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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888536/ascorbate-degradation-in-tomato-leads-to-accumulation-of-oxalate-threonate-and-oxalyl-threonate
#1
Vincent Truffault, Stephen C Fry, Rebecca G Stevens, Hélène Gautier
Ascorbate content in plants is controlled by its synthesis from carbohydrates, recycling of the oxidized forms and degradation. Of these pathways, ascorbate degradation is the least studied and represents a lack of knowledge which could impair improvement of ascorbate content in fruits and vegetables as degradation is non-reversible and leads to a depletion of the ascorbate pool. The present study revealed the nature of degradation products using [(14) C]ascorbate labelling in tomato, a model plant for fleshy fruits; oxalate and threonate are accumulated in leaves, as is oxalyl threonate...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843094/metabolomics-predicts-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#2
Francisco Purroy, Serafi Cambray, Gerard Mauri-Capdevila, Mariona Jové, Jordi Sanahuja, Joan Farré, Ikram Benabdelhak, Jessica Molina-Seguin, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Robert Begue, M Isabel Gil, Reinald Pamplona, Manuel Portero-Otín
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The discovery of a plasmatic biomarker related to neuroimaging findings is of enormous interest because, despite its relevance, magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is not always available in all hospitals that attend to TIA patients. METHODS: Metabolomic analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in order to establish the metabolomic patterns of positive DWI, DWI patterns and acute ischemic lesion volumes...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829572/magnesium-in-the-cns-recent-advances-and-developments
#3
Robert Vink
A potential neuroprotective role for magnesium in neurological disease has been appreciated for almost three decades, yet translation to the clinical arena has proven elusive. Accumulating experimental evidence continues to suggest that magnesium plays a critical role in a number of neurological conditions including headache, stress, alcohol/drug intoxication, acute brain injury, seizures, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Simple administration of a magnesium salt in these conditions has not always been therapeutically successful, with a number of studies showing poor penetration of serum magnesium across the blood brain barrier...
March 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402745/assignment-of-function-to-a-domain-of-unknown-function-duf1537-is-a-new-kinase-family-in-catabolic-pathways-for-acid-sugars
#4
Xinshuai Zhang, Michael S Carter, Matthew W Vetting, Brian San Francisco, Suwen Zhao, Nawar F Al-Obaidi, Jose O Solbiati, Jennifer J Thiaville, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Matthew P Jacobson, Steven C Almo, John A Gerlt
Using a large-scale "genomic enzymology" approach, we (i) assigned novel ATP-dependent four-carbon acid sugar kinase functions to members of the DUF1537 protein family (domain of unknown function; Pfam families PF07005 and PF17042) and (ii) discovered novel catabolic pathways for d-threonate, l-threonate, and d-erythronate. The experimentally determined ligand specificities of several solute binding proteins (SBPs) for TRAP (tripartite ATP-independent permease) transporters for four-carbon acids, including d-erythronate and l-erythronate, were used to constrain the substrates for the catabolic pathways that degrade the SBP ligands to intermediates in central carbon metabolism...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178134/regulation-of-structural-and-functional-synapse-density-by-l-threonate-through-modulation-of-intraneuronal-magnesium-concentration
#5
Qifeng Sun, Jason G Weinger, Fei Mao, Guosong Liu
Oral administration of the combination of L-threonate (threonate) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) in the form of L-Threonic acid Magnesium salt (L-TAMS) can enhance learning and memory in young rats and prevent memory decline in aging rats and in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Recent results from a human clinical trial demonstrate the efficacy of L-TAMS in restoring global cognitive abilities of older adults. Previously, we reported that neuronal intracellular Mg(2+) serves as a critical signaling molecule for controlling synapse density, a key factor that determines cognitive ability...
September 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26754806/elevation-of-brain-magnesium-potentiates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-and-aged-mice
#6
Shanshan Jia, Yunpeng Liu, Yang Shi, Yihe Ma, Yixin Hu, Meiyan Wang, Xue Li
In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and generate all neural lineage types, and they persist in the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the cortex. Here, we show that dietary-supplemented - magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), a novel magnesium compound designed to elevate brain magnesium regulates the NSC pool in the adult hippocampus. We found that administration of both short- and long-term regimens of MgT, increased the number of hippocampal NSCs...
September 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26749160/implication-of-metabolomic-profiles-to-wide-thermoneutral-zone-in-mongolian-gerbils-meriones-unguiculatus
#7
Yaolong Shi, Dehua Wang
Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have evolved a wide thermoneutral zone (26.5-38.9 °C) and high upper critical temperature, and appear to have a high tolerance for heat exposure. Here, we use a metabolomic approach to measure global metabolite profiles for gerbils between lower (27 °C) and upper critical temperatures (38 °C) to investigate the role of metabolomic characterization in maintaining basal metabolic rates within a wide thermoneutral zone. We found that in serum and liver, 14 and 19 metabolites were significantly altered, respectively...
July 2016: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549801/magnesium-ion-influx-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-a%C3%AE-precursor-protein-presenilin-1-transgenic-mice-by-suppressing-the-expression-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#8
Pu Wang, Xin Yu, Pei-Pei Guan, Jing-Wen Guo, Yue Wang, Yan Zhang, Hang Zhao, Zhan-You Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) deficits and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) elevations in the serum or brains of AD patients. However, the mechanisms regulating IL-1β expression during Mg(2+) dyshomeostasis in AD remain unknown. We herein studied the mechanism of IL-1β reduction using a recently developed compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT). Using human glioblastoma A172 and mouse brain D1A glial cells as an in vitro model system, we delineated the signaling pathways by which MgT suppressed the expression of IL-1β in glial cells...
November 9, 2015: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549279/java-project-on-periodontal-diseases-effect-of-vitamin-c-calcium-threonate-citrus-flavonoids-supplementation-on-periodontal-pathogens-crp-and-hba1c
#9
Amaliya Amaliya, Marja L Laine, Bruno G Loos, Ubele Van der Velden
OBJECTIVE: To assess in a periodontally diseased rural population deprived from regular dental care and having poor dietary conditions, the effect of vitamin C/calcium threonate/citrus flavonoids (VitC/Ca/Fl) supplementation on subgingival microbiota and plasma levels of vitamin C, HbA1c and hsCRP. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study population consisted of 98 subjects who previously participated in a prospective study on the natural history of periodontitis. Participants were instructed to consume one tablet/day containing 200 mg Ester C(®) calcium ascorbate, 25 mg calcium threonate and 100 mg citrus flavonoids for 90 days...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416971/deletion-of-glycerol-channel-aquaporin-9-aqp9-impairs-long-term-blood-glucose-control-in-c57bl-6-leptin-receptor-deficient-db-db-obese-mice
#10
Peter Spegel, Aakash Chawade, Søren Nielsen, Per Kjellbom, Michael Rützler
Deletion of the glycerol channel aquaporin-9 (Aqp9) reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) obese mice on a C57BL/6 × C57BLKS mixed genetic background. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated reduction of Aqp9 expression reduces liver triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in a diet-induced rat model of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic effects of Aqp9 deletion in coisogenic db/db mice of the C57BL/6 background. Aqp9(wt) db/db and Aqp9(-/-) db/db mice did not differ in body weight and liver TAG contents...
September 2015: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26399847/rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-attack-affects-a-group-of-compounds-rather-than-rearranging-phoenix-canariensis-metabolic-pathways
#11
Antonio Giovino, Federico Martinelli, Sergio Saia
The red palm weevil (RPW; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is spreading worldwide and severely harming many palm species. However, most studies on RPW focused on insect biology, and little information is available about the plant response to the attack. In the present experiment, we used metabolomics to study the alteration of the leaf metabolome of Phoenix canariensis at initial (1st stage) or advanced (2nd stage) attack by RPW compared with healthy (unattacked) plants. The leaf metabolome significantly varied among treatments...
April 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26293690/by-suppressing-the-expression-of-anterior-pharynx-defective-1%C3%AE-and-1%C3%AE-and-inhibiting-the-aggregation-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-protein-magnesium-ions-inhibit-the-cognitive-decline-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1-transgenic-mice
#12
Xin Yu, Pei-Pei Guan, Jing-Wen Guo, Yue Wang, Long-Long Cao, Guo-Biao Xu, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Zhan-You Wang, Pu Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) deficit in the serum or brain. However, the mechanisms regulating the roles of Mg(2+) in the pathologic condition of AD remain unknown. We studied whether brain Mg(2+) can decrease β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorate the cognitive decline in a model of AD, the APPswe/PS1DE9 transgenic (Tg) mouse. We used a recently developed compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), for a treatment that resulted in enhanced clearance of Aβ in an anterior pharynx-defective (APH)-1α/-1β-dependent manner...
December 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25213836/elevation-of-brain-magnesium-prevents-synaptic-loss-and-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#13
Wei Li, Jia Yu, Yong Liu, Xiaojie Huang, Nashat Abumaria, Ying Zhu, Xian Huang, Wenxiang Xiong, Chi Ren, Xian-Guo Liu, Dehua Chui, Guosong Liu
BACKGROUND: Profound synapse loss is one of the major pathological hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease, which might underlie memory impairment. Our previous work demonstrates that magnesium ion is a critical factor in controlling synapse density/plasticity. Here, we tested whether elevation of brain magnesium, using a recently developed compound (magnesium-L-threonate, MgT), can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease...
2014: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25152202/targeting-the-nmda-receptor-subunit-nr2b-for-treating-or-preventing-age-related-memory-decline
#14
REVIEW
Deheng Wang, Stephanie A Jacobs, Joe Z Tsien
INTRODUCTION: Age-related memory loss is believed to be a result of reduced synaptic plasticity, including changes in the NR2 subunit composition of the NMDA receptor. It is known that endogenous NR2B subunits decrease as the brain ages, whereas transgenic upregulation of NR2B enhances synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in several animal species. Accumulating evidence suggests that elevated brain magnesium levels, via dietary supplementation, can boost NR2B in the brain, consequently reversing memory deficits and enhancing cognitive abilities...
October 2014: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24468817/metabolomic-profiling-in-multiple-sclerosis-insights-into-biomarkers-and-pathogenesis
#15
S N Reinke, D L Broadhurst, B D Sykes, G B Baker, I Catz, K G Warren, C Power
Metabolomics enables the provision of sensitive bio-markers of disease. We performed 800 MHz (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens to identify biomarkers of multiple sclerosis (MS), yielding reproducible detection of 15 metabolites from MS (n=15) and non-MS (n=17) patients. Mean levels of choline, myo-inositol and threonate were increased, whereas 3-hydroxybutyrate, citrate, phenylalanine, 2-hydroxyisovalerate and mannose were decreased in MS-derived CSF (p<0...
September 2014: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24376451/comparative-metabolic-profiling-of-haberlea-rhodopensis-thellungiella-halophyla-and-arabidopsis-thaliana-exposed-to-low-temperature
#16
Maria Benina, Toshihiro Obata, Nikolay Mehterov, Ivan Ivanov, Veselin Petrov, Valentina Toneva, Alisdair R Fernie, Tsanko S Gechev
Haberlea rhodopensis is a resurrection species with extreme resistance to drought stress and desiccation but also with ability to withstand low temperatures and freezing stress. In order to identify biochemical strategies which contribute to Haberlea's remarkable stress tolerance, the metabolic reconfiguration of H. rhodopensis during low temperature (4°C) and subsequent return to optimal temperatures (21°C) was investigated and compared with that of the stress tolerant Thellungiella halophyla and the stress sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana...
2013: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24224694/very-low-carbohydrate-diet-significantly-alters-the-serum-metabolic-profiles-in-obese-subjects
#17
Yunjuan Gu, Aihua Zhao, Fengjie Huang, Yinan Zhang, Jiajian Liu, Congrong Wang, Wei Jia, Guoxiang Xie, Weiping Jia
Emerging evidence has consistently shown that a very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) can protect against the development of obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we applied a comprehensive metabonomics approach using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the effects of an 8-week dietary intervention with VLCD on serum metabolic profiles in obese subjects. The VLCD intervention resulted in a weight loss and significantly decreased homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance...
December 6, 2013: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24173698/ascorbate-metabolism-in-rice-genotypes-differing-in-zinc-efficiency
#18
Stefanie Höller, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei, Nicolaus von Wirén, Michael Frei
Effects of zinc (Zn) deficiency on shoot metabolites were investigated in contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes with special focus on ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis, recycling, and catabolism. The genotypes IR74 (sensitive) and RIL46 (tolerant) were subjected to -Zn and control treatments for 3 weeks, and samples were taken at three different stages representing the pre-stress phase, emergence of visible stress, and severe visible stress. The emergence of visible symptoms was paralleled by an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AsA concentration in the sensitive, but not in the tolerant genotype...
February 2014: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24077207/magnesium-l-threonate-prevents-and-restores-memory-deficits-associated-with-neuropathic-pain-by-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE
#19
Jun Wang, Yong Liu, Li-Jun Zhou, Ying Wu, Fei Li, Ka-Feng Shen, Rui-Ping Pang, Xu-Hong Wei, Yong-Yong Li, Xian-Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that about two-thirds of patients with chronic pain suffer from short-term memory (STM) deficits and an effective drug for treatment of the neurological disorder is lacking at present. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether chronic oral application of magnesium L-threonate (MgT), which has been shown to improve memory in normal and aging animals by elevating Mg2+ in the brain, could prevent or restore the STM deficits induced by spared nerve injury (SNI), an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain...
September 2013: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23936457/pharmacometabolomic-signature-of-ataxia-sca1-mouse-model-and-lithium-effects
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Bertrand Perroud, Paymaan Jafar-Nejad, William R Wikoff, Jennifer R Gatchel, Lu Wang, Dinesh K Barupal, Juan Crespo-Barreto, Oliver Fiehn, Huda Y Zoghbi, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
We have shown that lithium treatment improves motor coordination in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) disease mouse model (Sca1(154Q/+)). To learn more about disease pathogenesis and molecular contributions to the neuroprotective effects of lithium, we investigated metabolomic profiles of cerebellar tissue and plasma from SCA1-model treated and untreated mice. Metabolomic analyses of wild-type and Sca1(154Q/+) mice, with and without lithium treatment, were performed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and BinBase mass spectral annotations...
2013: PloS One
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