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Adrenals AND nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555095/nutritional-ketosis-affects-metabolism-and-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-rats-in-both-control-and-chronic-stress-environments
#1
Milene L Brownlow, Seung H Jung, Raquel J Moore, Naomi Bechmann, Ryan Jankord
Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526030/prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-dysregulation-of-infant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#2
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360846/stress-and-the-emerging-roles-of-chromatin-remodeling-in-signal-integration-and-stable-transmission-of-reversible-phenotypes
#3
REVIEW
Ian C G Weaver, Austin C Korgan, Kristen Lee, Ryan V Wheeler, Amos S Hundert, Donna Goguen
The influence of early life experience and degree of parental-infant attachment on emotional development in children and adolescents has been comprehensively studied. Structural and mechanistic insight into the biological foundation and maintenance of mammalian defensive systems (metabolic, immune, nervous and behavioral) is slowly advancing through the emerging field of developmental molecular (epi)genetics. Initial evidence revealed that differential nurture early in life generates stable differences in offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, in part, through chromatin remodeling and changes in DNA methylation of specific genes expressed in the brain, revealing physical, biochemical and molecular paths for the epidemiological concept of gene-environment interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294170/exploring-inter-organ-crosstalk-to-uncover-mechanisms-that-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-mass
#4
REVIEW
J Shirakawa, D F De Jesus, R N Kulkarni
Impaired β-cell function and insufficient β-cell mass compensation are twin pathogenic features that underlie type 2 diabetes (T2D). Current therapeutic strategies continue to evolve to improve treatment outcomes in different ethnic populations and include approaches to counter insulin resistance and improve β-cell function. Although the effects of insulin secretion on metabolic organs such as liver, skeletal muscle and adipose is directly relevant for improving glucose uptake and reduce hyperglycemia, the ability of pancreatic β-cells to crosstalk with multiple non-metabolic tissues is providing novel insights into potential opportunities for improving β-cell function and/or mass that could have beneficial effects in patients with diabetes...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290886/-the-insufficiency-type-of-metabolic-balance-and-nutritional-status-in-patient-with-heart-failure
#5
A G Obrezan, S A Spitsa
A lot of data has been accumulated at present on the metabolic and nutritional insufficiency in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Researchers have noted an actuality of the study of nutritional and metabolic insufficiency in CHF patients as independent factors affecting the course of CHF and because of its relationship with triggers of inflammation, sympathetic-adrenal system, and markers of functional state of the cardiovascular system (CVS). In some works attention has been given to relationship of nutritional and metabolic insufficiency with autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm...
August 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115639/combined-effects-of-gestational-phthalate-exposure-and-zinc-deficiency-on-steroid-metabolism-and-growth
#6
Johnathan R Nuttall, Heidi R Kucera, Suangsuda Supasai, Nilesh W Gaikwad, Patricia I Oteiza
Disruption of steroid hormone signaling has been implicated independently in the developmental abnormalities resulting from maternal phthalate plasticizer exposure and developmental zinc deficiency. This study investigated if secondary zinc deficiency may result from dietary exposure to a low level of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) through gestation and if this could be associated with altered steroid metabolism. The interaction between marginal zinc nutrition and DEHP exposure to affect pregnancy outcome, zinc status, and steroid metabolism was also assessed...
April 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#7
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#8
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781326/organ-weights-and-ratios-for-postmortem-identification-of-fetal-growth-restriction-utility-and-confounding-factors
#9
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, I Jeffrey, A E Heazell, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: The postmortem fetal brain:liver weight ratio is commonly used as a marker of nutrition for diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, there are limited data regarding the effects of intrauterine retention, fetal maceration and postmortem interval on organ weights and their ratios at autopsy. Our aims were to examine the relationships between gestational-age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fetal organ weights at autopsy, cause of intrauterine death and effects of intrauterine retention, and to determine whether the brain:liver weight ratio is a reliable marker of FGR in intrauterine death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770020/early-micronutrient-supplementation-protects-against-early-stress-induced-cognitive-impairments
#10
Eva F G Naninck, J Efraim Oosterink, Kit-Yi Yam, Lennart P de Vries, Henk Schierbeek, Johannes B van Goudoever, Rikst-Nynke Verkaik-Schakel, Josèe A Plantinga, Torsten Plosch, Paul J Lucassen, Aniko Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) impairs cognition later in life. Because ES prevention is problematic, intervention is needed, yet the mechanisms that underlie ES remain largely unknown. So far, the role of early nutrition in brain programming has been largely ignored. Here, we demonstrate that essential 1-carbon metabolism-associated micronutrients (1-CMAMs; i.e., methionine and B vitamins) early in life are crucial in programming later cognition by ES. ES was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice from postnatal d (P)2-9. 1-CMAM levels were measured centrally and peripherally by using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy...
October 21, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640068/urinary-bisphenol-a-is-associated-with-dysregulation-of-hpa-axis-function-in-pregnant-women-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#11
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Jiaying Liu, Maede Ejaredar, Deborah Dewey, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in rodents, but evidence in humans is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether BPA exposure during pregnancy is associated with dysregulation of the HPA-axis, we examined the association between urinary BPA concentrations and diurnal salivary cortisol in pregnant women. Secondary analyses investigated whether the association between BPA and cortisol was dependent on fetal sex...
November 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540247/application-of-pharmaceutical-knowledge-to-the-unconventional-use-of-a-rarely-used-anaesthetic-agent
#12
Caroline Cole
CASE SUMMARY: A 6 yr old 45 kg child with severe Cushinoid features was admitted to PICU with probable hypertensive encephalopathy. She presented with increasing headaches, vomiting and seizures becoming unresponsive with a GCS of 3. She was profoundly hypertensive and her cortisol levels were significantly elevated (>2000 nmol/L). Rapid reduction in cortisol levels was required to stabilise her condition prior to surgery. Etomidate is the only readily available intravenous preparation which reliably suppresses adrenocortical function...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524390/why-are-some-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-dying-young-an-analysis-of-causes-of-death-in-north-east-england
#13
H J A Van Ruiten, C Marini Bettolo, T Cheetham, M Eagle, H Lochmuller, V Straub, K Bushby, M Guglieri
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disease in children. Recent years have seen an increase in age of survival into adulthood following the introduction of proactive standards of care. We reviewed mortality in DMD in our population in order to identify potential underlying risk factors for premature death and improve clinical care. METHOD: A retrospective case note review of all deaths in the DMD population over the last 10 years in North East England...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510480/adrenal-hyperandrogenism-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#14
Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism (AH), as defined by increased circulating dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) levels, ranges from 15 to 45% in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: The aim of this review is to update the pathogenesis and consequences of AH in PCOS, from molecular genetics to the clinical setting. RESULTS: Mounting evidence derived from animal models suggests that genetically or enviromentally determined prenatal androgen excess, by influencing the hormonal and metabolic phenotype of susceptible female fetuses later in life, may be the capital event for the development of AH in PCOS...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426858/sexually-dimorphic-and-interactive-effects-of-prenatal-maternal-cortisol-and-psychological-distress-on-infant-cortisol-reactivity
#15
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis S Campbell
In utero exposure to maternal psychological distress is a risk factor for developmental psychopathology, and these effects are believed to partially occur via dysregulation of the maternal and fetal hypothalamus-adrenal-pituitary axes. Nevertheless, only a few human studies have directly assessed the effects of prenatal cortisol exposure on infant cortisol reactivity, and none have investigated sex differences or potential interactions between prenatal cortisol and psychological distress. Here we report on a prospective longitudinal investigation (N = 236) of in utero exposure to maternal cortisol and distress in a relatively high socioeconomic status and low-risk population to determine whether these exposures interact in their effects on infant (M age = 3...
July 18, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411173/achalasia-outcome-in-children
#16
Anell Meyer, Anthony Catto-Smith, Joe Crameri, Di Simpson, George Alex, Winita Hardikar, Donald Cameron, Mark Oliver
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal achalasia is well-recognized but relatively rare in children, occasionally appearing as the "triple A" syndrome (with adrenal insufficiency and alacrima). Treatment modalities, as in adult practice, are not curative, often needing further interventions and spurring the search for better management. The outcome for syndromic variants is unknown. We sought to define the efficacy of treatments for children with achalasia with and without triple A syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of presentation and outcomes for 42 children with achalasia presenting over three decades to a major pediatric referral center...
February 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387153/amphibian-immunity-stress-disease-and-climate-change
#17
Louise A Rollins-Smith
Like all other vertebrate groups, amphibian responses to the environment are mediated through the brain (hypothalamic)-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Amphibians are facing historically unprecedented environmental stress due to climate change that will involve unpredictable temperature and rainfall regimes and possible nutritional deficits due to extremes of temperature and drought. At the same time, amphibians in all parts of the world are experiencing unprecedented declines due to the emerging diseases, chytridiomycosis (caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) and ranavirus diseases due to viruses of the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae...
July 4, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308960/circadian-disruption-new-clinical-perspective-of-disease-pathology-and-basis-for-chronotherapeutic-intervention
#18
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235672/non-diabetic-clinical-applications-of-insulin
#19
REVIEW
Jyoti M Benni, Paragouda A Patil
BACKGROUND: Introducing a new drug to the market is a time-consuming process, is complex, and involves consumption of a lot of resources. Therefore, discovering new uses for the old drugs (i.e. drug repurposing) benefits the patients by providing them time-tested drugs. With developments in insulin therapy still happening, it is worth keeping up to date on trends in the use of this powerful glucose-lowering agent. The aim of this article is to explore the potential non-diabetic clinical applications of insulin...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235338/altered-diurnal-pattern-of-steroid-hormones-in-relation-to-various-behaviors-external-factors-and-pathologies-a-review
#20
REVIEW
K Collomp, A Baillot, H Forget, A Coquerel, N Rieth, N Vibarel-Rebot
The adrenal and gonadal stress steroids [i.e., cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] have gathered considerable attention in the last few decades due to their very broad physiological and psychological actions. Their diurnal patterns have become a particular focus following new data implicating altered diurnal hormone patterns in various endocrine, behavioral and cardiovascular risk profiles. In this review of the current literature, we present a brief overview of the altered diurnal patterns of these hormones that may occur in relation to chronic stress, nutritional behaviors, physical exercise, drugs and sleep deprivation/shift...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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