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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230905/characteristics-of-bone-injuries-resulting-from-knife-wounds-incised-with-different-forces
#1
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Maciej Henneberg
The aim of this research was to experimentally determine the characteristics of incised bone wounds, which are commonly found in defense injuries. A specially constructed pivoting arm device was used to inflict wounds with controlled forces and direction. Five knives were selected to inflict the wounds on porcine forelimbs. Eight incised wounds were made per knife per force. A larger knife and a greater force caused longer and wider bone wounds. Comparisons of individual knives at the two forces produced varying results in the bone wounds...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230904/effects-of-re-heating-tissue-samples-to-core-body-temperature-on-high-velocity-ballistic-projectile-tissue-interactions
#2
Caitlin Humphrey, Maciej Henneberg, Christian Wachsberger, Nicholas Maiden, Jaliya Kumaratilake
Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226368/local-cutaneous-flaps-in-nasal-reconstruction
#3
Guanning Nina Lu, J David Kriet, Clinton D Humphrey
Facial plastic surgeons use a variety of reconstruction techniques to overcome challenges in restoring the function, structural integrity, and intricate nasal contour in nasal reconstruction. Local cutaneous flaps provide excellent skin texture, thickness, and color match in nasal reconstruction. They offer an excellent cosmetic appearance for small- to medium-sized defects and are preferentially utilized when feasible. This article aims to provide an updated review of local cutaneous flaps for nasal defect repair and describe the major principles related to flap selection...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216187/recombinant-proteins-of-zaire-ebolavirus-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-and-protect-against-live-virus-infection-in-mice
#4
Axel T Lehrer, Teri-Ann S Wong, Michael M Lieberman, Tom Humphreys, David E Clements, Russell R Bakken, Mary Kate Hart, William D Pratt, John M Dye
Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#5
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211185/a-comparison-of-goldmann-iii-v-and-spatially-equated-test-stimuli-in-visual-field-testing-the-importance-of-complete-and-partial-spatial-summation
#6
Jack Phu, Sieu K Khuu, Barbara Zangerl, Michael Kalloniatis
PURPOSE: Goldmann size V (GV) test stimuli are less variable with a greater dynamic range and have been proposed for measuring contrast sensitivity instead of size III (GIII). Since GIII and GV operate within partial summation, we hypothesise that actual GV (aGV) thresholds could predict GIII (pGIII) thresholds, facilitating comparisons between actual GIII (aGIII) thresholds with pGIII thresholds derived from smaller GV variances. We test the suitability of GV for detecting visual field (VF) loss in patients with early glaucoma, and examine eccentricity-dependent effects of number and depth of defects...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204861/factors-influencing-planning-of-a-familiar-grasp-to-an-object-what-it-is-to-pick-a-cup
#7
Elisabeth Rounis, Zuo Zhang, Gloria Pizzamiglio, Mihaela Duta, Glyn Humphreys
We assessed the factors influencing the planning of actions required to manipulate one of two everyday objects with matching dimensions but openings at opposite ends: a cup and a vase. We found that, for cups, measures of movement preparation to reach and grasp the object were influenced by whether the grasp was made to the functional part of the object (wide opening) and whether the action would end in a supinated as opposed to a pronated grasp. These factors interacted such that effects of hand posture were found only when a less familiar grasp was made to the non-functional part of the cup (the base)...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202046/highly-predictive-snp-markers-for-efficient-selection-of-the-wheat-leaf-rust-resistance-gene-lr16
#8
Mulualem T Kassa, Frank M You, Colin W Hiebert, Curtis J Pozniak, Pierre R Fobert, Andrew G Sharpe, James G Menzies, D Gavin Humphreys, Nicole Rezac Harrison, John P Fellers, Brent D McCallum, Curt A McCartney
BACKGROUND: Lr16 is a widely deployed leaf rust resistance gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that is highly effective against the North American Puccinia triticina population when pyramided with the gene Lr34. Lr16 is a seedling leaf rust resistance gene conditioning an incompatible interaction with a distinct necrotic ring surrounding the uredinium. Lr16 was previously mapped to the telomeric region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B. The goals of this study were to develop numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the Lr16 region and identify diagnostic gene-specific SNP marker assays for marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199381/impact-of-the-anti-aquaporin-4-autoantibody-on-inner-retinal-structure-function-and-structure-function-associations-in-japanese-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#9
Yoshiko Matsumoto, Sotaro Mori, Kaori Ueda, Takuji Kurimoto, Akiyasu Kanamori, Yuko Yamada, Ichiro Nakashima, Makoto Nakamura
PURPOSE: An autoantibody against aquaporin-4 (AQP4 Ab) is highly specific for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and plays a pathogenic role in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AQP4 Ab on inner retinal structure, function, and the structure-function relationships in eyes with optic neuritis. METHODS: Thirty five eyes from 25 cases who had received visual function tests and RTVue optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement at least six months after the latest episode of optic neuritis were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199314/whole-genome-landscape-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#10
Aldo Scarpa, David K Chang, Katia Nones, Vincenzo Corbo, Ann-Marie Patch, Peter Bailey, Rita T Lawlor, Amber L Johns, David K Miller, Andrea Mafficini, Borislav Rusev, Maria Scardoni, Davide Antonello, Stefano Barbi, Katarzyna O Sikora, Sara Cingarlini, Caterina Vicentini, Skye McKay, Michael C J Quinn, Timothy J C Bruxner, Angelika N Christ, Ivon Harliwong, Senel Idrisoglu, Suzanne McLean, Craig Nourse, Ehsan Nourbakhsh, Peter J Wilson, Matthew J Anderson, J Lynn Fink, Felicity Newell, Nick Waddell, Oliver Holmes, Stephen H Kazakoff, Conrad Leonard, Scott Wood, Qinying Xu, Shivashankar Hiriyur Nagaraj, Eliana Amato, Irene Dalai, Samantha Bersani, Ivana Cataldo, Angelo P Dei Tos, Paola Capelli, Maria Vittoria Davì, Luca Landoni, Anna Malpaga, Marco Miotto, Vicki L J Whitehall, Barbara A Leggett, Janelle L Harris, Jonathan Harris, Marc D Jones, Jeremy Humphris, Lorraine A Chantrill, Venessa Chin, Adnan M Nagrial, Marina Pajic, Christopher J Scarlett, Andreia Pinho, Ilse Rooman, Christopher Toon, Jianmin Wu, Mark Pinese, Mark Cowley, Andrew Barbour, Amanda Mawson, Emily S Humphrey, Emily K Colvin, Angela Chou, Jessica A Lovell, Nigel B Jamieson, Fraser Duthie, Marie-Claude Gingras, William E Fisher, Rebecca A Dagg, Loretta M S Lau, Michael Lee, Hilda A Pickett, Roger R Reddel, Jaswinder S Samra, James G Kench, Neil D Merrett, Krishna Epari, Nam Q Nguyen, Nikolajs Zeps, Massimo Falconi, Michele Simbolo, Giovanni Butturini, George Van Buren, Stefano Partelli, Matteo Fassan, Kum Kum Khanna, Anthony J Gill, David A Wheeler, Richard A Gibbs, Elizabeth A Musgrove, Claudio Bassi, Giampaolo Tortora, Paolo Pederzoli, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Andrew V Biankin, Sean M Grimmond
The diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) is increasing owing to more sensitive detection methods, and this increase is creating challenges for clinical management. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 102 primary PanNETs and defined the genomic events that characterize their pathogenesis. Here we describe the mutational signatures they harbour, including a deficiency in G:C > T:A base excision repair due to inactivation of MUTYH, which encodes a DNA glycosylase. Clinically sporadic PanNETs contain a larger-than-expected proportion of germline mutations, including previously unreported mutations in the DNA repair genes MUTYH, CHEK2 and BRCA2...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198792/child-growth-according-to-maternal-and-child-hiv-status-in-zimbabwe
#11
Adetayo O Omoni, Robert Ntozini, Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast, Lawrence H Moulton, Parul S Christian, Jean H Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Growth failure is common among HIV-infected infants, but there are limited data on the effects of HIV exposure or timing of HIV acquisition on growth. METHODS: 14110 infants were enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe before the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or co-trimoxazole. Anthropometric measurements were taken from birth through 12-24 months of age. Growth outcomes were compared between 5 groups of children: HIV-infected in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) or postnatally (PN); HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU); and HIV-unexposed...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197338/vision-loss-and-recovery-after-baerveldt-aqueous-tube-shunt-implantation
#12
Esther Lee Kim, Jeffrey Tran, Marc Töteberg-Harms, Jasdeep Chahal, Douglas Rhee, Vikas Chopra, Brian Francis
This study aims to determine the course of vision loss after Baerveldt aqueous tube shunt placement and identify risk factors associated with unexplained severe long-term vision loss, or snuff-out. We retrospectively reviewed 247 eyes of 222 patients who underwent Baerveldt implantations at one of two academic institutions. Postoperative vision loss at 6 months following surgery was categorized as mild-to-moderate versus severe and long-term versus transient. Long-term vision loss, defined as 3 or more lines of Snellen visual acuity (VA) loss compared with preoperative VA, occurred in 63 of 247 eyes (25...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196733/the-proportion-of-individuals-likely-to-benefit-from-customized-optic-nerve-head-structure-function-mapping
#13
Allison M McKendrick, Jonathan Denniss, Ya Xing Wang, Jost B Jonas, Andrew Turpin
PURPOSE: Interindividual variance in optic nerve head (ONH) position, axial length, and location of the temporal raphe suggest that customizing mapping between visual field locations and ONH sectors for individuals may be clinically useful. Herein we quantify the proportion of the population predicted to have structure-function mappings that markedly deviate from "average," and thus would benefit from customized mapping. DESIGN: Database study and case report. PARTICIPANTS: Population database of 2836 eyes from the Beijing Eye Study and a single case report of an individual with primary open-angle glaucoma...
February 10, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196731/natural-history-of-conversion-of-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-a-prospective-case-series
#14
Tiffany Jean Hwang, Rustum Karanjia, Milton Nunes Moraes-Filho, Jesse Gale, Jeffrey Show Tran, Edward R Chu, Solange R Salomao, Adriana Berezovsky, Rubens Belfort, Milton Nunes Moraes, Federico Sadun, Anna Maria DeNegri, Chiara La Morgia, Piero Barboni, Carolina do V F Ramos, Carlos Filipe Chicani, Peter A Quiros, Valerio Carelli, Alfredo A Sadun
PURPOSE: To illustrate the natural history of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). DESIGN: Prospective observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: The Soave-Brazil pedigree of m.11778G>A/ND4 mitochondrial DNA LHON mutation. METHODS: A prospectively acquired database of the Soave-Brazil pedigree was reviewed. Data from 285 individuals were included in the database over a 15-year period. The pedigree was reviewed for unaffected mutation carriers who converted to affected status, 6 patients with LHON were identified...
February 10, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196629/the-atomic-structure-of-polar-and-non-polar-ingan-quantum-wells-and-the-green-gap-problem
#15
C J Humphreys, J T Griffiths, F Tang, F Oehler, S D Findlay, C Zheng, J Etheridge, T L Martin, P A J Bagot, M P Moody, D Sutherland, P Dawson, S Schulz, S Zhang, W Y Fu, T Zhu, M J Kappers, R A Oliver
We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations...
February 3, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196369/leveraging-online-resources-to-prioritize-candidate-genes-for-functional-analyses-using-the-fetal-testis-as-a-test-case
#16
Kathryn S McClelland, Humphrey H-C Yao
With each new microarray or RNA-seq experiment, massive quantities of transcriptomic information are generated with the purpose to produce a list of candidate genes for functional analyses. Yet an effective strategy remains elusive to prioritize the genes on these candidate lists. In this review, we outline a prioritizing strategy by taking a step back from the bench and leveraging the rich range of public databases. This in silico approach provides an economical, less biased, and more effective solution. We discuss the publicly available online resources that can be used to answer a range of questions about a gene...
February 15, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193165/cardiorenal-anemia-syndrome-and-survival-among-heart-failure-patients-in-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Pedro Pallangyo, Francis Fredrick, Smita Bhalia, Paulina Nicholaus, Peter Kisenge, Benjamin Mtinangi, Mohamed Janabi, Stephen Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal anemia syndrome (CRAS) is an evolving global epidemic associated with increased morbimortality and cost of care. The management of patients with CRAS remains a challenging undertaking worldwide and the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines adds to the challenge. We aimed to explore the prevalence and survival rates of heart failure patients with CRAS in Tanzania. METHODS: We screened 789 patients and consecutively recruited 463 who met the inclusion criteria...
February 14, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192385/ganglion-cell-complex-loss-in-chiasmal-compression-by-brain-tumors
#18
Marisa G Tieger, Thomas R Hedges, Joseph Ho, Natalie K Erlich-Malona, Laurel N Vuong, Geetha K Athappilly, Carlos E Mendoza-Santiesteban
BACKGROUND: Patterns of ganglion cell complex (GCC) loss detected by optical coherence tomography provide an objective measure of optic nerve injury. These patterns aid in early diagnosis and localization of chiasmal lesions. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with chiasmal compression seen between 2010 and 2015 were imaged with the Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography macular cube 512 × 128, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scan protocols and automated (30-2 Humphrey) visual fields (VFs)...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186882/multi-modality-imaging-enables-detailed-hemodynamic-simulations-in-dissecting-aneurysms-in-mice
#19
Evan Phillips, Paolo Di Achille, Matthew Bersi, Jay Humphrey, Craig Goergen
A multi-modality imaging based modeling approach was used to study complex unsteady hemodynamics and lesion growth in a dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm model. We combined in vivo ultrasound (geometry and flow) and in vitro optical coherence tomography (geometry) to obtain the high resolution needed to construct detailed hemodynamic simulations over large portions of the murine vasculature, which include fine geometric complexities. We illustrate this approach for a spectrum of dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysms induced in male apolipoprotein E-null mice by high-dose angiotensin II infusion...
February 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186509/hydroxychloroquine-retinopathy-an-emerging-problem
#20
M Latasiewicz, H Gourier, I H Yusuf, R Luqmani, S M Sharma, S M Downes
PurposeThe aim of this case series is to raise awareness of the emerging issue of serious retinal damage caused by the prolonged use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and the importance of adequate and appropriate monitoring of visual function during treatment.Patient and methodsThis is a small retrospective case series of 3 patients on long-term HCQ who developed serious symptomatic retinal toxicity confirmed on imaging and functional testing.ResultsAll 3 patients were treated with HCQ for over 15 years; two for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the third for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
February 10, 2017: Eye
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