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Rif xpert for tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240766/estimated-clinical-impact-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-cartridge-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-modeling-study
#1
Emily A Kendall, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but still suffers from imperfect sensitivity. The newer Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridge has shown improved sensitivity in recent field trials, but at the expense of reduced specificity. The clinical implications of switching from the existing Xpert cartridge to the Xpert Ultra cartridge in different populations remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a Markov microsimulation model of hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 individuals undergoing diagnostic sputum evaluation with Xpert for suspected pulmonary TB, in each of 3 emblematic settings: an HIV clinic in South Africa, a public TB center in India, and an adult primary care setting in China...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225973/molecular-epidemiology-of-rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-from-a-rural-setting-in-india
#2
Raghuprakash Reddy, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can detect mutations in rpoB gene that confer rifampicin resistance (RR) using five overlapping probes (A, B, C, D, and E). In this study, we described our experience with the Xpert assay in a rural setting in India. During the study period, 3250 samples were processed. The result was unsuccessful in 5.7% of cases. For extrapulmonary specimens, the risk of unsuccessful result was higher in tissue biopsy and stool samples. Among samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rifampicin resistance was indeterminate in 1...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214755/comparative-evaluation-of-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-detecting-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#3
Chang Ki Kim, Eun A Cho, Dong Mi Shin, Sung Won Choi, So Youn Shin
BACKGROUND: Early detection of tuberculosis (TB) is challenging in resource-poor settings because of limited accessibility to molecular diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification kit (TB-LAMP) for TB diagnosis compared with conventional and molecular tests. METHODS: A total of 290 consecutive sputum samples were collected from May till September, 2015. All samples were processed using the N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) NaOH method and tested by smear microscopy, solid and liquid culture, real-time PCR, and TB-LAMP...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208074/the-impact-of-implementing-a-xpert-mtb-rif-algorithm-on-drug-sensitive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-analysis
#4
K Rees, N Muditambi, M Maswanganyi, J Railton, J A McIntyre, H E Struthers, P B Fourie, R P H Peters
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the preferred first-line test for all persons with tuberculosis (TB) symptoms in South Africa in line with a diagnostic algorithm. This study evaluates pre- and post-implementation trends in diagnostic practices for drug-sensitive, pulmonary TB in adults in an operational setting, following the introduction of the Xpert-based algorithm. We retrospectively analysed data from the national TB database for Greater Tzaneen sub-district, Limpopo Province. Trends in a number of cases, diagnosis and outcome and characteristics associated with death are reported...
December 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201657/tuberculosis-among-migrants-in-bishkek-the-capital-of-the-kyrgyz-republic
#5
O Goncharova, O Denisiuk, R Zachariah, K Davtyan, D Nabirova, C Acosta, A Kadyrov
Setting: Twenty-two first-line, two second-line and one tertiary health facility in Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan. Objectives: Among migrants, a marginalised population at risk for acquiring and transmitting tuberculosis (TB), we determined the proportion with TB among all registered TB cases. For those registered at primary-level facilities, we then reported on their demographic and clinical profiles and TB treatment outcomes. Design: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 2012-2013 programme data...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201654/increasing-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-uptake-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-papua-new-guinea
#6
A Carmone, C A Rodriguez, T D Frank, M Kiromat, P W Bongi, R G Kuno, T Palou, M F Franke
Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Papua New Guinea. Despite a policy for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among PLHIV, implementation has been slow. Objective: We prospectively evaluated a standardized guided screening process, including TB diagnostic support, to increase IPT initiation in adult PLHIV on antiretro-viral treatment. Design: The guided process included a paper-based IPT screening tool that prompted review of patient history and TB symptoms and sputum analysis by smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198911/xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-a-prospective-multicentre-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#7
Susan E Dorman, Samuel G Schumacher, David Alland, Pamela Nabeta, Derek T Armstrong, Bonnie King, Sandra L Hall, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Daniela M Cirillo, Nestani Tukvadze, Nino Bablishvili, Wendy Stevens, Lesley Scott, Camilla Rodrigues, Mubin I Kazi, Moses Joloba, Lydia Nakiyingi, Mark P Nicol, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Irene Anyango, Wilfred Murithi, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Lyrio Peres, Alena Skrahina, Vera Auchynka, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Mahmud Hanif, Xin Liu, Xing Yuan, Catharina C Boehme, Jerrold J Ellner, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil)...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194073/update-on-trends-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#8
Samantha Fry, Shaun Barnabas, Mark F Cotton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although tuberculosis (TB) causes much morbidity and mortality in children, diagnosis and treatment remain challenging. Recently, children have gained increasing attention in research and clinical trials driving improved contact management, case identification and treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. This review highlights some recent advances. RECENT FINDINGS: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used test to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174612/mortality-and-its-determinants-in-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-hiv-infected-children-with-suspected-tuberculosis-an-observational-cohort-study
#9
Olivier Marcy, Mathurin Tejiokem, Philippe Msellati, Khanh Truong Huu, Viet Do Chau, Duong Tran Ngoc, Boubacar Nacro, Francis Ateba-Ndongo, Suzie Tetang-Ndiang, Vibol Ung, Bunnet Dim, Leakhena Neou, Laureline Berteloot, Laurence Borand, Christophe Delacourt, Stéphane Blanche
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, but is difficult to diagnose. We studied mortality and its determinants in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-infected children presenting with suspected tuberculosis. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, HIV-infected children aged 13 years or younger with suspected tuberculosis were followed up for 6 months as part of the ANRS 12229 PAANTHER 01 cohort in eight hospitals in four countries (Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, and Vietnam)...
November 23, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172708/a-comparative-study-on-the-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-testing-different-types-of-spinal-tuberculosis-tissue-specimens
#10
Liang Tang, Shiqing Feng, Ruixiao Gao, Chenfu Han, Xiaochen Sun, Yucheng Bao, Wenlong Zhang
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to compare the role of the commercial Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampin (MTB/RIF) test in testing different types of spinal tuberculosis (TB) tissue specimens. METHODS: Pus, granulation tissue, and caseous necrotic tissue specimens from 223 patients who were diagnosed with spinal TB and who underwent curettage were collected for bacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to calculate the positive rate. Bacterial culture and phenotypic drug sensitivity testing (pDST) were adopted as the gold standards to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert bacterial detection and drug resistance (DR) test...
November 27, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165509/-evaluation-of-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-technique-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-detection-in-extra-respiratory-specimens
#11
Patricia García, M Elvira Balcells, Claudia Castillo, Carolina Miranda, Enrique Geoffroy, Juan C Román, Aniela Wozniak
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) represents the 26.2% of total TB cases in Chile. Culture is the gold standard method, but the process is extremely slow. Xpert®MTB/RIF technique detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) through real time PCR in less than 3 h. However, it has been validated only for respiratory specimens. We aimed to determine the performance of Xpert®MTB/RIF test in detecting MTBc in extra-respiratory specimens compared with a combined gold standard consisting in a positive (liquid and solid) mycobacterial culture and/or a positive validated molecular method (q-RPC, Cobas®TaqMan®-MTB)...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133554/what-is-resistance-impact-of-phenotypic-versus-molecular-drug-resistance-testing-on-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-therapy
#12
Jan Heyckendorf, Sönke Andres, Claudio U Köser, Ioana D Olaru, Thomas Schön, Erik Sturegård, Patrick Beckert, Viola Schleusener, Thomas A Kohl, Doris Hillemann, Danesh Moradigaravand, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, Stefan Niemann, Christoph Lange, Matthias Merker
Rapid and accurate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) is essential for the treatment of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). We compared the utility of genotypic DST assays with phenotypic DST (pDST) using BACTEC 960 MGIT or Löwenstein-Jensen to construct M/XDR-TB treatment regimens for a cohort of 25 consecutive M/XDR-TB patients and 15 possible anti-TB drugs.Genotypic DST results from Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and line probe assays (LPAs: Hain GenoType MTBDRplus 2.0 and MTBDRsl 2...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126226/optimizing-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-inpatients-meeting-the-criteria-of-seriously-ill-in-the-who-algorithm
#13
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Mark P Nicol, Andre P Kengne, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: The WHO algorithm for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in seriously ill HIV-infected patients lacks a firm evidence base. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the diagnostic utility of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in seriously ill HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among HIV-infected inpatients with any cough duration and WHO-defined danger signs. Culture-positive tuberculosis from any site was the reference standard...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#14
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109010/a-novel-isothermal-amplification-based-method-to-detect-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#15
Dongxin Liu, Bing Zhao, Xichao Ou, Huiwen Zheng, Aijing Ma, Wencong He, Shengfen Wang, Yang Zhou, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Ping Hou, Guangxue He, Yanlin Zhao
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to tuberculosis control and prevention. A series of diagnostic methods has been available for MTB detection; however, new rapid, simple and affordable methods are needed. In this study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA)-based assay was developed to detect the IS6110 gene of the M. tuberculosis complex. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), a colorimetric indicator, was used to detect amplification products...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093504/mycobacterial-genomic-dna-from-used-xpert-mtb-rif-cartridges-can-be-utilised-for-accurate-second-line-genotypic-drug-susceptibility-testing-and-spoligotyping
#16
Rouxjeane Venter, Brigitta Derendinger, Margaretha de Vos, Samantha Pillay, Tanya Dolby, John Simpson, Natasha Kitchin, Ashley Ruiters, Paul D van Helden, Robin M Warren, Grant Theron
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is a widely-used test for tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin-resistance. Second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), which is recommended by policymakers, typically requires additional specimen collection that delays effective treatment initiation. We examined whether cartridge extract (CE) from used Xpert TB-positive cartridges was, without downstream DNA extraction or purification, suitable for both genotypic DST (MTBDRplus, MTBDRsl), which may permit patients to rapidly receive a XDR-TB diagnosis from a single specimen, and spoligotyping, which could facilitate routine genotyping...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091135/an-evaluation-of-false-positive-rifampicin-resistance-on-the-xpert-mtb-rif
#17
Yeliz Tanriverdi Cayci, Kemal Bilgin, Ahmet Yilmaz Coban, Asuman Birinci, Belma Durupınar
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most significant causes of mortality and morbidity. Early diagnose is important especially in multiple drug resistant tuberculosis to avoid transmission. Traditional techniques requires at least one to three weeks for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Diagnostic delays with multiple drug resistant tuberculosis are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased transmission The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is one of the new diagnostic device for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and rapid detection of rifampicin resistance...
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053085/rifampicin-resistance-and-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-using-xpert-mtb-rif-in-wuhan-china-a-retrospective-study
#18
Hai Huang, Yanlin Zhang, Sheng Li, Jun Wang, Jun Chen, Zhiyun Pan, Hui Gan
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) can simultaneously detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA and rifampicin (RFP) resistance and can rapidly determine RFP resistance and predict multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In this study, we analyzed clinical examination results of a hospital specializing in TB treatment in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and examined the use of traditional culture and drug-sensitive test (DST) results as a gold standard to assess the diagnosis value of the Xpert MTB/RIF test in RFP resistance and MDR-TB...
October 20, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050773/detection-of-mycobacterial-infection-in-non-human-primates-using-the-xpert-mtb-rif-molecular-assay
#19
Duanne Alves da Silva, Amanda M Rêgo, Nicole V Ferreira, Manoela A S de Andrade, Aline R Campelo, Paulo César S Caldas, Márcia Aparecida S Pereira, Paulo Redner, Lucindo C de Pina, Felipe C Resende, Thalita A Pissinatti, Claudia A A Lopes, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Javier A S Perea, Igo V de Souza, Fábio A da Silva, Carla F Campos, Fátima C O Fandinho Montes, L Caetano M Antunes
Tuberculosis is a major public health concern, and diagnostic strategies applied to animal populations are scarce. As part of ongoing efforts to control tuberculosis dissemination at our animal facility, two non-human primates (NHP, Saimiri sciureus) presenting cutaneous lesions were examined for mycobacterial infection. Both animals tested positive for acid-fast bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a molecular assay (IS6110 PCR). Animals were euthanized and several samples were tested for M. tuberculosis using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037293/community-based-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-rural-western-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
C Chen, C-G Yang, X Gao, Z-Z Lu, F-X Tang, J Cheng, Q Gao, V Cárdenas
SETTING: Current passive case finding strategies are not effective at identifying tuberculosis (TB) patients in rural China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a community-based, active case finding (ACF) scheme in identifying symptomatic individuals with TB. DESIGN: We conducted door-to-door household visits of all residents aged 15 years at two rural sites to screen for TB symptoms. Individuals with symptoms were enrolled and asked to provide three sputum samples...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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