic (MZ) twins with Crouzon syndrome was previously published to highlight variables in clinical presentation. The postnatal and epigenetic causes for this variation are not well understood. An 8-year follow-up discusses their pertinent clinic course with consideration of genetic and nongenetic variables. The phenotypic and symptomatic obstacles encountered since their initial assessment are reviewed, and the use of three-dimensional Medical Modeling (Golden, CO) as a preoperative planning strategy is addressed...
December 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105599/genotype-based-epigenetic-differences-in-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-positive-anti-thyroglobulin-autoantibodies
#7
Mikio Watanabe, Yoichi Takenaka, Chika Honda, Osaka Twin Research Group, Yoshinori Iwatani
<b>Background: </b>Epigenetic factors associated with the development of autoimmune diseases are unclear. Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for positive anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) are useful to examine the epigenetic factors because of their identical genetic background. <b>Purpose: </b>To clarify the discordant epigenetic differences affecting the development of TgAb. <b>Subjects:</b> We selected subjects from 257 Japanese monozygotic twins, recruited from the registry established by the Center for Twin Research at Osaka University...
November 4, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103407/musical-interests-and-talent-twin-jazz-musicians-and-twin-studies-twin-research-loss-of-a-preterm-multiple-conjoined-twin-conception-depression-in-fathers-of-twins-twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome-twin-news-high-achieving-twins-twin-children-of-a-tennis-star
#8
Nancy L Segal
Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs...
November 6, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098497/the-impact-of-variation-in-twin-relatedness-on-estimates-of-heritability-and-environmental-influences
#9
Chang Liu, Peter C M Molenaar, Jenae M Neiderhiser
By taking advantage of the natural variation in genetic relatedness among identical (monozygotic: MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic: DZ) twins, twin studies are able to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to complex human behaviors. Recently concerns have been raised about the accuracy of twin studies in light of findings of genetic and epigenetic changes in twins. One of the concerns raised is that MZ twins are not 100% genetically and epigenetically similar because they show variations in their genomes and epigenomes leading to inaccurate estimates of heritability...
November 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094972/identity-exploration-and-commitment-in-early-adolescence-genetic-and-environmental-contributions
#10
Noam Markovitch, Koen Luyckx, Theo Klimstra, Lior Abramson, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Identity formation is a key developmental task in adolescence. Although many adolescents in modern societies face issues of identity, there are substantial individual differences in identity exploration and commitment. Little is known about the origins of these individual differences. The current study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to identity formation. In total, 571 11-year-old twins (85 monozygotic complete pairs and 176 dizygotic complete pairs) reported on their identity formation, using the Dimensions of Identity Development Scale (DIDS; Luyckx, Schwartz, Berzonsky, et al...
November 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057986/hippurate-as-a-metabolomic-marker-of-gut-microbiome-diversity-modulation-by-diet-and-relationship-to-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Tess Pallister, Matthew A Jackson, Tiphaine C Martin, Jonas Zierer, Amy Jennings, Robert P Mohney, Alexander MacGregor, Claire J Steves, Aedin Cassidy, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni
Reduced gut microbiome diversity is associated with multiple disorders including metabolic syndrome (MetS) features, though metabolomic markers have not been investigated. Our objective was to identify blood metabolite markers of gut microbiome diversity, and explore their relationship with dietary intake and MetS. We examined associations between Shannon diversity and 292 metabolites profiled by the untargeted metabolomics provider Metabolon Inc. in 1529 females from TwinsUK using linear regressions adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (Bonferroni: P < 1...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057387/toward-solving-the-etiological-mystery-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
Atsushi Tanakaa, Patrick Sc Leung, Howard A Young, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease due to its signature AMA autoantibody, female predominance and relatively specific portal infiltration and cholestasis. The identification and cloning of the major mitochondrial autoantigens, recognized by AMA, have served as an immunologic platform to identify the earliest events involved in loss of tolerance. Despite the relative high concordance rate in identical twins, genome wide association studies have not proven clinically useful and have led to suggestions of epigenetic events...
June 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039597/whole%C3%A2-genome-scale-identification-of-methylation-markers-specific-for-cerebral-palsy-in-monozygotic-discordant-twins
#13
Zhe Jiao, Zhimei Jiang, Jingtao Wang, Hui Xu, Qiang Zhang, Shuang Liu, Ning Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongbin Qiu
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe type of brain disease affecting movement and posture. Although CP has strong genetic and environmental components, considerable differences in the methylome between monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for CP implicates epigenetic contributors as well. In order to determine the differences in methylation in patients with CP without interference of the interindividual genomic variation, four pairs of MZ twins discordant for CP were profiled for DNA methylation changes using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on the genomic‑scale...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019700/taillessness-in-a-cloned-cow-is-not-genetically-transmitted
#14
Stefan Wagner, Alison Cullum, David N Wells, Götz Laible
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), commonly referred to as cloning, results in the generation of offspring that, except for mitochondrial DNA, are genetically identical to the nuclear donor. We previously used a genetically modified bovine cell line as the donor for SCNT and obtained a calf, named Daisy, that was born without a tail. To determine whether the missing tail was a result of the genetic modification, we performed recloning experiments by using either cells from a sacrificed pregnancy of a second clone (Daisy's "twin" clone) or cells from tailless Daisy as donors for SCNT...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975876/twin-studies-in-brazil-projects-and-plans-twin-research-infant-twins-viewing-of-social-scenes-religiosity-and-substance-abuse-down-syndrome-among-twins-twin-case-of-chronic-periodontitis-in-the-news-the-twin-property-brothers-twins-with-cerebral-palsy-twins
#15
Nancy L Segal
Twin research in Brazil twin has expanded enormously in recent years, engaging the interests and efforts of many investigators, students and twins. Descriptions and brief summaries of this work and talks given by investigators at local conferences are presented, based on my four-city lecture tour. This is followed by summaries of twin research on infants' viewing of social scenes, religiosity and substance abuse, Down syndrome, and chronic periodontitis. This article concludes with twin-related news and information of general interest, including identical twin property designers, twins with cerebral palsy, twins affected with the Zika virus, a pair of twin writers, twins in sports, and a set of quadruplets from my childhood neighborhood in Riverdale, New York...
October 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930983/personalized-peptide-arrays-for-detection-of-hla-alloantibodies-in-organ-transplantation
#16
Pan Liu, Tomokazu Souma, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Xueying Xie, Xunrong Luo, Jing Jin
In organ transplantation, the function and longevity of the graft critically rely on the success of controlling immunological rejection reactivity against human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Histocompatibility guidelines are based on laboratory tests of anti-HLA immunity, which presents either as pre-existing or de novo generated HLA antibodies that constitute a major transplantation barrier. Current tests are built on a single-antigen beads (SAB) platform using a fixed set of ~100 preselected recombinant HLA antigens to probe transplant sera...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920028/type-i-jejunal-atresia-in-identical-twins-a-rare-occurrence
#17
Amrollah Salimi, Shervin Rashidi Nia, Seyed Shahin Eftekhari, Mahsa Besharati, Sara Shahmoradi
Jejunoileal atresia is of familial and non-familial in origins and classified into four different types. We herein report a rare occurrence of type I jejunal atresia in identical twins who were presented with neonatal intestinal obstruction. This report points towards common etiology of atresia in our cases and factors more than vascular accident appear to be involved.
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918370/a-metric-study-of-insole-foot-impressions-in-footwear-of-identical-twins
#18
Michael S Nirenberg, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899225/international-teleconsultation-on-conjoined-twins-leading-to-a-successful-separation-a-case-report
#19
Mario V Fusaro, Christian Becker, Samir Pandya, Whitney Mcbride, Kaveh Alizadeh, Vicki Iannotti, Paul Zelkovic, Samuel Barst, Michael E Tobias, Avinash Mohan, Jeffrey Freda, Michael Gewitz, Corey Scurlock
Conjoined twins are identical twins that have incompletely separated in utero. The prognosis for conjoined twins is poor and management in a skilled tertiary care centre is paramount for definitive care. We describe our experience with a telemedical consultation on conjoined twins in The Dominican Republic from our eHealth centre in Valhalla, NY. The patients were two month old, female, pygopagus conjoined twins. A multidisciplinary teleconference was initiated with the patients, their family, the referring paediatrician and our team...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893331/diminished-medial-prefrontal-cortex-activation-during-the-recollection-of-stressful-events-is-an-acquired-characteristic-of-ptsd
#20
M K Dahlgren, L M Laifer, M B VanElzakker, R Offringa, K C Hughes, L K Staples-Bradley, S J Dubois, N B Lasko, C A Hinojosa, S P Orr, R K Pitman, L M Shin
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD. METHODS: In this case-control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement...
September 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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