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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352035/using-mouse-transgenic-and-human-stem-cell-technologies-to-model-genetic-mutations-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-autism
#1
REVIEW
David St Clair, Mandy Johnstone
Solid progress has occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of neurodevelopmental disorders, and of schizophrenia and autism in particular. Although the genetic architecture of both disorders is far more complex than previously imagined, many key loci have at last been identified. This has allowed in vivo and in vitro technologies to be refined to model specific high-penetrant genetic loci involved in both disorders. Using the DISC1/NDE1 and CYFIP1/EIF4E loci as exemplars, we explore the opportunities and challenges of using animal models and human-induced pluripotent stem cell technologies to further understand/treat and potentially reverse the worst consequences of these debilitating disorders...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351736/studying-medical-communication-with-video-vignettes-a-randomized-study-on-how-variations-in-video-vignette-introduction-format-and-camera-focus-influence-analogue-patients-engagement
#2
Leonie N C Visser, Nadine Bol, Marij A Hillen, Mathilde G E Verdam, Hanneke C J M de Haes, Julia C M van Weert, Ellen M A Smets
BACKGROUND: Video vignettes are used to test the effects of physicians' communication on patient outcomes. Methodological choices in video-vignette development may have far-stretching consequences for participants' engagement with the video, and thus the ecological validity of this design. To supplement the scant evidence in this field, this study tested how variations in video-vignette introduction format and camera focus influence participants' engagement with a video vignette showing a bad news consultation...
January 19, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349575/parkin-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cancer-a-double-edged-sword
#3
REVIEW
Khushnuma Wahabi, Ahmad Perwez, Moshahid A Rizvi
Parkin for more than a decade has been portrayed as a neuroprotector gene is now increasingly emerging as a multifaceted gene that can exert entirely opposite effects i.e., both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Parkinson's disease, a neurological disease, progresses due to excess in cell death, while, in case of cancer, cell death normally fails to occur. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was first identified as a gene implicated in autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism, but several evidences indicate that Parkin is a tumor suppressor gene, involved in a variety of cancers...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347880/functions-of-utopia-how-utopian-thinking-motivates-societal-engagement
#4
Julian W Fernando, Nicholas Burden, Adam Ferguson, Léan V O'Brien, Madeline Judge, Yoshihisa Kashima
Images of ideal societies, utopias, are all around us; yet, little is known of how utopian visions affect ordinary people's engagement with their societies. As goals for society, utopias may elicit processes of collective self-regulation, in which citizens are critical of, or take action to change, the societies they live in. In three studies, we investigated the psychological function of utopian thinking. In Study 1, measured utopianism was correlated with the activation of three utopian functions: change, critique, and compensation...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341344/the-medial-temporal-lobe-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-forming-different-mental-representations
#5
Signy Sheldon, Brian Levine
The medial temporal lobes (MTL), and more specifically the hippocampus, are critical for forming mental representations of past experiences - autobiographical memories - and for forming other 'non-experienced' types of mental representations, such as imagined scenarios. How the MTL coordinate with other brain areas to create these different types of representations is not well understood. To address this issue, we performed a task-based functional connectivity analysis on a previously published dataset in which fMRI data were collected as participants created different types of mental representations under three conditions...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341113/prospective-emotion-enables-episodic-prospection-to-shift-time-preference
#6
Shunmin Zhang, Juan Peng, LingLing Qin, Tao Suo, Tingyong Feng
The episodic effect suggests that episodic prospection (imagining future events) can effectively reduce time discounting, the propensity to discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones. However, less clear is how episodic prospection modulates time preference. As engagement in episodic prospection usually evokes prospective emotions, it was proposed that episodic prospection might work by inducing prospective emotions. Although one previous study has attempted to provide evidence to the emotional account of the episodic effect, shortcomings in its experimental design make its conclusion questionable...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339562/sleep-dependent-reductions-in-reality-monitoring-errors-arise-from-more-conservative-decision-criteria
#7
Carmen E Westerberg, Christopher A Hawkins, Lauren Rendon
Reality-monitoring errors occur when internally generated thoughts are remembered as external occurrences. We hypothesized that sleep-dependent memory consolidation could reduce them by strengthening connections between items and their contexts during an afternoon nap. Participants viewed words and imagined their referents. Pictures of the referents also accompanied half of the words. After a 2-h break filled with sleep (n = 31) or wakefulness (n = 32), participants indicated if they previously viewed a picture of each word...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338597/imagine%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-better-future-for-the-nhs
#8
Kamran Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336643/measurement-of-fetal-mesencephalon-and-pons-via-ultrasonographic-cross-sectional-imagining
#9
Ruiqi Yang, Rui Li, Xuejuan Liu, Limei Fan, Jialing Zhang, Libo Wang, Hong Teng
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the feasibility of measuring the fetal mesencephalon and pons by ultrasonographic cross sectional imaging to detect fetal central nervous system developmental abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal ultrasonographic measurements included: Fetal mesencephalon anteroposterior diameters (MAD), mesencephalon transverse diameters (MTD), pons anteroposterior diameter (PAD) and proximal transverse diameters (PTD). RESULTS: Nine-hundred ninety fetuses were imaged...
January 16, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336504/wolbachia-induced-transcription-factor-gata4-suppresses-ovary-specific-genes-blastoderm-specific-protein-25d-and-imaginal-disc-growth-factor
#10
S Osei-Amo, M Hussein, S Asad, L Hugo, S Asgari
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects a wide array of insect hosts and has been implicated in a range of biological modifications as a consequence of its infection. Previously, it was shown that the transcription factor GATA4 was significantly induced in Wolbachia wMelPop-CLA strain infected Aedes aegypti whole mosquitoes and cells. Here, we provide evidence that this induction also occurs in mosquito ovaries where the ovary-specific genes blastoderm-specific protein 25D (Bsg25D) and imaginal disc growth factor (Disc) are suppressed by Wolbachia...
January 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336344/-the-urologist-of-the-future-and-new-technologies
#11
Francois Peinado, Atanasio Fernández, Fernando Teba, Guillermo Celada, Marco Antonio Acosta
The last 25 years have brought about revolutionary changes for medicine and in particular for urology: internet was only in its infancy, medical records were written on paper, searches for medical information were done in the hospital library, medical articles were photocopied and our relationship with patients only existed face to face. Social networks had not yet appeared and even Google did not exist. Just imagine what might happen during the next 25 years, we're going to see even more radical changes. The urologist of the future is going to see the arrival of artificial intelligence, collaborative medicine, telemedicine, machine learning, the Internet of Things and personalized robotics; in the meantime, social media will continue to transform the interaction between physician and patient...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336086/learning-to-blast-a-way-into-crime-or-just-good-clean-fun-examining-aggressive-play-with-toy-weapons-and-its-relation-with-crime
#12
Sven Smith, Christopher J Ferguson, Kevin M Beaver
BACKGROUND: Researchers, such as Bandura, have proposed that children's mere exposure to the use of play weapons encourages deviant displays of aggression, but there is very little research to support this hypothesis of 20 years. AIM: To examine the relationship between amount of weapon play and concurrent aggression as well as later violent juvenile crime, while controlling for other variables possibly influencing criminal pathways. METHOD: Using longitudinal survey data collected from mothers and children (n = 2019) from age 5, with follow-up at age 15, correlations between children's play with toy weapons and juvenile criminality were examined...
January 16, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#13
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330097/learning-situated-emotions
#14
Lauren A M Lebois, Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, W Kyle Simmons, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Lawrence W Barsalou
From the perspective of constructivist theories, emotion results from learning assemblies of relevant perceptual, cognitive, interoceptive, and motor processes in specific situations. Across emotional experiences over time, learned assemblies of processes accumulate in memory that later underlie emotional experiences in similar situations. A neuroimaging experiment guided participants to experience (and thus learn) situated forms of emotion, and then assessed whether participants tended to experience situated forms of the emotion later...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329510/the-predictive-value-of-hunger-score-on-gastric-evacuation-after-oral-intake-of-carbohydrate-solution
#15
Qiu Weiji, Li Shitong, Luo Yu, Hua Tianfang, Kong Ning, Zhang Lina
BACKGROUND: Surgical patients are asked to fast for a sufficient duration to ensure that the amount of residual liquid in the stomach is within the safe range, thereby reducing the risk of gastric reflux perioperatively. The authors hypothesized that subjective hunger numerical rating scale (NRS) score could also help assess the process of gastric emptying and determine the amount of fluid remaining in the stomach. METHODS: The current study consisted of healthy volunteers recruited by advertisement and mutual introduction...
January 12, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327652/acquisition-of-a-mental-strategy-to-control-a-virtual-tail-via-brain-computer-interface
#16
Ayaka Fujisawa, Shoko Kasuga, Takaharu Suzuki, Junichi Ushiba
The objective of the present study was to clarify the variation in and properties of mental images and policies used to regulate specific image selection when learning to control a brain-computer interface. Healthy volunteers performed a reaching task with a virtually generated monkey tail-like object on a computer monitor by regulating event-related desynchronization (ERD) on the buttock area of the sensorimotor cortex as recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). Participants were instructed to find a free image by which the tail was well controlled...
January 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325140/optimism-for-the-future-in-younger-and-older-adults
#17
Kelly A Durbin, Sarah J Barber, Maddalena Brown, Mara Mather
Objectives: Research has suggested that older adults are less optimistic about their future than younger adults; however, a limitation of prior studies is that younger and older adults were forecasting to different ages and stages of life. To address this, we investigated whether there are age differences in future optimism when people project to the exact same age. We also tested whether optimism differs when projecting one's own future versus another person's future. Method: Participants were 285 younger and 292 older adults recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324886/changes-in-network-connectivity-during-motor-imagery-and-execution
#18
Yun Kwan Kim, Eunhee Park, Ahee Lee, Chang-Hwan Im, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of functional or effective connectivity in the brain have reported that motor-related brain regions were activated during motor execution and motor imagery, but the relationship between motor and cognitive areas has not yet been completely understood. The objectives of our study were to analyze the effective connectivity between motor and cognitive networks in order to define network dynamics during motor execution and motor imagery in healthy individuals. Second, we analyzed the differences in effective connectivity between correct and incorrect responses during motor execution and imagery using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electroencephalography (EEG) data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323506/demand-characteristics-in-episodic-future-thinking-delay-discounting-and-healthy-eating
#19
Jillian M Rung, Gregory J Madden
Steep delay discounting, or rapid devaluation of future outcomes, is one mechanism that can account for the chronic selection of smaller-sooner over larger-later outcomes; that is, impulsive choice. Because steep delay discounting is correlated with maladaptive behavior, researchers have explored methods for reducing discounting. One empirically supported method is episodic future thinking (EFT), or vividly imagining one's future before completing the discounting task. However, EFT procedures may include demand characteristics, which could account for some its beneficial effects...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322583/motor-imagery-training-kinesthetic-imagery-strategy-and-inferior-parietal-fmri-activation
#20
Florent Lebon, Ulrike Horn, Martin Domin, Martin Lotze
Motor imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of action frequently used by professionals in different fields. However, with respect to performance, well-controlled functional imaging studies on MI training are sparse. We investigated changes in fMRI representation going along with performance changes of a finger sequence (error and velocity) after MI training in 48 healthy young volunteers. Before training, we tested the vividness of kinesthetic and visual imagery. During tests, participants were instructed to move or to imagine moving the fingers of the right hand in a specific order...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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