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hepatitis a b c d e f

Gaofeng Lu, Juan Antonio Villa, Maureen J Donlin, Tiffany C Edwards, Xiaohong Cheng, Richard F Heier, Marvin J Meyers, John E Tavis
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, but the current therapies that employ either nucelos(t)ide analogs or (pegylated)interferon α do not clear the infection in the large majority of patients. Inhibitors of the HBV ribonuclease H (RNaseH) that are being developed with the goal of producing anti-HBV drugs are promising candidates for use in combination with the nucleos(t)ide analogs to improve therapeutic efficacy. HBV is genetically very diverse, with at least 8 genotypes that differ by ≥8% at the sequence level...
September 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
Y Liu, A C Corsa, M Buti, A L Cathcart, J F Flaherty, M D Miller, K M Kitrinos, P Marcellin, E J Gane
A major hurdle in the long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is to maintain viral suppression in the absence of drug resistance. To date, no evidence of resistance to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been observed. A cumulative evaluation of CHB patients who qualified for resistance surveillance over 8 years of TDF treatment was conducted. Patients in studies GS-US-174-0102 (HBeAg-) and GS-US-174-0103 (HBeAg+) were randomized 2:1 to receive TDF or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 48 weeks followed by open-label TDF through year 8...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Jijing Tian, Guoxiang Yang, Huan-Yuan Chen, Daniel K Hsu, Alexey Tomilov, Kristin A Olson, Ali Dehnad, Sarah R Fish, Gino Cortopassi, Bin Zhao, Fu-Tong Liu, M Eric Gershwin, Natalie J Török, Joy X Jiang
Macrophage activation is an important feature of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) pathogenesis and other cholestatic liver diseases. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a pleiotropic lectin, is produced by monocytic cells and macrophages. However, its role in PBC has not been addressed. We hypothesized that Gal3 is a key to induce NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in macrophages and in turn to propagate proinflammatory IL-17 signaling. In liver tissues from patients with PBC and dnTGF-βRII mice, a model of autoimmune cholangitis, the expression of Gal3, NLRP3, and the adaptor protein adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein was induced, with the downstream activation of caspase-1 and IL-1β...
September 14, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
P Marcellin, S H Ahn, W-L Chuang, A J Hui, F Tabak, R Mehta, J Petersen, C-M Lee, X Ma, F A Caruntu, W Y Tak, M Elkhashab, L Lin, G Wu, E B Martins, P Charuworn, L J Yee, S G Lim, G R Foster, S Fung, L Morano, D Samuel, K Agarwal, R Idilman, S I Strasser, M Buti, G B Gaeta, G Papatheodoridis, R Flisiak, H L Y Chan
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic hepatitis B, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 48-weeks results in higher rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss than either monotherapy. AIM: To identify baseline and on-treatment factors associated with HBsAg loss at Week 72 and provide a model for predicting HBsAg loss in patients receiving combination therapy for 48 weeks. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from an open-label study where patients were randomised to TDF (300 mg/day, oral) plus PEG-IFN (PI, 180 μg/week, subcutaneous) for 48 weeks (TDF/PI-48w); TDF plus PEG-IFN for 16 weeks, TDF for 32 weeks (TDF/PI-16w+TDF-32w); TDF for 120 weeks (TDF-120w) or PEG-IFN for 48 weeks (PI-48w)...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
G P Caviglia, M L Abate, D Noviello, A Olivero, C Rosso, G Troshina, A Ciancio, M Rizzetto, G M Saracco, A Smedile
AIM: To evaluate Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) correlation with HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels and to investigate HBcrAg kinetic during nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) or pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)-α treatment in a cohort of chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-genotype-D patients. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-eight sequential serum samples were collected from 28 Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB-genotype-D patients (20 M/8 F; median age 54 [47-58] years), who underwent NAs (n = 20) or PEG-IFN-α (n = 8) treatment...
August 30, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Paolo Strati, Mark Lanasa, Timothy G Call, Jose F Leis, Danielle M Brander, Betsy R LaPlant, Adam M Pettinger, Wei Ding, Sameer A Parikh, Curtis A Hanson, Asher A Chanan-Khan, Deborah A Bowen, Michael Conte, Neil E Kay, Tait D Shanafelt
BACKGROUND: Although several consolidation strategies to prolong treatment-free survival (TFS) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have been investigated, most have proven either ineffective or toxic. Ofatumumab is a human type I anti-CD20 antibody approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as maintenance treatment of patients with recurrent or progressive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who are in complete or partial response after at least two lines of treatment; higher efficacy might be observed if used as consolidation strategy than without consolidation in previously untreated patients...
September 2016: Lancet Haematology
Majid Mahmood, Muhammad Asim Anwar, Azra Khanum, Nasib Zaman, Abida Raza
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and its role in disease progression and patients' response to antiviral treatment, is not well studied in Pakistan. This comprehensive study was aimed to determine the distribution of HBV genotypes in Pakistan and their possible association with phases of HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 840 HBsAg positive samples was collected and tested for HBV DNA quantity. Samples below 100 IU/ml were excluded from the study. A total of 715 samples representing all the six parts of the country were genotyped by type specific primer PCR method...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
S S Zhu, Y Dong, L M Wang, Z Q Xu, D W Chen, Y Gan, F C Wang, J G Yan, L L Cao, P Wang, M Zhang, H F Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the liver pathological characteristics and the clearance rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with antiviral treatment for 1 to 7 years old children with heptitis B e antigen(HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. METHOD: A total of 49 cases with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B were treated with interferon (IFN) or IFN treatment for 6 months added with lamivudine, and were followed up for at least 6 months.Retrospective analysis was performed on the liver pathological characteristics, the efficacy of antivirus treatment and its influencing factors of the HBsAg clearance rate in the cases from June 2006 to December 2013 in the 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army...
August 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Antonio De Vincentis, Giorgio Pennazza, Marco Santonico, Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Giovanni Galati, Paolo Gallo, Alessandro Zompanti, Claudio Pedone, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Antonio Picardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The spectrum of volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath (breath-print, BP) has been shown to characterize patients with liver cirrhosis and with worse hepatic function. However, the association of different BPs with clinically relevant outcomes has not been described yet. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association between BPs, mortality and hospitalization in cirrhotic patients and to compare it with that of the "classical" prognostic indices (Child-Pugh classification [CPC] and MELD)...
August 6, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Jane Fisher, James J Douglas, Adam Linder, John H Boyd, Keith R Walley, James A Russell
OBJECTIVES: Angiopoietins modulate endothelial permeability via endothelial cell junctions. Angiopoietin-2 blocks the angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 interaction that stabilizes these junctions, and elevated plasma angiopoietin-2 levels are associated with vascular leakage. We hypothesized that plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 levels are associated with indirect markers of increased vascular permeability, organ dysfunction, mortality, and plasma proinflammatory cytokine levels in human septic shock...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
S E Legge, M L Hamshere, S Ripke, A F Pardinas, J I Goldstein, E Rees, A L Richards, G Leonenko, L F Jorskog, K D Chambert, D A Collier, G Genovese, I Giegling, P Holmans, A Jonasdottir, G Kirov, S A McCarroll, J H MacCabe, K Mantripragada, J L Moran, B M Neale, H Stefansson, D Rujescu, M J Daly, P F Sullivan, M J Owen, M C O'Donovan, J T R Walters
The antipsychotic clozapine is uniquely effective in the management of schizophrenia; however, its use is limited by its potential to induce agranulocytosis. The causes of this, and of its precursor neutropenia, are largely unknown, although genetic factors have an important role. We sought risk alleles for clozapine-associated neutropenia in a sample of 66 cases and 5583 clozapine-treated controls, through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, exome array and copy-number variation (CNV) analyses...
July 12, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
C Bonnineau, D Scaion, B Lemaire, C Belpaire, J-P Thomé, M Thonon, M Leermaker, Y Gao, C Debier, F Silvestre, P Kestemont, J-F Rees
Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In present study, carried out on female eels caught in Belgian rivers and canals, we analyzed brain levels of potentially-neurotoxic trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, MeHg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn) and OCs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; Hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs; Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites, DDTs)...
July 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Qiuju Tian, Jidong Jia
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high genetic heterogeneity since it replicates via a reverse transcriptase that lacks proofreading ability. Up to now, ten genotypes (A-J) have been described, with genotype A and D being ubiquitous but most prevalent in Europe and Africa, genotype B and C being confined to Asia and Oceania. Infections with other genotypes such as E, F, G and H are also occasionally observed in Asia. Genotype I is rare and can be found in Laos, Vietnam, India and China, whereas genotype J has been described in Japan and Ryukyu...
June 14, 2016: Hepatology International
L Michel, C Lions, M Winnock, J-P Lang, M-A Loko, E Rosenthal, B Marchou, M-A Valantin, P Morlat, P Roux, P Sogni, B Spire, I Poizot-Martin, K Lacombe, C Lascoux-Combe, C Duvivier, D Neau, F Dabis, D Salmon-Ceron, M P Carrieri
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this nested study was to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients according to their HCV status. METHODS: The nested cross-sectional study, untitled HEPAVIH-Psy survey, was performed in a subset of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients enrolled in the French Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) CO13 HEPAVIH cohort. Psychiatric disorders were screened for using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5...
May 17, 2016: HIV Medicine
E H Teshale, J Xing, A Moorman, S D Holmberg, P R Spradling, S C Gordon, L B Rupp, M Lu, J A Boscarino, C M Trinacity, M A Schmidt, F Xu
In the United States, hospitalization among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is high. The healthcare burden associated with hospitalization is not clearly known. We analysed data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study, an observational cohort of patients receiving care at four integrated healthcare systems, collected from 2006 to 2013 to determine all-cause hospitalization rates of patients with chronic HCV infection and the other health system patients. To compare the hospitalization rates, we selected two health system patients for each chronic HCV patient using their propensity score (PS)...
October 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
J C Chaves, F S Neto, A T Ikejiri, P R Bertoletto, R Teruya, R Santos Simões, E H Tikazawa, J B Liu, F L Carrara, M O Taha, D J Fagundes
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the morphology of the rat liver when hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was used at various stages of ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats, subjected to 30 minutes of hepatic ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion, were randomly assigned as follows: GIR (n = 8), control without HBO; GHBO/I (n = 8), in which HBO was applied only during ischemia; GHBO/R (n = 8), HBO only during reperfusion; and GHBO/IR (n = 8), HBO during both ischemia and reperfusion...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Fabienne Marcellin, Caroline Lions, Eric Rosenthal, Perrine Roux, Philippe Sogni, Linda Wittkop, Camelia Protopopescu, Bruno Spire, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, François Dabis, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite cannabis use being very common in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), its effect on these patients' immune systems remains undocumented. Documenting the potential effect of cannabis use on HIV immunological markers would help caregivers make more targeted health recommendations to co-infected patients. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cannabis use and peripheral blood CD4 T-cell measures in co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy...
April 13, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Lance K Ching, Prabhu P Gounder, Lisa Bulkow, Philip R Spradling, Michael G Bruce, Susan Negus, Mary Snowball, Brian J McMahon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most regions of the world have ≤3 co-circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, which limits direct comparisons of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk among HBV-infected persons by genotype. We evaluated HCC incidence by HBV genotype in a cohort of Alaska Native (AN) persons where five HBV genotypes (A, B, C, D, F) have been identified. METHODS: Our cohort comprised AN persons with chronic HBV infection identified during 1983-2012 who consented to participate in this study...
October 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ijeoma N Diaku-Akinwumi, Sani B Abubakar, Samuel A Adegoke, Solomon Adeleke, Oyebade Adewoye, Titilayo Adeyemo, Akinsegun Akinbami, Norah O Akinola, Adebola Akinsulie, Adeline Akinyoola, John Aneke, Sani Awwalu, Ahmadu Babadoko, Biobele Brown, Obuoha Ejike, Ifeoma Emodi, Innocent George, Ahmed Girei, Abdulaziz Hassan, Garba U Kangiwa, Olubunmi A Lawal, Cecilia Mabogunje, Anazoeze J Madu, Akeem Mustapha, Muhammad Ndakotsu, Obiageli E Nnodu, Damian Nwaneri, Friday Odey F, Chinatu Ohiaeri, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Oladele S Olatunya O, Oluseyi Oniyangi, Hyginus Opara, Ngozi I Ugwu, Abubakar U Musa, Shehu Abdullahi, Abubakar Usman, Enobong Utuk, Binta W Jibir, Adekunle D Adekile
BACKGROUND: Safe, timely red blood cell transfusion saves lives and chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) prevents or limits morbidities such as stroke, therefore improving quality of life of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS: This questionnaire-based study assessed the ability of sickle cell centers in Nigeria to provide safe blood to patients with SCD between March and August 2014. RESULTS: Out of the 73 hospitals contacted, responses were obtained from 31...
September 2016: International Health
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