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Rif xpert for tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593688/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-with-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-as-a-single-test-or-combined-with-conventional-assays-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-china-a-two-center-prospective-study
#1
Xiaofu Pan, Shoufeng Yang, Margaret A Deighton, Yue Qu, Liang Hong, Feifei Su
Introduction: The Xpert MTB/RIF is recommended by the World Health Organization as a first line rapid test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); however, China does not routinely use this test, partially due to the lack of a sufficient number of systematic evaluations of this assay in local patients. The aims of this study were to comprehensively assess the diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, either alone or in combination with conventional assays for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in adult Chinese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584793/characteristics-and-management-of-presumptive-tuberculosis-in-public-health-facilities-in-malawi-2014-2016
#2
W Ng'ambi, S Gugsa, H Tweya, B Girma, H Kanyerere, I Dambe, Y Babaye, J Mpunga, S Phiri
Setting: Public health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in Malawi. Objectives: Using routinely collected health service delivery data to describe trends in HIV ascertainment and use of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose TB among HIV-positive presumptive TB cases. Design: This was an implementation study of presumptive TB cases who sought care from 21 facilities between April 2014 and June 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise patient, facility and service level characteristics...
December 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582718/use-of-a-single-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-to-determine-the-duration-of-airborne-isolation-in-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#3
Husain Poonawala, Surbhi Leekha, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Mala Filippell, J Kristie Johnson, Robert R Redfield, Kapil K Saharia
BACKGROUNDHospitalized patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) are placed in airborne isolation until 3 sputum smear samples are negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay ("Xpert") nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and resistance to rifampicin is superior to AFB sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of TB.OBJECTIVETo compare the performance of a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy for time to airborne infection isolation (AII) discontinuation...
March 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581936/unsuccessful-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-results-the-nigerian-experience
#4
M Gidado, N Nwokoye, P Nwadike, P Ajiboye, R Eneogu, S Useni, J Onazi, A Lawanson, E Elom, A Tubi, J Kuye
Setting: Nigeria, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. Objective: To study the rate, distribution and causes of unsuccessful Xpert® MTB/RIF test outcomes, with the aim of identifying key areas that need to be strengthened for optimal performance of the assay. Design: This was a retrospective analysis of data uploaded between January and December 2015 from Xpert facilities to the central server using GXAlert. Result: Of 52 219 test results uploaded from 176 Xpert machines, 22.5% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581435/correlation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-with-measures-to-assess-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-bacillary-burden-in-high-hiv-burden-areas-of-southern-africa
#5
Fenella Beynon, Grant Theron, Durval Respeito, Edson Mambuque, Belen Saavedra, Helder Bulo, Sergi Sanz, Keertan Dheda, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro
Traditionally, smear microscopy has been used as a point-of-care measure of bacillary burden in tuberculosis patients to inform infection control and contact tracing. Xpert MTB/RIF has the potential to replace smear. However, data to support the use of its quantitative output [cycle threshold (CT )] as an alternate point-of-care measure of bacillary burden are limited. This study assessed the correlation (Spearman's) between CT , smear, culture time-to-positivity (TTP), and clinical factors in patients with Xpert-positive sputum from Mozambique (n = 238) and South Africa (n = 462)...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580818/tuberculosis-advances-and-challenges-in-development-of-new-diagnostics-and-biomarkers
#6
REVIEW
Gerhard Walzl, Ruth McNerney, Nelita du Plessis, Matthew Bates, Timothy D McHugh, Novel N Chegou, Alimuddin Zumla
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and detection of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis is essential for achieving global tuberculosis control. Despite the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as the first-line rapid tuberculosis diagnostic test, the gap between global estimates of incidence and new case notifications is 4·1 million people. More accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests are needed to improve case detection...
March 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562994/time-and-motion-tool-for-the-assessment-of-working-time-in-tuberculosis-laboratories-a-multicentre-study
#7
V Mathys, E Roycroft, P Raftery, R Groenheit, D B Folkvardsen, D Homorodean, E Vasiliauskiene, L Vasiliauskaite, C Kodmon, M J van der Werf, F Drobniewski, V Nikolayevskyy
SETTING: Implementation of novel diagnostic assays in tuberculosis (TB) laboratory diagnosis requires effective management of time and resources. OBJECTIVE: To further develop and assess at multiple centres a time-and-motion (T&M) tool as an objective means for recording the actual time spent on running laboratory assays. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective study conducted in six European Union (EU) reference TB laboratories. RESULTS: A total of 1060 specimens were tested using four laboratory assays...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547642/-before-xpert-i-only-had-my-expertise-a-qualitative-study-on-the-utilization-and-effects-of-xpert-technology-among-pediatricians-in-4-indian-cities
#8
Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541267/programmatic-impact-of-implementing-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-respiratory-specimens-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-suspected-patients-in-resource-limited-laboratory-settings-of-eastern-nepal
#9
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518135/impact-of-introduction-of-xpert-mtb-rif-test-on-tuberculosis-tb-diagnosis-in-a-city-with-high-tb-incidence-in-brazil
#10
Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Denise Rossato Silva
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF is increasingly used in many countries as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB). Few studies have evaluated the effect of Xpert on TB diagnosis under programmatic conditions in Brazil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF on TB diagnosis in a city with high TB incidence in Brazil. METHODS: We included patients evaluated with conventional diagnostic tests during one year before Xpert introduction (pre-Xpert group) and patients evaluated using Xpert during one year after the test introduction (post-Xpert group)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506615/systematic-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-experience-from-pakistan
#11
S Tahseen, H Shahnawaz, U Riaz, F M Khanzada, A Hussain, W Aslam, M von Euler-Chelpin
SETTING: Pakistan is a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, moving from low human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence to a concentrated epidemic driven primarily by people who inject drugs (PWID). The Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Unit (AAU) in Islamabad, Pakistan, is a residential facility that offers combined treatment for opioid dependence and HIV. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted to assess TB prevalence among HIV-infected PWID referred to the AAU and to evaluate the diagnostic value of cough as a screening symptom...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487256/pyrosequencing-to-resolve-discrepant-xpert-mtb-rif-and-mycobacterial-growth-indicator-tube-960
#12
Kanchan Ajbani, Mubin Kazi, Jeffrey Tornheim, Swapna Naik, Rajeev Soman, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
Delayed diagnosis of drug resistance has been a major obstacle to proper management and control of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Expanded access to rapid molecular diagnostics such as Xpert MTB/RIF has been helpful, but has generated confusion about how to interpret genotype-phenotype discordance. Optimal management is not clearly defined for patients with rifampin resistance by Xpert MTB/RIF but rifampin susceptibility by phenotypic testing. To resolve this discrepancy, we performed pyrosequencing of discordant isolates identified at a reference laboratory over a 6-month period...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487047/potential-application-of-digitally-linked-tuberculosis-diagnostics-for-real-time-surveillance-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-transmission-validation-and-analysis-of-test-results
#13
Kamela Charmaine Ng, Conor Joseph Meehan, Gabriela Torrea, Léonie Goeminne, Maren Diels, Leen Rigouts, Bouke Catherine de Jong, Emmanuel André
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the highest-mortality infectious disease in the world and the main cause of death related to antimicrobial resistance, yet its surveillance is still paper-based. Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is an urgent public health crisis. The World Health Organization has, since 2010, endorsed a series of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) that enable rapid detection of drug-resistant strains and produce large volumes of data. In parallel, most high-burden countries have adopted connectivity solutions that allow linking of diagnostics, real-time capture, and shared repository of these test results...
February 27, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486527/thoracoscopic-pleural-biopsy-improves-yield-of-xpert-mtb-rif-for-diagnosis-of-pleural-tuberculosis
#14
Devasahayam J Christopher, Sridevi Dinakaran, Richa Gupta, Prince James, Barney Isaac, Balamugesh Thangakunam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) accounts for ~15% of all TB patients, and TB pleural effusion is the second most common site of EPTB. The diagnosis of pleural TB is challenging due to the pauci-bacillary nature of the disease. Histopathology of thoracoscopically obtained pleural biopsy provides the highest diagnostic yield. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) is a PCR test that can identify both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance. Currently, there is a lack of clarity regarding the value of Xpert on pleural tissue...
February 27, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474257/accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-children
#15
Mark P Nicol, Lesley Workman, Margaretha Prins, Lindy Bateman, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Silindile Mbhele, Claudia M Denkinger, Heather J Zar
We determined the accuracy of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children, using banked induced sputum. Sensitivity and specificity were 75.3% and 96.9% compared with a culture result from the same specimen. Of those children with microbiologically confirmed TB (positive culture, Xpert or Ultra), Xpert detected 63.2%, Ultra 73.7% and culture 82.9.
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471903/estimating-the-magnitude-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-missed-by-primary-health-care-clinics-in-south-africa
#16
P F Kweza, C Van Schalkwyk, N Abraham, M Uys, M M Claassens, A Medina-Marino
SETTING: The present study was conducted at 20 randomly selected primary health clinics across Buffalo City Metropolitan Health District, a high TB burden district in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of TB patients missed by primary health clinics. DESIGN: We enrolled 1255 TB-symptomatic individuals exiting primary health clinics between March and December 2015. Participants were interviewed and asked to provide sputum for Xpert® MTB/RIF testing...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464970/comparative-evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-and-multiplex-pcr-targeting-mpb64-and-is6110-for-the-diagnosis-of-pleural-tb
#17
Suman Sharma, Bhawna Dahiya, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Netrapal Singh, Ankush Raj, Abhishek Sheoran, Aparna Yadav, Krishna B Gupta, Promod K Mehta
AIM: Diagnosis of pleural TB poses serious challenges due to paucibacillary nature of specimens and there is an urgent need to devise a reliable diagnostic test. METHODS: We compared GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampin assay and the multiplex PCR (M-PCR) targeting mpb64 (Rv1980c) and IS6110 in pleural fluids (n = 78) of pleural TB patients and non-TB controls. RESULTS: The sensitivities of 89.6 and 33.3%, and specificities of 96...
February 21, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453405/widespread-use-of-incorrect-pcr-ramp-rate-negatively-impacts-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnosis-mtbdrplus
#18
B Derendinger, M de Vos, R R Nathavitharana, T Dolby, J A Simpson, P D van Helden, R M Warren, G Theron
The scale-up of rapid drug resistance testing for TB is a global priority. MTBDRplus is a WHO-endorsed multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB PCR assay with suboptimal sensitivities and high indeterminate rates on smear-negative specimens. We hypothesised that widespread use of incorrect thermocycler ramp rate (speed of temperature change between cycles) impacts performance. A global sample of 72 laboratories was surveyed. We tested 107 sputa from Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients and, separately, dilution series of bacilli, both at the manufacturer-recommended ramp rate (2...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447374/spectrum-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-setting-in-south-india
#19
Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444723/evaluation-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-on-tissues-potential-impact-on-airborne-infection-isolation-at-a-tertiary-cancer-care-center
#20
Tracy McMillen, Shauna C Usiak, Liang Hua Chen, Luz Gomez, Peter Ntiamoah, Meera R Hameed, Indre Budvytiene, Niaz Banaei, Mini Kamboj, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES In this study, we sought to evaluate the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid) assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA on fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from oncology patients in an area with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. We also aimed to retrospectively assess the potential impact of Xpert MTB/RIF on the duration of airborne infection isolation (AII). SETTING A 473-bed, tertiary-care cancer center in New York City. DESIGN A total of 203 tissue samples (101 FFPE and 102 fresh) were tested using Xpert MTB/RIF, including 133 pulmonary tissue samples (65...
February 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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