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Soyoung Yeo, Hee Sung Shin, Hye Won Lee, Doseon Hong, Hyunjoon Park, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Eun Bae Kim, Chul Sung Huh
Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been intensively investigated in recent decades with special focus on modulation of the host intestinal microbiota. Numerous discoveries of effective probiotics are driven by a significantly increasing demand for dietary supplements. Consequently, technological advances in the large-scale production and lyophilization are needed by probiotic-related industries for producing probiotic LAB for commercial use. Our study had a dual objective, i.e., to determine the optimum growth medium composition and to investigate appropriate cryoprotective additives (CPAs) for Lactobacillus salivarius , and compare its responses with other Lactobacillus species...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hoe-Yune Jung, Bobae Kim, Yosep Ji, Hye-Guk Ryu, Soyoung Park, Seung Hee Choi, In-Kyu Lee, Munki Kim, You Jeong Lee, Woojin Song, Young Hee Lee, Hyung Jin Choi, Chang-Kee Hyun, Wilhelm H Holzapfel, Kyong-Tai Kim
Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)α/γ dual agonists can be beneficial for treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, their use is limited owing to various side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and heart failure. Here, we demonstrate that amodiaquine, an antimalarial agent, has potential as a PPARα/γ dual agonist with low risk of adverse effects. Amodiaquine selectively activated the transcriptional activities of PPARα/γ, and enhanced both fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake without altering insulin secretion in vitro...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Josefine Reber, Monja Willershäuser, Angelos Karlas, Korbinian Paul-Yuan, Gael Diot, Daniela Franz, Tobias Fromme, Saak V Ovsepian, Nicolas Bézière, Elena Dubikovskaya, Dimitrios C Karampinos, Christina Holzapfel, Hans Hauner, Martin Klingenspor, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Metabolism is a fundamental process of life. However, non-invasive measurement of local tissue metabolism is limited today by a deficiency in adequate tools for in vivo observations. We designed a multi-modular platform that explored the relation between local tissue oxygen consumption, determined by label-free optoacoustic measurements of hemoglobin, and concurrent indirect calorimetry obtained during metabolic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). By studying mice and humans, we show how video-rate handheld multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in the 700-970 nm spectral range enables non-invasive imaging of BAT activation, consistent with positron emission tomography findings...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Gerhard C Rossouw, Katja Šuklje, Jason P Smith, Celia Barril, Alain Deloire, Bruno P Holzapfel
Leaves are an important contributor toward berry sugar and nitrogen (N) accumulation, and leaf area therefore affects fruit composition during grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry ripening. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of leaf presence on key berry quality attributes in conjunction with the accumulation of primary berry metabolites. Shortly after the start of véraison (berry ripening), potted grapevines were defoliated (total defoliation and 25% of the control), and the accumulation of berry soluble solids, N and anthocyanins were compared to that of a full leaf area control...
March 2, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Arnab Palit, Sunil K Bhudia, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Glen A Turley, Mark A Williams
Identification of in vivo passive biomechanical properties of healthy human myocardium from regular clinical data is essential for subject-specific modelling of left ventricle (LV). In this work, myocardium was defined by Holzapfel-Ogden constitutive law. Therefore, the objectives of the study were (a) to estimate the ranges of the constitutive parameters for healthy human myocardium using non-invasive routine clinical data, and (b) to investigate the effect of geometry, LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) and fibre orientations on estimated values...
February 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Jose L Calvo-Gallego, Jaime Domínguez, Tomás Gómez Cía, Gorka Gómez Ciriza, Javier Martínez-Reina
Knowing the mechanical properties of human adipose tissue is key to simulate surgeries such as liposuction, mammoplasty and many plastic surgeries in which the subcutaneous fat is present. One of the most important surgeries, for its incidence, is the breast reconstruction surgery that follows a mastectomy. In this case, achieving a deformed shape similar to the healthy breast is crucial. The reconstruction is most commonly made using autologous tissue, taken from the patient's abdomen. The amount of autologous tissue and its mechanical properties have a strong influence on the shape of the reconstructed breast...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Andrew J Stollenwerk, Eric Clausen, Matthew Cook, Keith Doore, Ryan Holzapfel, Jacob Weber, Rui He, Timothy E Kidd
Ultrasonic agitation is a proven method for breaking down layered materials such as MoS2 into single or few layer nanoparticles. In this experiment, MoS2 powder is sonicated in isopropanol for an extended period of time in an attempt to create particles of the smallest possible size. As expected, the process yielded a significant quantity of nanoscale MoS2 in the form of finite layer sheets with lateral dimensions as small as a few tens of nanometers. Although no evidence was found to indicate a larger the longer sonication times resulted in a significant increase in yield of single layer MoS2, the increased sonication did result in the formation of several types of carbon allotropes in addition to the sheets of MoS2...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Justyna A Niestrawska, Daniel Ch Haspinger, Gerhard A Holzapfel
Changes in the structural components of aortic tissues have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of aortic degeneration. Therefore, reliable stress analyses require a suitable and meaningful constitutive model that captures micro-structural changes. As recent data show, in-plane and out-of-plane collagen fiber dispersions vary significantly between healthy and aneurysmatic aortic walls. The aim of this study is to computationally investigate the influence of fiber dispersion on the mechanical response of aortic tissues in health and disease...
February 13, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Robert Shaheen, Marc Doumit
Research in the field of human mobility assist devices, aiming to reduce the metabolic cost of daily activities, is seeing the benefits of the exclusive use of accumulators to store and release energy during the gait cycle. The Pneumatic Artificial Muscle, used in a passive state, has proven to be a superior choice for these devices when compared to its alternatives, however, challenges regarding muscle pressure dissipation and a limited elongation potential have been identified. A recently developed, novel Soft Composite material has been shown to experimentally replicate the distinctive mechanical behaviour of the Pneumatic Artificial Muscle, without the need for internal pressurization...
January 31, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Kare P Mahmud, Bruno P Holzapfel, Yann Guisard, Jason P Smith, Sharon Nielsen, Suzy Y Rogiers
Some plant species demonstrate a pronounced 24 h rhythm in fine root growth but the endogenous and exogenous factors that regulate these diel cycles are unclear. Photoperiod and temperature are known to interact with diel patterns in shoot growth but it is uncertain how these environmental factors are interrelated with below-ground growth. In this particular study, the fine root system of two grapevine species was monitored over a period of ten days with a high resolution scanner, under constant soil moisture and three different photoperiod regimes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mohammed Uddin, Brianna K Unda, Vickie Kwan, Nicholas T Holzapfel, Sean H White, Leon Chalil, Marc Woodbury-Smith, Karen S Ho, Erin Harward, Nadeem Murtaza, Biren Dave, Giovanna Pellecchia, Lia D'Abate, Thomas Nalpathamkalam, Sylvia Lamoureux, John Wei, Marsha Speevak, James Stavropoulos, Kristin J Hope, Brad W Doble, Jacob Nielsen, E Robert Wassman, Stephen W Scherer, Karun K Singh
Copy-number variations (CNVs) are strong risk factors for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome region contains up to ten genes and is associated with numerous conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability; however, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome remain unknown. We combined whole-genome sequencing, human brain gene expression (proteome and transcriptome), and a mouse model with a syntenic heterozygous deletion (Df(h15q13)/+ mice) and determined that the microdeletion results in abnormal development of cortical dendritic spines and dendrite outgrowth...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Nick D Van Skike, Nana K Minkah, Chad H Hogan, Gary Wu, Peter T Benziger, Darby G Oldenburg, Mehmet Kara, Deborah M Kim-Holzapfel, Douglas W White, Scott A Tibbetts, Jarrod B French, Laurie T Krug
Gammaherpesviruses encode proteins with homology to the cellular purine metabolic enzyme formyl-glycinamide-phosphoribosyl-amidotransferase (FGARAT), but the role of these viral FGARATs (vFGARATs) in the pathogenesis of a natural host has not been investigated. We report a novel role for the ORF75A vFGARAT of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) in infectious virion production and colonization of mice. MHV68 mutants with premature stop codons in orf75A exhibited a log reduction in acute replication in the lungs after intranasal infection, which preceded a defect in colonization of multiple host reservoirs including the mediastinal lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the spleen...
February 1, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Kewei Li, Ray W Ogden, Gerhard A Holzapfel
Recently, micro-sphere-based methods derived from the angular integration approach have been used for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of soft biological tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that many of the widely used numerical integration schemes over the unit sphere are inaccurate for large deformation problems even without excluding fibres under compression. Thus, in this study, we propose a discrete fibre dispersion model based on a systematic method for discretizing a unit hemisphere into a finite number of elementary areas, such as spherical triangles...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Maria Seidel, Joseph A King, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Boehm, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Larissa Holzapfel, Stefan Diestel, Kersten Diers, Alexander Strobel, Thomas Goschke, Henrik Walter, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Regulation of emotions is necessary for successful attainment of short-term and long-term goals. However, over-regulation may also have its costs. In anorexia nervosa (AN), forgoing food intake despite emaciation and endocrine signals that promote eating is an example of "too much" self-control. Here we investigated whether voluntary emotion regulation in AN patients comes with associated disorder-relevant costs. Thirty-five patients with acute AN and thirty-five age-matched healthy controls (HCs) performed an established emotion regulation paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging after an overnight fast...
January 24, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
A Sträter, A Huber, J Slotta-Huspenina, E Rummeny, K Holzapfel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Der Radiologe
Jochen Stenzel, Sebastian Noe, Konstantin Holzapfel, Franziska Erlmeier, Florian Eyer
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/9810194.].
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Ahmet Erdemir, Peter J Hunter, Gerhard A Holzapfel, Leslie M Loew, John Middleton, Christopher R Jacobs, Perumal Nithiarasu, Rainald Lohner, Guowei Wei, Beth A Winkelstein, Victor H Barocas, Farshid Guilak, Joy Ku, Jennifer L Hicks, Scott Delp, Michael Sacks, Jeffrey A Weiss, Dr Gerard A Ateshian, Steve A Maas, Andrew D McCulloch, Grace C Y Peng
The role of computational modeling for biomechanics will be increasingly prominent. In computational biomechanics, model sharing can facilitate assessment of reproducibility, and can provide an opportunity for repurposing and reuse, and a venue for medical training. The community's desire to investigate biological and biomechanical phenomena crossing multiple systems, scales, and physical domains, also motivates sharing of modeling resources as blending of models developed by domain experts is anticipated. The goal of this article is to understand current perspectives in the biomechanics community for the sharing of computational models and related resources...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Seul Gi Lee, Jinhye Kim, Hyunjoon Park, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Kwang-Won Lee
In vitro digestion/Caco-2 or pig small intestinal epithelium cell line (PSI) uptake models were used to study the bioaccessibility and cellular uptake of arsenic (As) in cooked white rice and brown rice. The arsenite(AsIII), was the predominant species in cooked rice and in its bioaccessible fractions. The percentage of total As bioaccessibility in white rice (75%) was slightly higher (p=0.061) than that in brown rice(66%). However, there was no difference in the inorganic As (iAs) bioaccessibility between white rice (95%) and brown rice (96%)...
January 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Min-Seok Kim, Bobae Kim, Haryung Park, Yosep Ji, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Do-Young Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
Recently, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, called Doenjang, has attracted attention for its protective effect against diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term fermented soybean pastes (LFSPs) are made by fermentation with naturally-occurring microorganisms for several months, whereas short-term fermented soybean pastes (SFSPs) are produced by shorter-time fermentation inoculated with a starter culture. Here, we demonstrate that administration of LFSP, but not SFSP, protects high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice against non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Florian Schroeder, Stanislav Polzer, Martin Slažanský, Vojtěch Man, Pavel Skácel
INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to validate some constitutive models by assessing their capabilities in describing and predicting uniaxial and biaxial behavior of porcine aortic tissue. METHODS: 14 samples from porcine aortas were used to perform 2 uniaxial and 5 biaxial tensile tests. Transversal strains were furthermore stored for uniaxial data. The experimental data were fitted by four constitutive models: Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden model (HGO), model based on generalized structure tensor (GST), Four-Fiber-Family model (FFF) and Microfiber model...
February 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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