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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645967/the-bipolar-illness-onset-study-research-protocol-for-the-bio-cohort-study
#1
Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Munkholm, Maria Faurholt-Jepsen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Claus Ekstrøm, Ole Winther, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Roger S McIntyre, Flavio Kapczinski, Wagner F Gattaz, Jakob Bardram, Mads Frost, Oscar Mayora, Gitte Moos Knudsen, Mary Phillips, Maj Vinberg
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is an often disabling mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of 1%-2%, a high risk of recurrence of manic and depressive episodes, a lifelong elevated risk of suicide and a substantial heritability. The course of illness is frequently characterised by progressive shortening of interepisode intervals with each recurrence and increasing cognitive dysfunction in a subset of individuals with this condition. Clinically, diagnostic boundaries between bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression are unclear although pharmacological and psychological treatment strategies differ substantially...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645806/brugada-syndrome-a-general-cardiologist-s-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Marija M Polovina, Milica Vukicevic, Bojan Banko, Gregory Y H Lip, Tatjana S Potpara
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the commonest inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes typically presenting with arrhythmic syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation precipitated by vagotonia or fever in apparently healthy adults, less frequently in children. The prevalence of the syndrome (0.01%-0.3%) varies among regions and ethnicities, being the highest in Southeast Asia. BrS is diagnosed by the "coved type" ST-segment elevation≥2mm followed by a negative T-wave in ≥1 of the right precordial leads V1-V2...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645572/longitudinal-associations-between-mental-health-conditions-and-overactive-bladder-in-women-veterans
#3
Catherine S Bradley, Ingrid E Nygaard, Stephen L Hillis, James C Torner, Anne G Sadler
BACKGROUND: One in five recently deployed U.S. women veterans report overactive bladder symptoms. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety commonly co-occur in women with overactive bladder, but temporal relationships between these outcomes have not been well-studied, and the mechanism behind this association is unknown. The Women Veterans Urinary Health Study, a nationwide longitudinal study in recently deployed women veterans, was designed to better understand relationships between overactive bladder and mental health conditions...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645564/immunotherapy-holds-the-key-to-cancer-treatment-and-prevention-in-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-cmmrd-syndrome
#4
Harm Westdorp, Sigrid Kolders, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, I Jolanda M de Vries, Marjolijn C J Jongmans, Gerty Schreibelt
Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645242/factors-associated-with-visual-impairment-and-eye-care-utilization-the-international-mobility-in-aging-study
#5
Safari Balegamire, Marie-Josée Aubin, Carmen-Lucia Curcio, Beatriz Alvarado, Ricardo O Guerra, Alban Ylli, Nandini Deshpande, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui
OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with visual impairment (VI) and eye care in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). METHOD: IMIAS data were analyzed ( N = 1,995 with ages 65-74). Outcomes were VI defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 in the better eye and eye care utilization assessed by annual visits to eye care professionals. The Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) questionnaire requested information on domestic violence. RESULTS: Among men, VI varied from 24% in Manizales (Colombia) to 0...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643241/socio-demographic-characteristics-sexual-and-test-seeking-behaviours-amongst-men-who-have-sex-with-both-men-and-women-results-from-a-bio-behavioural-survey-in-13-european-cities
#6
Massimo Mirandola, Lorenzo Gios, Nigel Sherriff, John Pachankis, Igor Toskin, Laia Ferrer, Sónia Dias, Inga Velicko, Danica Staneková, Saulius Caplinskas, Emilia Naseva, Marta Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik
Within the MSM population, men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) are identified as a high-risk group both worldwide and in Europe. In a multi-centred bio-behavioural cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the relationship(s) between socio-demographic factors, stigma, sexual behavioural patterns, test seeking behaviour and sero-status amongst MSMW. A multi-level analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with being MSMW versus Men who have Sex with Men Only (MSMO). A total of 4901 MSM were enrolled across the 13 study sites...
June 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643015/the-role-of-screening-mri-in-the-era-of-next-generation-sequencing-and-moderate-risk-genetic-mutations
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Macklin, Jennifer Gass, Ghada Mitri, Paldeep S Atwal, Stephanie Hines
With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the ability to rapidly analyze numerous genes simultaneously has led to the creation of large cancer gene panels. Some of these genes, like BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been heavily researched and have well-established management guidelines. Other more newly established genes, like ATM, CHEK2, and PALB2, have previously had less robust research surrounding them which has limited the ability to create accurate risk estimates. With their inclusion on gene panels, there has been more pressure to produce management guidelines for patients discovered to carry pathogenic variants in these genes...
June 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642641/inequality-in-human-capital-and-endogenous-credit-constraints
#8
Rong Hai, James J Heckman
This paper investigates the determinants of inequality in human capital with an emphasis on the role of the credit constraints. We develop and estimate a model in which individuals face uninsured human capital risks and invest in education, acquire work experience, accumulate assets and smooth consumption. Agents can borrow from the private lending market and from government student loan programs. The private market credit limit is explicitly derived by extending the natural borrowing limit of Aiyagari (1994) to incorporate endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, psychic costs of working, and age...
April 2017: Review of Economic Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642381/chemical-transformation-of-xenobiotics-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#9
REVIEW
Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P Balskus
The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642253/military-related-sexual-assault-in-canada-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Kimberley Watkins, Rachel Bennett, Mark A Zamorski, Isabelle Richer
BACKGROUND: Most research on military-related sexual assault is based on the United States military and has important limitations, such as low response rates. We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault, assess its relation to military service and identify the circumstances, correlates and associations with mental disorders of military-related sexual assault among Canadian military personnel. METHODS: We used the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional representative survey of Canadian Regular Force personnel (n = 6696)...
June 22, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641217/the-aggressor-at-the-mirror-psychiatric-correlates-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-male-prison-inmates
#11
N Verdolini, A Murru, L Attademo, R Garinella, I Pacchiarotti, C Del Mar Bonnin, L Samalin, L Pauselli, M Piselli, A Tamantini, R Quartesan, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, A Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version...
April 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641148/non-suicidal-self-injury-and-suicide-attempts-in-a-new-zealand-birth-cohort
#12
Daniel D L Coppersmith, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Annette L Beautrais
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts are related, but distinct behaviors. The primary aim of the current study was to identify factors that distinguish those with different lifetime histories of self-injury. A secondary aim was to test whether lifetime history of self-injury at age 26 predicted current suicide ideation at age 32. METHODS: Participants were 26 year olds from a large birth cohort with a lifetime history of no self-injury (n = 466), a lifetime history of NSSI (n = 191), or a lifetime history of NSSI and a suicide attempt (NSSI+SA; n = 52)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640991/a-risk-algorithm-for-the-persistence-of-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-during-college
#13
Philippe Mortier, Glenn Kiekens, Randy P Auerbach, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, Jennifer G Green, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronny Bruffaerts
OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of this study are to (a) identify patterns of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) during college among students with lifetime pre-matriculation STB and (b) develop a risk-screening algorithm for persistence of pre-matriculation STB during college. METHODS: Data come from the Leuven College Surveys, a series of prospective cohort studies of all incoming KU Leuven University freshmen. In the academic year 2012-2013, 4,889 incoming freshmen (73...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640965/atypical-depression-and-double-depression-predict-new-onset-cardiovascular-disease-in-u-s-adults
#14
Stephanie M Case, Manisha Sawhney, Jesse C Stewart
BACKGROUND: Although depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is unknown whether this risk varies across depressive disorder subtypes. Thus, we investigated atypical major depressive disorder (MDD) and double depression as predictors of new-onset CVD in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: Prospective data from 28,726 adults initially free of CVD who participated in Wave 1 (2001-2002) and Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined...
June 22, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640878/genetic-loci-associated-with-coronary-artery-disease-harbor-evidence-of-selection-and-antagonistic-pleiotropy
#15
Sean G Byars, Qin Qin Huang, Lesley-Ann Gray, Andrew Bakshi, Samuli Ripatti, Gad Abraham, Stephen C Stearns, Michael Inouye
Traditional genome-wide scans for positive selection have mainly uncovered selective sweeps associated with monogenic traits. While selection on quantitative traits is much more common, very few signals have been detected because of their polygenic nature. We searched for positive selection signals underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) in worldwide populations, using novel approaches to quantify relationships between polygenic selection signals and CAD genetic risk. We identified new candidate adaptive loci that appear to have been directly modified by disease pressures given their significant associations with CAD genetic risk...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#16
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636577/comorbidity-and-suicidality-in-patients-diagnosed-with-panic-disorder-agoraphobia-and-major-depression
#17
Borjanka Batinic, Goran Opacic, Tijana Ignjatov, David S Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of anxiety and depression (both current and lifetime) is associated with greater chronicity and an increased risk of suicidality. We wished to ascertain which symptom clusters had the strongest association with suicidality. Our aims were (1) to examine the presence of current comorbidity and suicidality in patients diagnosed with panic disorder/agoraphobia (PD/A) and major depression (MD), and their relationship with duration of psychiatric treatment and frequency of hospital admission; and (2) to examine which coexisting symptoms were most strongly predictive of suicidality in sub-groups and the overall group...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635417/suicide-attempts-among-individuals-with-specific-learning-disorders-an-underrecognized-issue
#18
Esme Fuller-Thomson, Samara Z Carroll, Wook Yang
Several studies have linked specific learning disorders (SLDs) with suicidal ideation, but less is known about the disorders' association with suicide attempts. This gap in the literature is addressed via the 2012 nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey ( n = 21,744). The prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts among those with an SLD was much higher than those without (11.1% vs. 2.7%, p < .001). In comparison with their peers without SLDs, adults with SLDs had 46% higher odds of having ever attempted suicide, even after adjusting for most known risk factors (e...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634155/perceptions-of-hiv-seriousness-risk-and-threat-among-online-samples-of-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-seven-countries
#19
Anna N Chard, Nicholas Metheny, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Rates of new HIV infections continue to increase worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite effective prevention strategies such as condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), low usage of both methods in many parts of the world hinder prevention efforts. An individual's perceptions of the risk of acquiring HIV and the seriousness they afford to seroconversion are important drivers of behavioral risk-taking. Understanding the behavioral factors suppressing the uptake of HIV prevention services is a critical step in informing strategies to improve interventions to combat the ongoing HIV pandemic among MSM...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634108/disturbances-of-novel-object-exploration-and-recognition-in-a-chronic-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#20
Maria Jelena Hauser, Dirk Isbrandt, Jochen Roeper
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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