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Adrenals AND nutrition

Jun-Ming Wang, Li-Xin Pei, Yue-Yue Zhang, Yong-Xian Cheng, Chun-Ling Niu, Ying Cui, Wei-Sheng Feng, Gui-Fang Wang
The dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae) are of both medicinal and nutritional importance. Our previous study has found that the 80% ethanol extract of R. glutinosa (RGEE) produced antidepressant-like activities in mouse behavioral despair depression models. However, its mechanisms are still unclear. The present study aimed to observe the antidepressant-like mechanisms of RGEE on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model by involving monoaminergic neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
David J Birnkrant, Katharine Bushby, Carla M Bann, Susan D Apkon, Angela Blackwell, David Brumbaugh, Laura E Case, Paula R Clemens, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Shree Pandya, Natalie Street, Jean Tomezsko, Kathryn R Wagner, Leanne M Ward, David R Weber
Since the publication of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) care considerations in 2010, multidisciplinary care of this severe, progressive neuromuscular disease has evolved. In conjunction with improved patient survival, a shift to more anticipatory diagnostic and therapeutic strategies has occurred, with a renewed focus on patient quality of life. In 2014, a steering committee of experts from a wide range of disciplines was established to update the 2010 DMD care considerations, with the goal of improving patient care...
January 23, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Marissa Sobolewski, Katherine Conrad, Elena Marvin, Joshua L Allen, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Metals, including lead (Pb), methylmercury (MeHg) and arsenic (As), are long-known developmental neurotoxicants. More recently, environmental context has been recognized to modulate metals toxicity, including nutritional state and stress exposure. Modulation of metal toxicity by stress exposure can occur through shared targeting of endocrine systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Our previous rodent research has identified that prenatal stress (PS) modulates neurotoxicity of two endocrine active metals (EAMs), Pb and MeHg, by altering HPA and CNS systems disrupting behavior...
January 17, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Samuel S Urlacher, Melissa A Liebert, Martina Konečná
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents an important and evolutionarily ancient biological pathway linking physical and psychological stressors with human health. Despite considerable research exploring the physiological stress response among developed populations, few studies have examined HPA activity in non-industrialized contexts, restricting understanding of variation in human stress reactivity across global socio-ecological diversity. The present study addresses this shortcoming by investigating diurnal cortisol rhythms among Garisakang forager-horticulturalists of remote, lowland Papua New Guinea...
December 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Luba Sominsky, Lin Kooi Ong, Ilvana Ziko, Phillip W Dickson, Sarah J Spencer
A poor nutritional environment during early development has long been known to increase disease susceptibility later in life. We have previously shown that rats that are overfed as neonates (i.e. suckled in small litters (4 pups) relative to control conditions (12 pups)) show dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to immune stress in adulthood, particularly due to an altered capacity of the adrenal to respond to an immune challenge. Here we hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding similarly affects the sympathomedullary system, testing this by investigating the biochemical function of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis...
November 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Karen K Ryan, Amy E B Packard, Karlton R Larson, Jayna Stout, Sarah M Fourman, Abigail M K Thompson, Kristen Ludwick, Kirk M Habegger, Kerstin Stemmer, Nobuyuki Itoh, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/ or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis...
October 25, 2017: Endocrinology
Walter Bonfig, Friedhelm Roehl, Stefan Riedl, Jürgen Brämswig, Annette Richter-Unruh, Susanne Fricke-Otto, Angela Hübner, Markus Bettendorf, Eckhard Schönau, Helmut Dörr, Reinhard W Holl, Klaus Mohnike
INTRODUCTION: Sodium chloride supplementation in salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is generally recommended in infants, but its implementation in routine care is very heterogeneous. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oral sodium chloride supplementation, growth, and hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone dose in infants with salt-wasting CAH due to 21-hydroxylase in 311 infants from the AQUAPE CAH database. RESULTS: Of 358 patients with classic CAH born between 1999 and 2015, 311 patients had salt-wasting CAH (133 females, 178 males)...
2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
N Itani, C E Salinas, M Villena, K L Skeffington, C Beck, E Villamor, C E Blanco, D A Giussani
It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Suboptimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Adila Dilixiati, Satoru Koyanagi, Naoki Kusunose, Naoya Matsunaga, Shigehiro Ohdo
Maintenance of circadian rhythms is essential to many aspects of human health, including metabolism and neurological and psychiatric well-being. Chronic disruption of circadian clock function is implicated in increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events and development of cancers. However, there are little approaches to reinforce the function of circadian clock for prevention of these diseases. Essence of Chicken (EC) is a nutritional supplement that is traditionally made by extracting water soluble substances derived from cooking the whole chicken...
August 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Karina Kapczuk
Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes...
October 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
Cun Li, Susan Jenkins, Vicki Mattern, Anthony G Comuzzie, Laura A Cox, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: Most developmental programming studies on maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) are in altricial rodents whose maternal nutritional burden and offspring developmental trajectory differ from precocial non-human primates and humans. METHODS: Control (CTR) baboon mothers ate ad libitum; MNR mothers ate 70% global control diet in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: We present offspring morphometry, blood cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) during second half of gestation (G) and first three postnatal years...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Lucas J Kirschman, Marshall D McCue, Justin G Boyles, Robin W Warne
Variation in environmental conditions during larval life stages can shape development during critical windows and have lasting effects on the adult organism. Changes in larval developmental rates in response to environmental conditions, for example, can trade-off with growth to determine body size and condition at metamorphosis, which can affect adult survival and fecundity. However, it is unclear how use of energy and nutrients shape trade-offs across life stage transitions because no studies have quantified these costs of larval development and metamorphosis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nicole E Beaulieu-McCoy, Kathryn K Sherman, Marisa L Trego, Daniel E Crocker, Nicholas M Kellar
Chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's health and reproductive success. The use of cortisol quantification as an indicator of stress in free-ranging cetaceans and phocids is increasing but no studies have applied this technique on blubber in otariids. We measured cortisol concentrations in blubber samples obtained from California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, stranded in San Diego County and those incidentally killed in the California drift gillnet fishery. We also measured progesterone concentrations to assess female reproductive status and, in males, as a potential secondary measure of adrenal steroid production...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Carolyn R Hodges-Simeon, Sean P Prall, Aaron D Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J C Gaulin
OBJECTIVES: Humans-and several other apes-exhibit a unique pattern of post-natal adrenal maturation; however, the causes and consequences of variation in adrenal development are not well understood. In this study, we examine developmental and age-related maturation of the adrenal gland (measured via dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEA-S]) for potential life-history associations with growth and mucosal immunity in a rural population of immune-challenged Bolivian juveniles and adolescents...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Milene L Brownlow, Seung H Jung, Raquel J Moore, Naomi Bechmann, Ryan Jankord
Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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