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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429250/exploring-geospatial-techniques-for-spatiotemporal-change-detection-in-land-cover-dynamics-along-soan-river-pakistan
#1
Hafsa Bashir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad
Classification of land cover dynamics via satellite imagery has played indispensible services in developing effective management strategies for evaluation and management of water resources. The present study employed geospatial techniques, i.e., integrated GIS and remote sensing for effectual land change study. Hybrid classification approach was applied using ERDAS Imagine 11 to detect changes in land cover dynamics using satellite imagery of Landsat 4, 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM, and Landsat 8 OLI for the years of 1992, 2002, and 2015, respectively...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426986/schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-code-script-not-a-genetic-cipher-but-a-code-of-development
#2
A E Walsby, M J S Hodge
In his book What is Life? Erwin Schrödinger coined the term 'code-script', thought by some to be the first published suggestion of a hereditary code and perhaps a forerunner of the genetic code. The etymology of 'code' suggests three meanings relevant to 'code-script which we distinguish as 'cipher-code', 'word-code' and 'rule-code'. Cipher-codes and word-codes entail translation of one set of characters into another. The genetic code comprises not one but two cipher-codes: the first is the DNA 'base-pairing cipher'; the second is the 'nucleotide-amino-acid cipher', which involves the translation of DNA base sequences into amino-acid sequences...
April 17, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425308/the-effect-of-molecular-weights-of-microencapsulating-polymers-on-viability-of-mouse-cloned-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-biomaterials-osmotic-forces-and-potential-applications-in-diabetes-treatment
#3
Armin Mooranian, Ryu Tackechi, Emma Jamieson, Grant Morahan, Hani Al-Salami
INTRODUCTION: Ideal cell-containing microcapsules should be capable of maintaining cell viability and exhibit significant structural stability to support cellular functionality. To date, such microcapsules remain unavailable, thus, this study used our well-established microencapsulating methods to examine a total of 32 different microencapsulating formulations and correlate polymers' molecular weights (Mwt) and UDCA addition, with cell viability and microcapsules' stability, postmicroencapsulation...
April 20, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425117/dream-homes-and-dead-ends-in-the-city-a-photo-essay-experiment
#4
Danya Fast
Research focused on the relationship between place and health demonstrates that it is complex and shifting, as overlapping social, historical, institutional and political and economic processes continually transform the landscapes in which lived experiences are embedded. Understanding this relationship requires knowledge of the situated meanings and local worlds that ethnographic methods are well suited to investigate. However, even conventional ethnographic methods can be inadequate to capture the embodied, lived experience of place - experiences in which the sensory and inner processes of memory and imagination are often privileged...
April 20, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425058/finding-the-traces-of-behavioral-and-cognitive-processes-in-big-data-and-naturally-occurring-datasets
#5
Alexandra Paxton, Thomas L Griffiths
Today, people generate and store more data than ever before as they interact with both real and virtual environments. These digital traces of behavior and cognition offer cognitive scientists and psychologists an unprecedented opportunity to test theories outside the laboratory. Despite general excitement about big data and naturally occurring datasets among researchers, three "gaps" stand in the way of their wider adoption in theory-driven research: the imagination gap, the skills gap, and the culture gap...
April 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424651/racial-assumptions-color-the-mental-representation-of-social-class
#6
Ryan F Lei, Galen V Bodenhausen
We investigated the racial content of perceivers' mental images of different socioeconomic categories. We selected participants who were either high or low in prejudice toward the poor. These participants saw 400 pairs of visually noisy face images. Depending on condition, participants chose the face that looked like a poor person, a middle income person, or a rich person. We averaged the faces selected to create composite images of each social class. A second group of participants rated the stereotypical Blackness of these images...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424639/inconsistent-effect-of-arousal-on-early-auditory-perception
#7
Anna C Bolders, Guido P H Band, Pieter Jan M Stallen
Mood has been shown to influence cognitive performance. However, little is known about the influence of mood on sensory processing, specifically in the auditory domain. With the current study, we sought to investigate how auditory processing of neutral sounds is affected by the mood state of the listener. This was tested in two experiments by measuring masked-auditory detection thresholds before and after a standard mood-induction procedure. In the first experiment (N = 76), mood was induced by imagining a mood-appropriate event combined with listening to mood inducing music...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421885/recognizing-risk-and-vulnerability-in-research-ethics-imagining-the-what-ifs
#8
Elizabeth Peter, Judith Friedland
Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks...
April 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419700/pregnancy-ambivalence-and-long-acting-reversible-contraceptive-larc-use-among-young-adult-women-a-qualitative-study
#9
Jenny A Higgins
CONTEXT: Many young adults are unclear about how much they want to have, or prevent having, a baby. However, pregnancy ambivalence is an underexamined factor in the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods-IUDs and implants-the most effective methods available. METHODS: In 2014, investigators conducted six focus groups and 12 interviews with 50 women aged 18-29 in Dane County, Wisconsin; participants were either university students or community residents receiving public assistance...
April 17, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418482/effect-of-oral-dexamethasone-without-immediate-antibiotics-vs-placebo-on-acute-sore-throat-in-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Gail Nicola Hayward, Alastair D Hay, Michael V Moore, Sena Jawad, Nicola Williams, Merryn Voysey, Johanna Cook, Julie Allen, Matthew Thompson, Paul Little, Rafael Perera, Jane Wolstenholme, Kim Harman, Carl Heneghan
Importance: Acute sore throat poses a significant burden on primary care and is a source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Corticosteroids could be an alternative symptomatic treatment. Objective: To assess the clinical effectiveness of oral corticosteroids for acute sore throat in the absence of antibiotics. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (April 2013-February 2015; 28-day follow-up completed April 2015) conducted in 42 family practices in South and West England, enrolled 576 adults recruited on the day of presentation to primary care with acute sore throat not requiring immediate antibiotic therapy...
April 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417950/differential-gender-effects-in-the-relationship-between-perceived-immune-functioning-and-autistic-traits
#11
Marlou Mackus, Deborah de Kruijff, Leila S Otten, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Joris C Verster
Altered immune functioning has been demonstrated in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study explores the relationship between perceived immune functioning and experiencing ASD traits in healthy young adults. N = 410 students from Utrecht University completed a survey on immune functioning and autistic traits. In addition to a 1-item perceived immune functioning rating, the Immune Function Questionnaire (IFQ) was completed to assess perceived immune functioning. The Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was completed to examine variation in autistic traits, including the domains "social insights and behavior", "difficulties with change", "communication", "phantasy and imagination", and "detail orientation"...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413627/advancing-psychological-therapies-for-chronic-pain
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Geert Crombez
There is a strong tradition of therapy development and evaluation in the field of psychological interventions for chronic pain. However, despite this research production, the effects of treatments remain uncertain, and treatment development has stalled. This review summarises the current evidence but focusses on promising areas for improvement. Advancing psychological therapies for chronic pain will come from a radical re-imagining of the content, delivery, place, and control of therapy. The next generation of therapeutic interventions will also need alternative methods of measurement and evaluation, and options are discussed...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412616/measuring-fluctuations-across-the-continuum-of-auditory-hallucinations-development-and-validation-of-a-state-inventory
#13
Björn Schlier, Timo Hennig, Tania M Lincoln
In order to identify causes and triggers of hallucinations that can inform therapy, reliable, valid, and change-sensitive instruments to assess hallucinatory experiences in the subclinical and clinical range are needed. We developed and validated a novel scale, the Continuum of Auditory Hallucinations - State Assessment (CAHSA), to be used for repeated assessment of the subclinical factors vivid imagination, intrusive thoughts, and perceptual sensitivity as well as auditory hallucinations. After selecting items for the four factors in a first test sample (n=84), we tested factorial validity using CFA and criterion validity with self-reported psychosis-like experiences (n=534)...
March 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412153/the-effect-of-counseling-on-willingness-to-use-a-hypothetical-medication-and-perceptions-of-medication-safety
#14
Michael Bitonti, Payal Patel, Rebecca Dickinson, Peter Knapp, Susan J Blalock
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is an ongoing issue, and contributes to increased hospitalizations and healthcare costs. Although most adverse effects are rare, the perceived risk of adverse effects may contribute to low adherence rates. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine how adverse effect likelihood and pharmacist counseling on adverse effect prevention affects individuals': (1) willingness to use a hypothetical medication and (2) perceptions of medication safety...
March 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410808/questioning-the-differences-between-general-public-vs-patient-based-preferences-towards-eq-5d-5l-defined-hypothetical-health-states
#15
Marko Ogorevc, Nika Murovec, Natacha Bolanos Fernandez, Valentina Prevolnik Rupel
The purpose of this article is to explore whether any differences exist between the general population and patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states. The article discusses the role of adaptation and self-interest in valuing health states and it also contributes rigorous empirical evidence to the scientific debate on the differences between the patient and general population preferences towards hypothetical health states. Patient preferences were elicited in 2015 with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire using time trade-off and discrete choice experiment design and compared to the Spanish general population preferences, which were elicited using identical methods...
March 28, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408135/the-missing-person-the-outcome-of-the-rule-based-totalitarianism-of-too-much-contemporary-healthcare
#16
Iona Heath
OBJECTIVES: Medicine has an obsession with scientific progress and a misplaced belief in the perfectibility of the human body and mind and, as a result, there seems never to be time for the necessary backward glance. If we in healthcare are to learn any of the lessons of history, it seems important that we pay attention to those who have suffered at the sharp end of historical events. METHODS AND RESULTS: This paper invokes thinkers and writers who lived lives scarred by totalitarian politics...
April 3, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405957/enhancing-memory-and-imagination-improves-problem-solving-among-individuals-with-depression
#17
Craig P McFarland, Mark Primosch, Chelsey M Maxson, Brandon T Stewart
Recent work has revealed links between memory, imagination, and problem solving, and suggests that increasing access to detailed memories can lead to improved imagination and problem-solving performance. Depression is often associated with overgeneral memory and imagination, along with problem-solving deficits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an interview designed to elicit detailed recollections would enhance imagination and problem solving among both depressed and nondepressed participants. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a control interview or an episodic specificity induction prior to completing memory, imagination, and problem-solving tasks...
April 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404605/proteomics-analysis-identifies-orthologs-of-human-chitinase-like-proteins-as-inducers-of-tube-morphogenesis-defects-in-drosophila
#18
Sandra G Zimmerman, Gennifer E Merrihew, Michael J MacCoss, Celeste A Berg
Elevated levels of human chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) are associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases and several cancers, often correlating with poor prognosis. Nevertheless, there is scant knowledge of their function. The CLPs normally mediate immune responses and wound healing, and when upregulated, they can promote disease progression by remodeling tissue, activating signaling cascades, stimulating proliferation and migration, and by regulating adhesion. We identified Imaginal disc growth factors (Idgfs), orthologs of human CLPs CHI3L1, CHI3L2, and OVGP1, in a proteomics analysis designed to discover factors that regulate tube morphogenesis in a Drosophila melanogaster model of tube formation...
April 12, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401510/a-systematic-literature-review-of-us-engineering-ethics-interventions
#19
Justin L Hess, Grant Fore
Promoting the ethical formation of engineering students through the cultivation of their discipline-specific knowledge, sensitivity, imagination, and reasoning skills has become a goal for many engineering education programs throughout the United States. However, there is neither a consensus throughout the engineering education community regarding which strategies are most effective towards which ends, nor which ends are most important. This study provides an overview of engineering ethics interventions within the U...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401020/control-of-tissue-size-and-development-by-a-regulatory-element-in-the-yorkie-3-utr
#20
Takanari Umegawachi, Hideki Yoshida, Hiromu Koshida, Momoko Yamada, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Henry M Krause, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Regulation of the Hippo pathway via phosphorylation of Yorkie (Yki), the Drosophila homolog of human Yes-associated protein 1, is conserved from Drosophila to humans. Overexpression of a non-phosphorylatable form of Yki induces severe overgrowth in adult fly eyes. Here, we show that yki mRNA associates with microsomal fractions and forms foci that partially colocalize to processing bodies in the vicinity of endoplasmic reticulum. This localization is dependent on a stem-loop (SL) structure in the 3' untranslated region of yki...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
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