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Adrenals AND nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#1
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#2
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781326/organ-weights-and-ratios-for-postmortem-identification-of-fetal-growth-restriction-utility-and-confounding-factors
#3
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, I Jeffrey, A E Heazell, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: The postmortem fetal brain:liver weight ratio is commonly used as a marker of nutrition for diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, there are limited data regarding the effects of intrauterine retention, fetal maceration and postmortem interval on organ weights and their ratios at autopsy. Our aims were to examine the relationships between gestational-age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fetal organ weights at autopsy, cause of intrauterine death and effects of intrauterine retention, and to determine whether the brain:liver weight ratio is a reliable marker of FGR in intrauterine death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770020/early-micronutrient-supplementation-protects-against-early-stress-induced-cognitive-impairments
#4
Eva F G Naninck, J Efraim Oosterink, Kit-Yi Yam, Lennart P de Vries, Henk Schierbeek, Johannes B van Goudoever, Rikst-Nynke Verkaik-Schakel, Josèe A Plantinga, Torsten Plosch, Paul J Lucassen, Aniko Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) impairs cognition later in life. Because ES prevention is problematic, intervention is needed, yet the mechanisms that underlie ES remain largely unknown. So far, the role of early nutrition in brain programming has been largely ignored. Here, we demonstrate that essential 1-carbon metabolism-associated micronutrients (1-CMAMs; i.e., methionine and B vitamins) early in life are crucial in programming later cognition by ES. ES was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice from postnatal d (P)2-9. 1-CMAM levels were measured centrally and peripherally by using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy...
October 21, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640068/urinary-bisphenol-a-is-associated-with-dysregulation-of-hpa-axis-function-in-pregnant-women-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#5
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Jiaying Liu, Maede Ejaredar, Deborah Dewey, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in rodents, but evidence in humans is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether BPA exposure during pregnancy is associated with dysregulation of the HPA-axis, we examined the association between urinary BPA concentrations and diurnal salivary cortisol in pregnant women. Secondary analyses investigated whether the association between BPA and cortisol was dependent on fetal sex...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540247/application-of-pharmaceutical-knowledge-to-the-unconventional-use-of-a-rarely-used-anaesthetic-agent
#6
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524390/why-are-some-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-dying-young-an-analysis-of-causes-of-death-in-north-east-england
#7
H J A Van Ruiten, C Marini Bettolo, T Cheetham, M Eagle, H Lochmuller, V Straub, K Bushby, M Guglieri
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disease in children. Recent years have seen an increase in age of survival into adulthood following the introduction of proactive standards of care. We reviewed mortality in DMD in our population in order to identify potential underlying risk factors for premature death and improve clinical care. METHOD: A retrospective case note review of all deaths in the DMD population over the last 10 years in North East England...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510480/adrenal-hyperandrogenism-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism (AH), as defined by increased circulating dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) levels, ranges from 15 to 45% in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: The aim of this review is to update the pathogenesis and consequences of AH in PCOS, from molecular genetics to the clinical setting. RESULTS: Mounting evidence derived from animal models suggests that genetically or enviromentally determined prenatal androgen excess, by influencing the hormonal and metabolic phenotype of susceptible female fetuses later in life, may be the capital event for the development of AH in PCOS...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426858/sexually-dimorphic-and-interactive-effects-of-prenatal-maternal-cortisol-and-psychological-distress-on-infant-cortisol-reactivity
#9
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis S Campbell
In utero exposure to maternal psychological distress is a risk factor for developmental psychopathology, and these effects are believed to partially occur via dysregulation of the maternal and fetal hypothalamus-adrenal-pituitary axes. Nevertheless, only a few human studies have directly assessed the effects of prenatal cortisol exposure on infant cortisol reactivity, and none have investigated sex differences or potential interactions between prenatal cortisol and psychological distress. Here we report on a prospective longitudinal investigation (N = 236) of in utero exposure to maternal cortisol and distress in a relatively high socioeconomic status and low-risk population to determine whether these exposures interact in their effects on infant (M age = 3...
July 18, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411173/achalasia-outcome-in-children
#10
Anell Meyer, Anthony Catto-Smith, Joe Crameri, Di Simpson, George Alex, Winita Hardikar, Donald Cameron, Mark Oliver
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal achalasia is well-recognized but relatively rare in children, occasionally appearing as the "triple A" syndrome (with adrenal insufficiency and alacrima). Treatment modalities, as in adult practice, are not curative, often needing further interventions and spurring the search for better management. The outcome for syndromic variants is unknown. We sought to define the efficacy of treatments for children with achalasia with and without triple A syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of presentation and outcomes for 42 children with achalasia presenting over 3 decades to a major paediatric referral centre...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387153/amphibian-immunity-stress-disease-and-climate-change
#11
Louise A Rollins-Smith
Like all other vertebrate groups, amphibian responses to the environment are mediated through the brain (hypothalamic)-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Amphibians are facing historically unprecedented environmental stress due to climate change that will involve unpredictable temperature and rainfall regimes and possible nutritional deficits due to extremes of temperature and drought. At the same time, amphibians in all parts of the world are experiencing unprecedented declines due to the emerging diseases, chytridiomycosis (caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) and ranavirus diseases due to viruses of the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae...
July 4, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308960/circadian-disruption-new-clinical-perspective-of-disease-pathology-and-basis-for-chronotherapeutic-intervention
#12
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235672/non-diabetic-clinical-applications-of-insulin
#13
Jyoti M Benni, Paragouda A Patil
BACKGROUND: Introducing a new drug to the market is a time-consuming process, is complex, and involves consumption of a lot of resources. Therefore, discovering new uses for the old drugs (i.e. drug repurposing) benefits the patients by providing them time-tested drugs. With developments in insulin therapy still happening, it is worth keeping up to date on trends in the use of this powerful glucose-lowering agent. The aim of this article is to explore the potential non-diabetic clinical applications of insulin...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235338/altered-diurnal-pattern-of-steroid-hormones-in-relation-to-various-behaviors-external-factors-and-pathologies-a-review
#14
REVIEW
K Collomp, A Baillot, H Forget, A Coquerel, N Rieth, N Vibarel-Rebot
The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165611/higher-diet-dependent-renal-acid-load-associates-with-higher-glucocorticoid-secretion-and-potentially-bioactive-free-glucocorticoids-in-healthy-children
#15
Jonas Esche, Lijie Shi, Alberto Sánchez-Guijo, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Thomas Remer
Metabolic acidosis induces elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels. However, the influence of less strong daily acid loads on GCs is largely unexplored. To investigate this, we studied whether higher acid loads in children, fully within the normal range of habitual diets, associate with endogenous GCs. In a specific quasi-experimental design, we examined 200 6- to 10-year-old healthy participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study equally divided to either high or low 24-hour renal net acid excretion...
August 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147943/neuroendorine-and-epigentic-mechanisms-subserving-autonomic-imbalance-and-hpa-dysfunction-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Erwin Lemche, Oleg S Chaban, Alexandra V Lemche
Impact of environmental stress upon pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been substantiated by epidemiological, psychophysiological, and endocrinological studies. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of causative roles of nutritional factors, sympathomedullo-adrenal (SMA) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and adipose tissue chronic low-grade inflammation processes in MetS. Disturbances in the neuroendocrine systems for leptin, melanocortin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein systems have been found resulting directly in MetS-like conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124970/-hormonal-changes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Jana Kollerová, Tomáš Koller, Tibor Hlavatý, Juraj Payer
Inflammatory bowel disease is often accompanied by extraintestinal manifestations due to a common autoimmune etiopathogenesis, chronic systemic inflammation, frequent nutrition deficits, and the treatment. Endocrine system changes belong to manifestations too. Interaction is mutual, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis cause functional and morphological changes of endocrine tissues. On the other hand the endocrine disorders negatively influence the course of bowel disease. In the article we analyze correlation of IBD with gonadal hormone production and fertility, with adrenal function, with the function and morphology of the thyroid, with growth hormone production and growth disorders in children, and with bone mineral density reduction...
December 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110597/infantile-growth-hormone-deficiency-and-x-linked-adrenal-hypoplasia-congenita
#18
Stephanie T Chung, Carolyn H Chi, Morey W Haymond, George S Jeha
CONTEXT: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a rare but important cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. AHC is caused by mutations within the NROB1 gene that codes for the DAX-1 protein, an orphan nuclear receptor essential for the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Affected individuals typically present in early infancy with adrenal insufficiency and growth is usually normal once medical therapy is instituted...
November 2015: Jacobs Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057368/nutritional-omega-3-deficiency-alters-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-pathway-and-neuronal-morphology-in-regionally-distinct-brain-structures-associated-with-emotional-deficits
#19
Thomas Larrieu, Muna L Hilal, Véronique De Smedt-Peyrusse, Nathalie Sans, Sophie Layé
Extensive evidence suggests that long term dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency results in altered emotional behaviour. We have recently demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs deficiency induces emotional alterations through abnormal corticosterone secretion which leads to altered dendritic arborisation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we show that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback inhibition was not compromised in n-3 deficient mice. Rather, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the PFC but not in the hippocampus of n-3 deficient mice...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984576/early-life-environment-does-it-have-implications-for-predisposition-to-disease
#20
Nola Shanks
Early life environmental factors have been associated with altered predisposition to a variety of pathologies. A considerable literature examines pre- and postnatal factors associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic (i.e. insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia) and psychiatric disease, and the importance of hormonal programming. The brain is exquisitely sensitive to environmental inputs during development and the stress responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to be both up- and down-regulated by early life exposure to limited nutrition, stress, altered maternal behaviors, synthetic steroids and inflammation...
December 2002: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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