Read by QxMD icon Read

Rif xpert for tuberculosis

Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Tracy McMillen, Shauna C Usiak, Liang Hua Chen, Luz Gomez, Peter Ntiamoah, Meera R Hameed, Indre Budvytiene, Niaz Banaei, Mini Kamboj, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES In this study, we sought to evaluate the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid) assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA on fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from oncology patients in an area with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. We also aimed to retrospectively assess the potential impact of Xpert MTB/RIF on the duration of airborne infection isolation (AII). SETTING A 473-bed, tertiary-care cancer center in New York City. DESIGN A total of 203 tissue samples (101 FFPE and 102 fresh) were tested using Xpert MTB/RIF, including 133 pulmonary tissue samples (65...
February 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Alfred Tonganibeia, Anthony D Harries, Onofre Edwin A Merilles, Tekaibeti Tarataake, Teatao Tiira, Takeieta Kienene
The Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, has the largest tuberculosis epidemic in the region. There is a national tuberculosis control program, which has used smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli as the main diagnostic tool for many years. In 2015, an Xpert MTB/RIF machine was procured and became functional within the tuberculosis hospital. The aim of this cross-sectional study, using routinely collected data, was to determine the effects of introducing Xpert MTB/RIF on laboratory smear microscopy practices and the pattern of registered tuberculosis cases...
February 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
S H Wang, D W Zheng, Y K Zhu, X G Ma, J Shi, X C Ou, H Li, J Xing, Y L Zhao
Objective: To compare the efficacies of cross priming amplification (CPA) and RealAmp with XpertMTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB) at peripheral microscopic centers. Methods: From December of 2014 to December of 2015, 3 193 patients suspected with TB were enrolled consecutively at 3 county level TB clinical clinics in Zhongmu, Xinmi and Dengzhou of Henan province. Totally 3 193 collected sputum samples were detected by smear microscopy, L-J media culture, CPA, RealAmp and Xpert MTB/RIF...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Yanjun Lu, Yaowu Zhu, Na Shen, Lei Tian, Ziyong Sun
OBJECTIVE: Limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) have been reported in China. Therefore, we designed a retrospective study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and microbiological characteristics of 238 PTB-suspected patients were retrospectively reviewed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of active PTB were calculated for the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay using TB culture or final diagnosis based on clinical and radiological evaluation as a reference standard...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
A L García-Basteiro, A DiNardo, B Saavedra, D R Silva, D Palmero, M Gegia, G B Migliori, R Duarte, E Mambuque, R Centis, L E Cuevas, S Izco, G Theron
The goals of the End TB strategy, which aims to achieve a 90% reduction in tuberculosis (TB) incidence and a 95% reduction in TB mortality by 2035, will not be achieved without new tools to fight TB. These include improved point of care (POC) diagnostic tests that are meant to be delivered at the most decentralised levels of care where the patients make the initial contact with the health system, as well as within the community. These tests should be able to be performed on an easily accessible sample and provide results in a timely manner, allowing a quick treatment turnaround time of a few minutes or hours (in a single clinical encounter), hence avoiding patient loss-to-follow-up...
February 6, 2018: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Denise Rossato Silva, Giovanni Sotgiu, Lia D'Ambrosio, Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Laura Saderi, Rosella Centis, Giovanni Battista Migliori
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As for all tests, the diagnostic performances of Xpert MTB/RIF might be different in settings with different tuberculosis prevalence. Aim of the study is to evaluate the performances of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose tuberculosis in Brazil, where 407 culture-confirmed tuberculosis patients were retrospectively enrolled in Rio Grande do Sul, between 2015 and 2016. METHODS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test were calculated and a logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the role played by explanatory variables in the occurrence of true positive and negative diagnostic results...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Thu Hang Pham, Jonathan Peter, Fernanda C Q Mello, Tommy Parraga, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Pamela Nabeta, Eloise Valli, Tatiana Caceres, Keertan Dheda, Susan E Dorman, Doris Hillemann, Christen M Gray, Mark D Perkins
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of TB-LAMP, a manual molecular tuberculosis (TB) detection method, and provide comparison to the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. METHODS: In a large multicentre study, two sputum samples were collected from participants with TB symptoms in reference laboratories in Peru, South Africa, Brazil, and Vietnam. Each sample was tested with TB-LAMP. The reference standard consisted of four direct smears, four cultures, and clinical and radiological findings...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
R Rakotoarivelo, J Ambrosioni, V Rasolofo, M Raberahona, N Rakotosamimanana, R Andrianasolo, R Ramanampamonjy, M Tiaray, J Razafimahefa, J Rakotoson, M Randria, F Bonnet, A Calmy
SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in Madagascar. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of a commercial rapid molecular diagnosis test (Xpert MTB/RIF) for the routine diagnosis of smear-negative or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its diagnostic accuracy, and to assess HIV prevalence in this population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all consecutive cases with suspected smear-negative and/or extra-pulmonary TB over a two-year period...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Max W Adelman, Deborah A McFarland, Mulugeta Tsegaye, Abraham Aseffa, Russell R Kempker, Henry M Blumberg
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends active tuberculosis (TB) case finding and a rapid molecular diagnostic test (Xpert MTB/RIF) to detect TB among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in high-burden settings. Information on the cost-effectiveness of these recommended strategies is crucial for their implementation. Methods: We conducted a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing 2 algorithms for TB screening and diagnosis at Ethiopian HIV clinics: (1) WHO-recommended symptom screen combined with Xpert for PLHIV with a positive symptom screen and (2) current recommended practice algorithm (CRPA; based on symptom screening, smear microscopy, and clinical TB diagnosis)...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kerrigan McCarthy, Katherine Fielding, Gavin J Churchyard, Alison D Grant
BACKGROUND: The extent and circumstances under which empiric tuberculosis (TB) treatment (treatment without microbiological confirmation at treatment initiation) is administered in primary health care settings in South Africa are not well described. METHODS: We used data from a pragmatic evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF in which persons undergoing TB investigations by PHC nurses were followed for six months. Following Xpert or smear-microscopy at enrolment, investigations for tuberculosis were undertaken at the discretion of health care workers...
2018: PloS One
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Chang Liu, Christopher J Lyon, Yang Bu, Zaian Deng, Elisabetta Walters, Yan Li, Liqun Zhang, Anneke C Hesseling, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB)10 cases primarily relies on methods that detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacilli or their DNA in patient samples (e.g., mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assays), but these tests have low clinical sensitivity for patients with paucibacillary TB disease. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical performance of a newly developed assay that can rapidly diagnose active TB cases by direct detection of Mtb-derived antigens in patients' blood samples...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Grant Theron, Rouxjeane Venter, Liezel Smith, Aliasgar Esmail, Philippa Randall, Vishesh Sood, Suzette Oelfese, Greg Calligaro, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
Introduction: Globally, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the most widely-used PCR test for tuberculosis (TB). Positive results in previously-treated patients, which are due to old DNA or active disease, are a diagnostic dilemma.Materials and methods: We prospectively re-tested sputum from 238 patients, irrespective of current symptoms, who were previously-diagnosed as Xpert-positive and treated successfully. Patients who re-tested as Xpert-positive, culture-negative were exhaustively investigated (repeated culture, chest radiography, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, long-term clinical follow-up)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
C Broderick, S Hopkins, D J F Mack, W Aston, R Pollock, J A Skinner, S Warren
AIMS: Tuberculosis (TB) infection of bones and joints accounts for 6.7% of TB cases in England, and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Public Health England reports that patients with TB experience delays in diagnosis and treatment. Our aims were to determine the demographics, presentation and investigation of patients with a TB infection of bones and joints, to help doctors assessing potential cases and to identify avoidable delays. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of all adults with positive TB cultures on specimens taken at a tertiary orthopaedic centre between June 2012 and May 2014...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Peter M Mbelele, Said Aboud, Stellah G Mpagama, Mecky I Matee
BACKGROUND: The introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) has significantly improved diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in resource limited human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic settings. We aimed to modify the Xpert protocol to improve the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients at Kibong'oto Infectious Diseases Hospital between August and November 2015...
December 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Van Anh Thi Nguyen, Hung Van Nguyen, Thuong Van Dinh, Ha Hoang Du, Chinh Nhu Do, Guy B Marks, Nhung Viet Nguyen
The Loopamp™MTBC detection kit (TB-LAMP) was designed to replace the sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. We evaluated its performance at a peripheral laboratory in Vietnam. The sensitivity of TB-LAMP was 45.5% (28.1%-63.6%), which was equal to 3-sputum smear microscopy but lower than that of Xpert MTB/RIF (87.8% [71.8%-96.6%]). In patients with culture-confirmed TB, sensitivity was 80% (51.9%-95.7%) in smear-positive and 16.7% (3.5%-41.4%) in smear-negative cases. The specificity of TB-LAMP was 95...
November 21, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Emily A Kendall, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but still suffers from imperfect sensitivity. The newer Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridge has shown improved sensitivity in recent field trials, but at the expense of reduced specificity. The clinical implications of switching from the existing Xpert cartridge to the Xpert Ultra cartridge in different populations remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a Markov microsimulation model of hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 individuals undergoing diagnostic sputum evaluation with Xpert for suspected pulmonary TB, in each of 3 emblematic settings: an HIV clinic in South Africa, a public TB center in India, and an adult primary care setting in China...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
Raghuprakash Reddy, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect mutations in rpoB gene that confer rifampicin resistance (RR) using five overlapping probes (A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we described our experience with the Xpert assay in a rural setting in India. During the study period, 3250 samples were processed. The result was unsuccessful in 5.7% of cases. For extrapulmonary specimens, the risk of unsuccessful result was higher in tissue biopsy and stool samples. Among samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampicin resistance was indeterminate in 1...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"