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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731911/expert-and-self-assessment-of-lifetime-symptoms-and-diagnosis-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-large-scale-genetic-studies-in-the-general-population-comparison-of-a-clinical-interview-and-a-self-administered-checklist
#1
Jessica Martin, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Maren Lang, Josef Frank, Andreas J Forstner, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H Witt, Thomas G Schulze, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, Marcella Rietschel, Jana Strohmaier
Major depression disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder and an increasing number of genetic risk variants are being identified. Investigation of their influence in the general population requires accurate and efficient assessment of depressive symptoms. Here, clinical interviews conducted by clinicians are the gold standard. We investigated whether valid and reliable clinical phenotypes can be obtained efficiently using self-administered instruments. Lifetime depressive symptoms and lifetime MDD diagnosis were assessed in 464 population-based individuals using a clinical interview and a structured, self-administered checklist...
July 20, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731778/a-pharmacologic-algorithm-for-youth-who-are-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#2
Christopher D Schneck, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh, Melissa P DelBello, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVE: Depression and brief periods of manic symptoms are linked to a significant risk of progression to bipolar disorder (BD) in children who have a first-degree relative with BD I or II. However, little evidence exists to guide the pharmacologic management of children with these high-risk phenotypes. We propose a pharmacological treatment algorithm for high-risk youth and present results on its use in a study of children with a first-degree relative with BD. METHODS: Subjects were 40 youth (mean 12...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731200/suicidal-self-directed-violence-among-homeless-us-veterans-a-systematic-review
#3
Adam S Hoffberg, Elizabeth Spitzer, Jessica L Mackelprang, Samantha A Farro, Lisa A Brenner
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate suicidal self-directed violence and homelessness among US military veterans, and identify existing suicide prevention strategies. In November 2015, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google, and Google Scholar were searched. Articles published since 1990 investigating self-directed violence among homeless veterans were identified. Data were extracted and synthesized qualitatively. Nineteen observational studies were included...
July 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728796/-lifetime-psychiatric-disorders-a-comparision-study-between-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-type-i-versus-the-offspring-of-community-controls-parents
#4
Juan David Palacio-Ortiz, Cristian Esteban Peña-Quintero, María Alejandra Gómez-Valero, Paula Andrea Bustamante-Gómez, Pilar Helena Arroyave-Sierra, Cristian David Vargas-Upeguí, Carlos López-Jaramillo
INTRODUCTION: Literature reports show that Bipolar Offspring (BO) present with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Comparison between BO and Control Parent Offspring (CPO) may help to identify which psychopathological findings are specific to this high-risk group. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychopathological characteristics between a group of BO type-I and a group of CPO, by identifying the presence of psychiatric disorders according the DSM-IV-TR. METHODS: A descriptive-correlational, cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted with 127 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder type-I from the multimodal intervention program (PRISMA) and with 150 CPO between 6 and 30 years of age...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728096/early-life-stress-explains-reduced-positive-memory-biases-in-remitted-depression
#5
J A Gethin, K E Lythe, C I Workman, A Mayes, J Moll, R Zahn
BACKGROUND: There is contradictory evidence regarding negative memory biases in major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether these persist into remission, which would suggest their role as vulnerability traits rather than correlates of mood state. Early life stress (ELS), common in patients with psychiatric disorders, has independently been associated with memory biases, and confounds MDD versus control group comparisons. Furthermore, in most studies negative biases could have resulted from executive impairments rather than memory difficulties per se...
July 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726432/-news-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension-and-dyslipidemia
#6
Jan Václavík
These review article presents the results of major recent studies in cardiovascular prevention. HOPE-3 study showed that people with medium cardiovascular risk who have not experienced a cardiovascular event, and have normal blood pressure, benefit from deploying a statin, and in the presence of hypertension benefit from deploying a combination of a statin and antihypertensive drugs. Studies evaluating genetic predisposition brought new evidence that both LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure are independent and multiplicative causal risk factors for cardiovascular events...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725992/social-profile-of-middle-school-aged-adolescents-who-use-electronic-cigarettes-implications-for-primary-prevention
#7
Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Michael J Mann, Megan L Smith, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir
Electronic cigarette (EC) use continues to increase among adolescents. From a primary prevention point of view, an important gap in our knowledge includes determining whether young smokers that use EC maintain a distinct social profile from kids who use combustible cigarettes (CC). Survey data from middle school students in West Virginia, USA were collected between September and November of 2015 (N = 6547, response rate 84.7%) as part of a state wide school-based mental health intervention program. Data was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression for categorical data...
July 18, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724431/biological-embedding-of-childhood-adversity-from-physiological-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Anne E Berens, Sarah K G Jensen, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes "biologically embedded" in altered physiology across body systems...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724422/assessment-of-eating-disorders-with-the-diabetes-eating-problems-survey-revised-deps-r-in-a-representative-sample-of-insulin-treated-diabetic-patients-a-validation-study-in-italy
#9
Federica Pinna, Enrica Diana, Lucia Sanna, Valeria Deiana, Mirko Manchia, Eraldo Nicotra, Andrea Fiorillo, Umberto Albert, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Silvia Ferrari, Federica Medda, Maria Gloria Atzeni, Daniela Manca, Elisa Mascia, Fernando Farci, Mariangela Ghiani, Rossella Cau, Marta Tuveri, Efisio Cossu, Elena Loy, Alessandra Mereu, Stefano Mariotti, Bernardo Carpiniello
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate in a sample of insulin-treated diabetic patients, with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the DEPS-R scale, a diabetes-specific self-report questionnaire used to analyze disordered eating behaviors. METHODS: The study was performed on 211 consecutive insulin-treated diabetic patients attending two specialist centers. Lifetime prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria were assessed by means of the Module H of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorder and the Module H modified, according to DSM-5 criteria...
July 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723949/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-other-mental-disorders-in-the-general-population-after-lorca-s-earthquakes-2011-murcia-spain-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Diego Salmerón, Gemma Vilagut, Mª José Tormo, Guadalupe Ruíz-Merino, Teresa Escámez, Javier Júdez, Salvador Martínez, Karestan C Koenen, Carmen Navarro, Jordi Alonso, Ronald C Kessler
AIMS: To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011) of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 -May 2012). METHODS: The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723266/age-of-initiation-psychopathology-and-other-substance-use-are-associated-with-time-to-use-disorder-diagnosis-in-persons-using-opioids-nonmedically
#11
Ty S Schepis, Jahn K Hakes
BACKGROUND: Nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is an ongoing public health challenge, as NMUPO is associated with psychopathology, other drug use and fatal overdose. These concomitant risks are greatest in those with opioid use disorder (OUD), but the development of NMUPO-related use disorder is poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to establish factors associated with the development of and time to OUD among persons engaged in NMUPO. METHODS: Data were from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with 1,755 participants endorsing lifetime NMUPO...
July 19, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722586/continuous-excretion-of-leptospira-borgpetersenii-ballum-in-mice-assessed-by-viability-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#12
Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Emilie Bierque, Sophie Geroult, Magali Teurlai, Cyrille Goarant
Rodents are the main reservoir animals of leptospirosis. In this study, we characterized and quantified the urinary excretion dynamics of Leptospira by Mus musculus infected with 2 × 10(8) virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum. Each micturition was collected separately in metabolic cages, at 12 time points from 7 to 117 days post-infection (dpi). We detected Leptospira in all urine samples collected (up to 8 per time point per mouse) proving that Leptospira excretion is continuous with ca. 90% live L...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722537/attention-bias-to-threat-in-mothers-with-emotional-disorders-predicts-increased-offspring-anxiety-symptoms-a-joint-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis
#13
Allison M Waters, Elise M Candy, Steven G Candy
There is convincing evidence of the transmission of anxiety and depression from parents to children; however, mechanisms by which this vulnerability is passed on are unclear. Cognitive models and a small body of cross-sectional research suggest that parental attention biases (ABs) may be one mechanism involved in transmission. Longitudinal associations of maternal and offspring ABs with offspring symptoms have been scarcely studied. Forty-three mothers-child dyads were included. All children (7-12 years old) were diagnosis-free while 24 mothers had a lifetime emotional disorder (anxiety or depression) (high risk, HR) and 19 mothers had no psychiatric diagnoses (low risk, LR)...
July 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721947/removal-of-scatter-radiation-in-paediatric-cardiac-catheterisation-a-randomised-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
Richard Gould, Sonyia L McFadden, Andrew J Sands, Brian A McCrossan, Simon Horn, Kevin M Prise, Philip Doyle, Ciara M Hughes
This study sought to determine if DNA integrity was compromised by ionising radiation from paediatric cardiac catheterisations and if dose optimisation techniques allowed DNA integrity to be maintained. Materials and Methods: Children were imaged using either: (i) an anti-scatter grid (current departmental protocol), (ii) no anti-scatter grid or, (iii) no anti-scatter grid and a 15 cm air-gap between the child and the X-ray detector. Dose area product and image quality were assessed, lifetime attributable cancer risk estimates were calculated and DNA double-strand breakages quantified using the γH2AX assay...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721757/higher-childhood-intelligence-linked-to-longer-life
#15
(no author information available yet)
Higher intelligence in childhood is associated with lower lifetime risk of major causes of death, including heart disease, stroke, smoking-related cancers, respiratory disease and dementia.
July 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720457/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-seroprevalence-in-men-and-women-of-six-different-ethnicities-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands-the-helius-study
#16
C J Alberts, A Michel, S Bruisten, M B Snijder, M Prins, T Waterboer, M F Schim van der Loeff
BACKGROUND: Ethnic variations in the (sero)prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV related diseases have been observed previously. We explored if high-risk HPV (hrHPV) seropositivity indeed differs among 6 ethnic groups in Amsterdam the Netherlands and assessed if hrHPV seroprevalence is higher among women than men within each ethnic group, both after adjustment for confounders. METHODS: From the multi-ethnic HEalthy Life In an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) we randomly selected 4637 men and women aged 18-44 years with a Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Moroccan, or Turkish ethnicity...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719727/the-ability-of-a-single-bmd-and-fracture-history-assessment-to-predict-fracture-over-25-years-in-postmenopausal-women-the-study-of-osteoporotic-fractures
#17
Dennis M Black, Jane A Cauley, Rachel Wagman, Kristine Ensrud, Howard A Fink, Teresa A Hillier, Li-Yung Lui, Steven R Cummings, John T Schousboe, Nicola Napoli
The ability of bone mineral density (BMD) and other risk factors to predict fracture risk is well-established for as long as 5 to 10 years. However, their value to predict risk over a longer term has not been directly studied. We investigated whether a single assessment of femoral neck BMD and fracture history can predict fracture risk over 20 to 25 years. We used data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) that assessed BMD and risk factors in 7959 women age ≥67 (mean = 73.4) in 1988-1990. Follow-up for fractures continued for 25 years for hip fracture, and for 20 years for any nonvertebral fracture...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719421/lifelong-estradiol-exposure-and-risk-of-depressive-symptoms-during-the-transition-to-menopause-and-postmenopause
#18
Wendy K Marsh, Joyce T Bromberger, Sybil L Crawford, Katherine Leung, Howard M Kravitz, John F Randolph, Hadine Joffe, Claudio N Soares
OBJECTIVE: Depression risk increases during the menopausal transition (MT) and initial postmenopausal years-both times of significant fluctuations of estrogen. Research to date provides limited support for the hypothesis that estrogen fluctuations play a role in the greater susceptibility to midlife depression. Importantly, not all women report depressive symptoms during the MT, and recent reports suggest that duration of exposure to estradiol throughout the adult years may also play a role in vulnerability to depression...
July 17, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719013/in-an-era-of-highly-effective-treatment-hepatitis-c-screening-of-the-general-population-of-the-united-states-for-hepatitis-c-should-be-considered
#19
Zobair Younossi, Deidre Blissett, Rob Blissett, Linda Henry, Youssef Younossi, Rachel Beckerman, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with all oral direct acting antiviral agents (DAA's) achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 98%. Re-assessment of general US population screening for HCV is imperative. This study compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of three HCV screening strategies: screen all (SA), screen Birth Cohort (BCS), and screen high risks (HRS). METHODS: Using a previous designed decision-analytic Markov model, estimations of the natural history of HCV and CE evaluation of the three HCV screening strategies over a lifetime horizon in the US population was undertaken...
July 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718980/an-endogenous-dna-adduct-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-for-hepatocarcinogenesis-and-its-prevention-by-theaphenon-e-in-mice
#20
Ying Fu, Shana Silverstein, Justine N McCutcheon, Marcin Dyba, Raghu G Nath, Monika Aggarwal, Heidi Coia, Angela Bai, Jishen Pan, Jiji Jiang, Bhaskar Kallakury, Hongkun Wang, Yu-Wen Zhang, Giuseppe Giaccone, Aiwu Ruth He, Fung-Lung Chung
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, mainly because of its poor prognosis. A valid mechanism-based prognostic biomarker is urgently needed. γ-hydroxy-1,N(2) -propanodeoxyguanosine (γ-OHPdG) is an endogenously formed mutagenic DNA adduct derived from lipid peroxidation (LPO). We examined the relationship of γ-OHPdG with hepatocarcinogenesis in two animal models and its potential role as a prognostic biomarker for recurrence in HCC patients. Bioassays were conducted in the Xeroderma pigmentosum group A knockout mice (Xpa(-/-) ), and the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-injected mice, both prone to HCC development...
July 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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