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Rif xpert for tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037293/community-based-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-rural-western-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
C Chen, C-G Yang, X Gao, Z-Z Lu, F-X Tang, J Cheng, Q Gao, V Cárdenas
SETTING: Current passive case finding strategies are not effective at identifying tuberculosis (TB) patients in rural China. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a community-based, active case finding (ACF) scheme in identifying symptomatic individuals with TB. DESIGN: We conducted door-to-door household visits of all residents aged 15 years at two rural sites to screen for TB symptoms. Individuals with symptoms were enrolled and asked to provide three sputum samples...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037292/accuracy-of-giant-african-pouched-rats-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-comparison-with-culture-and-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#2
C Mulder, G F Mgode, H Ellis, E Valverde, N Beyene, C Cox, S E Reid, A H Van't Hoog, T L Edwards
SETTING: Enhanced tuberculosis (TB) case finding using detection rats in Tanzania. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of detection rats compared with culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF, and to compare enhanced case-finding algorithms using rats in smear-negative presumptive TB patients. DESIGN: A fully paired diagnostic accuracy study in which sputum of new adult presumptive TB patients in Tanzania was tested using smear microscopy, 11 detection rats, culture and Xpert...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#3
Sylvia M LaCourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM )...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026323/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Hai Wen, Pengzhi Li, Hong Ma, Guohua Lv
OBJECTIVES: Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a rapid and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification test, has been reported for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) in current years. This meta-analysis aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for the detection of musculoskeletal TB and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang for original articles published up to 1st June 2017 to identify studies in which the Xpert assay was applied to diagnose musculoskeletal TB...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020319/tuberculosis-case-finding-with-combined-rapid-point-of-care-assays-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-and-lam-in-hiv-positive-individuals-starting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-mozambique
#5
Marco Floridia, Fausto Ciccacci, Mauro Andreotti, Archa Hassane, Zita Sidumo, Nurja A Magid, Horacio Sotomane, Muhlavasse David, Elsa Mutemba, Junia Cebola, Remigio Josè Mugunhe, Fabio Riccardi, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Sandro Mancinelli
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health concern in several countries, and effective diagnostic algorithms in HIV+ patients are urgently needed. Methods: At prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART), all patients of three Mozambican health centres were screened for TB, with a combined approach: the WHO 4-symptom screening (fever, cough, night sweats, weight loss) (WHO-4SS), a rapid test detecting mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan in urine (LAM), and a molecular assay on sputum (Xpert® MTB/RIF, repeated if first result was negative)...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016684/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-rifampin-resistance-in-a-low-incidence-high-resource-setting
#6
Jason P Rice, Marva Seifert, Kathleen S Moser, Timothy C Rodwell
Performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampin (RIF) resistance, has been well documented in low-resource settings with high TB-incidence. However, few studies have assessed its accuracy in low TB incidence settings. We evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF using clinical sputum specimens routinely collected from suspect pulmonary TB patients over a 4-year time period in San Diego County, California. Xpert MTB/RIF results were compared to acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016303/undiagnosed-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-pilgrims-during-the-2015-hajj-mass-gathering-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#7
Saber Yezli, Alimuddin Zumla, Yara Yassin, Ali M Al-Shangiti, Gamal Mohamed, Abdulhafiz M Turkistani, Badriah Alotaibi
Mass gatherings pose a risk for tuberculosis (TB) transmission and reactivation of latent TB infection. The annual Hajj pilgrimage attracts 2 million pilgrims from high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the burden of undiagnosed active pulmonary TB in pilgrims attending the 2015 Hajj mass gathering. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for nonhospitalized adult pilgrims from five high TB-endemic countries. Enrollment criteria were the presence of a cough and the ability to produce a sputum sample...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972418/challenges-in-pleural-tuberculosis-diagnosis-existing-reference-standards-and-nucleic-acid-tests
#8
Shaifali Tyagi, Neera Sharma, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi, Sagarika Haldar
Pleural tuberculosis (pTB) is a grave form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Microbiological tests are usually found to be inadequate for pTB diagnosis. The absence of a uniform 'composite reference standard' is challenging; therefore, diagnosis is usually performed using a combination of diversified criteria. Nucleic acid tests vary in diagnostic accuracy and have not yet been integrated into clinical decision making. This review assesses the varied criteria used for pTB classification and the challenges afflicting pleural fluid-based DNA diagnostic tests, namely, PCR and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF...
October 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928173/cohort-profile-of-a-study-on-outcomes-related-to-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-uganda-design-methods-and-patient-characteristics-of-the-south-study
#9
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Barbara Castelnuovo, Amrei von Braun, Joseph Musaazi, Daniel Muller, Allan Buzibye, Ursula Gutteck, Lars Henning, Bruno Ledergerber, Natascia Corti, Mohammed Lamorde, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Several factors influence the efficacy of TB treatment by leading to suboptimal drug concentrations and subsequently affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this cohort is to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and TB treatment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with new pulmonary TB at the integrated TB-HIV outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled into the study and started on first-line anti-TB treatment...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924924/predictors-of-microbiologically-confirmed-intrathoracic-tuberculosis
#10
Rakhi Jain, Aparna Mukherjee, Mohit Singla, Yogita Verma, Hitender Gautam, Rakesh Lodha, Urvashi B Singh, Sushil K Kabra
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for microbiologically confirmed intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. METHODS: Children, 6 mo to 15 y of age, attending the out-patient department of a tertiary care centre in India, with probable intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled. Microbiological confirmation of tuberculosis was defined as positivity on smear (Ziehl-Neelsen staining) and/or Xpert MTB/RIF and/or MGIT-960 culture. Association of various factors with microbiological confirmation were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis...
September 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919549/the-predominance-of-ethiopian-specific-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-families-and-minimal-contribution-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#11
Mulualem Tadesse, Gemeda Abebe, Alemayehu Bekele, Mesele Bezabih, Pim de Rijk, Conor J Meehan, Bouke C de Jong, Leen Rigouts
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has an extremely high rate of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, dominated by tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN). However, little is known about Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) lineages responsible for TBLN in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 304 MTBc isolates from TBLN patients in Southwest Ethiopia were genotyped primarily by spoligotyping. Isolates of selected spoligotypes were further analyzed by 15-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) (n=167) and qPCR-based single nucleotide polymorphism (n=38)...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911360/evaluation-of-the-tb-lamp-assay-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-northern-india
#13
R Yadav, N Sharma, R Khaneja, P Agarwal, A Kanga, D Behera, S Sethi
SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in North India. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a commercial kit-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (TB-LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). DESIGN: A total of 530 patients presenting with PTB symptoms were enrolled and one sputum sample was collected from each patient. The TB-LAMP assay (Loopamp™ MTBC Detection kit) was performed on the raw sputum sample. The remaining sample was used for smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911354/drug-resistance-patterns-among-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#14
S K Sharma, J Chaubey, B K Singh, R Sharma, A Mittal, A Sharma
BACKGROUND: xtra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a growing public health concern, and data on drug resistance are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens from 2468 clinically diagnosed EPTB patients received at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory (IRL) of a tertiary centre in India were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, liquid culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) using automated BACTEC MGIT™ 960™. Line-probe assay (LPA) was performed on all culture-positive isolates...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911352/missed-opportunities-for-earlier-diagnosis-of-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-despite-access-to-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif
#15
E Mohr, J Daniels, O Muller, J Furin, B Chabalala, S J Steele, V Cox, T Dolby, G Ferlazzo, A Shroufi, L T Duran, H Cox
OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients with potential earlier RR-TB diagnoses in Khayelitsha, South Africa. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis among RR-TB patients diagnosed from 2012 to 2014. Patients were considered to have missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis if 1) they were incorrectly screened according to the Western Cape diagnostic algorithm; 2) the first specimen was not tested using Xpert® MTB/RIF; 3) no specimen was ever tested; or 4) the initial Xpert test showed a negative result, but no subsequent specimen was sent for follow-up testing in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904186/stool-culture-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#16
Elisabetta Walters, Anne-Marie Demers, Marieke M van der Zalm, Andrew Whitelaw, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Heather R Draper, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
Bacteriological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is achieved in the minority of young children with tuberculosis (TB), as specimen collection is resource-intensive and respiratory secretions are mostly paucibacillary, leading to limited sensitivity of available diagnostic tests. Although molecular tests are increasingly available globally, mycobacterial culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility and is more sensitive than molecular methods for paucibacillary TB...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902596/evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-drug-susceptibility-test-for-tuberculosis
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yingda L Xie, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Derek T Armstrong, Sandra L Hall, Laura E Via, Taeksun Song, Xing Yuan, Xiaoying Mo, Hong Zhu, Peng Xu, Qian Gao, Myungsun Lee, Jongseok Lee, Laura E Smith, Ray Y Chen, Joon Sung Joh, YoungSoo Cho, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Nila Dharan, Sang-Nae Cho, Clifton E Barry, Jerrold J Ellner, Susan E Dorman, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs are the backbone of treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and resistance to these drugs defines extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We assessed the accuracy of an automated, cartridge-based molecular assay for the detection, directly from sputum specimens, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and isoniazid. METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study to compare the investigational assay against phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing among adults in China and South Korea who had symptoms of tuberculosis...
September 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893193/light-emitting-diode-fluorescent-microscopy-and-xpert-mtb-rif%C3%A2-assay-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-patients-attending-ambo-hospital-west-central-ethiopia
#18
Alemu Gadissa Gelalcha, Abebaw Kebede, Hassen Mamo
BACKGROUND: The relatively simple and cheaper light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to replace the conventional tuberculosis (TB) microscopy in both high- and low-volume laboratories. More recently the WHO also endorsed one more technique, Xpert MTB/RIF® assay (Xpert), for improved TB diagnosis particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cases. However, the relative performance of both of these tools differs from setting to setting in reference to the conventional TB diagnostics...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886729/evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children-by-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-of-stool-samples-in-a-low-resource-setting
#19
Zahra Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Fehmina Arif, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Marium Haider, Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE: Children with tuberculosis (TB) remain underdiagnosed due to difficulty in testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. We evaluated the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for respiratory and stool testing in children for pulmonary TB through a cross-sectional study at tertiary care facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty children aged 0-15 years screened by a modified Kenneth-Jones (KJ) score were included. Mycobacterial culture of respiratory samples was the microbiological standard against stool Xpert TB results...
September 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880875/scaling-up-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-detection-of-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-india-an-economic-analysis
#20
Sunil Khaparde, Neeraj Raizada, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Claudia Denkinger, Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva, Chinnambedu Nainarappan Paramasivan, Virender Singh Salhotra, Anna Vassall, Anja Van't Hoog
BACKGROUND: India is considering the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. We conducted an economic analysis to estimate the costs of different strategies of Xpert implementation in India. METHODS: Using a decision analytical model, we compared four diagnostic strategies for TB patients: (i) sputum smear microscopy (SSM) only; (ii) Xpert as a replacement for the rapid diagnostic test currently used for SSM-positive patients at risk of drug resistance (i...
2017: PloS One
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