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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147063/nativity-race-ethnicity-and-dual-diagnosis-among-us-adults
#1
Magdalena Szaflarski, Shawn Bauldry, Lisa A Cubbins, Karthikeyan Meganathan
Purpose: This study investigated disparities in dual diagnosis (comorbid substance-use and depressive/anxiety disorders) among US adults by nativity and racial-ethnic origin and socioeconomic, cultural, and psychosocial factors that may account for the observed disparities. Design/methodology: The study drew on data from two waves of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Racial-ethnic categories included African, Asian/Pacific Islander, European, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and other Hispanic/Latino...
2017: Research in the Sociology of Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128142/longitudinal-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-on-the-neural-correlates-of-emotion-regulation
#2
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Jochen Weber, Ronit Kishon, Kevin Ochsner, Lauren Delaparte, Bruce Doré, Francesca Zanderigo, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Jeffrey M Miller
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for a substantial minority of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but its mechanism of action at the neural level is not known. As core techniques of CBT seek to enhance emotion regulation, we scanned 31 MDD participants prior to 14 sessions of CBT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task in which participants engaged in a voluntary emotion regulation strategy while recalling negative autobiographical memories. Eighteen healthy controls were also scanned...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126777/graded-photochemical-spinal-cord-injury-results-in-chronic-hyperalgesia-and-depression-like-behaviour-but-no-anxiety-exacerbation-in-female-balb-c-mice
#3
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Marta Portero-Tresserra, Beltrán Álvarez-Pérez, Meritxell Deulofeu, Enrique Verdú
Neuropathic pain (NP) is present in 40-to-50% of spinal cord injured patients. It tends to chronicity and correlates with lower quality-of-life. Moreover, the role of NP in the eventual exacerbation of anxiety- and depression-like behaviours during its development and chronification in genetically susceptible individuals remains unclear. Thus, although solely few animal models are available, new specific models are needed to complete the array of chances to assay new therapeutic strategies with the aim of treating chronic NT and its associated mood disorders...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124447/psychiatric-screening-and-interventions-for-minor-refugees-in-europe-an-overview-of-approaches-and-tools
#4
Annerieke Horlings, Irma Hein
Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in minor refugees, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. Results show that studies on diagnostic accuracy of assessment instruments and efficacy of mental healthcare interventions in this population are lacking...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120845/markers-of-dna-rna-damage-from-oxidation-as-predictors-of-a-registry-based-diagnosis-of-psychiatric-illness-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#5
Anders Jorgensen, Volkert Siersma, Annette S Davidsen, Allan Weimann, Trine Henriksen, Henrik E Poulsen, Niels de Fine Olivarius
Oxidative stress is a potential biological mediator of the higher rates of psychiatric illness (PI) observed after the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We investigated validated urinary markers of systemic DNA/RNA damage from oxidation (8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo respectively) as predictors of incident PI in a cohort of 1381 newly diagnosed T2DM patients, who were followed prospectively for a total of 19 years after diagnosis. Psychiatric diagnoses were from Danish national registries. Patients were examined at the time of diagnosis and at a 6-year follow-up...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110243/problematic-alcohol-use-and-associated-characteristics-following-bariatric-surgery
#6
Kathryn E Smith, Scott G Engel, Kristine J Steffen, Luis Garcia, Karen Grothe, Afton Koball, James E Mitchell
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that a significant minority of individuals who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) experience problematic alcohol and substance use following surgery. However, little research has examined characteristics, drinking patterns, and possible risk factors within this population. To provide descriptive information of a sample of adults with self-identified alcohol use problems following bariatric surgery, this study examined (1) alcohol and substance use symptoms using standardized assessments, (2) current and past psychiatric comorbidity, (3) subjective changes in alcohol sensitivity following surgery, and (4) specific patterns of alcohol use prior to and following bariatric surgery...
November 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104237/promoting-mental-health-in-unaccompanied-refugee-minors-recommendations-for-primary-support-programs
#7
Usama El-Awad, Atefeh Fathi, Franz Petermann, Tilman Reinelt
During the last years, the number of refugees around the world increased to about 22.5 million. The mental health of refugees, especially of unaccompanied minors (70% between the ages of 16 and 18 years) who have been exposed to traumatic events (e.g., war), is generally impaired with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Several studies revealed (1) a huge variation among the prevalence rates of these mental problems, and (2) that post-migration stressors (e.g., language barriers, cultural differences) might be at least as detrimental to mental health as the traumatic events in pre- and peri-flight...
November 1, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083538/functional-dyspepsia-and-duodenal-eosinophilia-a-new-disease-model
#8
REVIEW
Kening Fan, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects more than 10% of the population. In the past decade, the conceptual underpinning of FD has begun to change, and new data are unraveling the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder with a focus on the duodenum. The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016, and notably suggests that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome may all be part of the same disease spectrum as FD. Helicobacter pylori explains a minority of FD cases and in Rome IV is considered a separate entity...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077209/beliefs-about-causes-of-major-depression-clinical-and-treatment-correlates-among-african-americans-in-an-urban-community
#9
Eleanor Murphy, Sidney Hankerson
OBJECTIVES: Major depression is increasingly viewed in the United States public as a medical disorder with biological and psychosocial causes. Yet little is known about how causal attributions about depression vary among low-income racial minorities. This study examined beliefs about causes of depression and their demographic, clinical and treatment correlates in a lower income African American sample. METHOD: Volunteers (N = 110) aged 24-79 years, who participated in a family study of depression, completed a 45-item questionnaire on their beliefs about the causes of depression...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075536/neural-plasticity-associated-with-hippocampal-pka-creb-and-nmda-signaling-is-involved-in-the-antidepressant-effect-of-repeated-low-dose-of-yueju-pill-on-chronic-mouse-model-of-learned-helplessness
#10
Zhilu Zou, Yin Chen, Qinqin Shen, Xiaoyan Guo, Yuxuan Zhang, Gang Chen
Yueju pill is a traditional Chinese medicine formulated to treat syndromes of mood disorders. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of repeated low dose of Yueju in the animal model mimicking clinical long-term depression condition and the role of neural plasticity associated with PKA- (protein kinase A-) CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) signaling. We showed that a single low dose of Yueju demonstrated antidepressant effects in tests of tail suspension, forced swim, and novelty-suppressed feeding...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057276/genetic-correlates-of-spirituality-religion-and-depression-a-study-in-offspring-and-grandchildren-at-high-and-low-familial-risk-for-depression
#11
Micheline R Anderson, Lisa Miller, Priya Wickramaratne, Connie Svob, Zagaa Odgerel, Ruixin Zhao, Myrna M Weissman
RATIONALE: Possible genetic correlates of spirituality and depression have been identified in community samples. We investigate some of the previously identified candidates in a sample of families at both high and low-risk for depression. METHOD: Offspring and grandchildren of individuals at high and low-risk for depression, participating in a multi-wave thirty-year longitudinal study, were assessed for seven SNPS drawn from four single gene candidates associated with systems implicated in both depression and spirituality: Serotonin (5-HT1B and 5-HT2A), Dopamine (DRD2), Oxytocin (OT) and Monoamine Vesicular Transporter (VMAT1)...
March 2017: Spirituality in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050391/psychogenic-amnesia-syndromes-outcome-and-patterns-of-retrograde-amnesia
#12
Neil A Harrison, Kate Johnston, Federica Corno, Sarah J Casey, Kimberley Friedner, Kate Humphreys, Eli J Jaldow, Mervi Pitkanen, Michael D Kopelman
There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032700/improving-depression-care-for-adults-with-serious-mental-illness-in-underresourced-areas-community-coalitions-versus-technical-support
#13
Enrico G Castillo, Roderick Shaner, Lingqi Tang, Bowen Chung, Felica Jones, Yolanda Whittington, Jeanne Miranda, Kenneth B Wells
OBJECTIVE: Community Partners in Care (CPIC) was a group-randomized study of two approaches to implementing expanded collaborative depression care: Community Engagement and Planning (CEP), a coalition approach, and Resources for Services (RS), a technical assistance approach. Collaborative care networks in both arms involved health care and other agencies in five service sectors. This study examined six- and 12-month outcomes for CPIC participants with serious mental illness. METHODS: This secondary analysis focused on low-income CPIC participants from racial-ethnic minority groups with serious mental illness in underresourced Los Angeles communities (N=504)...
October 16, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018388/emdr-beyond-ptsd-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Alicia Valiente-Gómez, Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Devi Treen, Carlos Cedrón, Francesc Colom, Víctor Pérez, Benedikt L Amann
Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through several randomized controlled trials (RCT). Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017334/brexpiprazole-a-new-leaf-on-the-partial-dopamine-agonist-branch
#15
Judy Hope, David Castle, Nicholas A Keks
OBJECTIVES: Brexpiprazole is a new dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic in the same class as aripiprazole. This paper will briefly review brexpiprazole and compare it with aripiprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Brexpiprazole and aripiprazole are both partial agonists at dopamine D2, and serotonin 5-HT1A and antagonists at serotonin 5-HT2A and noradrenergic α1B receptors. However, the two drugs are significantly different in potencies at various receptors; neurochemical profiles predict that brexpiprazole may be comparable with aripiprazole in its antipsychotic efficacy but may cause less akathisia, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and activation...
October 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016468/a-systematic-review-of-reminiscence-therapy-for-older-adults-in-taiwan
#16
Hsin-Yen Yen, Li-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Population aging is an increasing phenomenon in many countries around the world. It has been estimated that more than one quarter of all older adults experience a mental or neurological disorder or disease such as dementia, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. Reminiscence is a popular treatment for enhancing well-being in older adults. Previous studies have shown that reminiscence therapy improves the cognitive functions, behaviors, and other psychosocial outcomes in older adult patients...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972588/the-impact-of-bulimia-nervosa-on-oral-health-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
A Rosten, T Newton
Eating disorders are a potentially life-threatening group of mental disorders, which affect a patient's relationship with food and their body. This manifests itself through chaotic and disordered eating habits. One such eating disorder is bulimia nervosa, which has a lifetime prevalence of 1%. While there is consensus that bulimic behaviour directly causes dental erosion due to vomiting and acidic food choices, there is less clear evidence for a direct link between bulimia nervosa and dental caries, although there does still appear to be an association...
November 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950923/adverse-life-events-psychiatric-history-and-biological-predictors-of-postpartum-depression-in-an-ethnically-diverse-sample-of-postpartum-women
#18
J Guintivano, P F Sullivan, A M Stuebe, T Penders, J Thorp, D R Rubinow, S Meltzer-Brody
BACKGROUND: Race, psychiatric history, and adverse life events have all been independently associated with postpartum depression (PPD). However, the role these play together in Black and Latina women remains inadequately studied. Therefore, we performed a case-control study of PPD, including comprehensive assessments of symptoms and biomarkers, while examining the effects of genetic ancestry. METHODS: We recruited our sample (549 cases, 968 controls) at 6 weeks postpartum from obstetrical clinics in North Carolina...
September 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948878/development-and-evaluation-of-diversity-oriented-competence-training-for-the-treatment-of-depressive-disorders
#19
Gabriela A Sempértegui, Jeroen W Knipscheer, Marrie H J Bekker
Studies in Europe indicate that some ethnic minorities have higher rates of mental disorders and less favorable treatment outcomes than their counterparts from majority groups. To date, efforts regarding training to reduce disparities have mainly focused on ethnocultural competences of therapists, with less attention paid to other aspects of diversity, such as sex/gender and socioeconomic status. In this study, we aim to determine the effectiveness of a population-specific, diversity-oriented competence training designed to increase therapists' competencies to integrate aspects of diversity features in clinical assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of depressive disorders in Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch patients...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935838/decreased-pretreatment-amygdalae-serotonin-transporter-binding-in-unipolar-depression-remitters-a-prospective-pet-study
#20
Mala Ananth, Christine DeLorenzo, Jie Yang, J John Mann, Ramin Parsey
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a debilitating condition that affects over 14 million Americans. Remission only occurs in a minority of individuals following first-line antidepressant treatment (~35%); predictors of treatment outcome are therefore needed. Using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with a radiotracer specific for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), (11)C-McN5652, we found that patients with MDD who did not achieve remission following 12 months of naturalistic treatment had lower pre-treatment midbrain and amygdala binding compared to healthy volunteers...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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