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Kathryn L Humphreys, Sophie N F Schouboe, Katharina Kircanski, Ellen Leibenluft, Argyris Stringaris, Ian H Gotlib
Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Judith S Brand, Keith Humphreys, Jingmei Li, Robert Karlsson, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong and heritable intermediate phenotype of breast cancer, but much of its genetic variation remains unexplained. METHODS: We conducted a genetic association study of volumetric MD in a Swedish mammography screening cohort (n = 9498) to identify novel MD loci. Associations with volumetric MD phenotypes (percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume) were estimated using linear regression adjusting for age, body mass index, menopausal status, and six principal components...
April 17, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Theodore L Caputi, Keith Humphreys
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have found a negative population-level correlation between medical marijuana availability in US states, and trends in medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. These studies have been interpreted as evidence that use of medical marijuana reduces medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. This study evaluates whether medical marijuana use is a risk or protective factor for medical and nonmedical prescription drug use. METHODS: Simulations based upon logistic regression analyses of data from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compute associations between medical marijuana use, and medical and nonmedical prescription drug use...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Omolara T Uwemedimo, Todd P Lewis, Elsie A Essien, Grace J Chan, Humphreys Nsona, Margaret E Kruk, Hannah H Leslie
Background: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy was developed to standardise care in low-income and middle-income countries for major childhood illnesses and can effectively improve healthcare worker performance. Suboptimal clinical evaluation can result in missed diagnoses and excess morbidity and mortality. We estimate the sensitivity of pneumonia diagnosis and investigate its determinants among children in Malawi...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Sevasti Vergis, Linda Schiffer, Tiffany White, Andrew McLeod, Neda Khudeira, Andrew Demott, Marian Fitzgibbon, Susan Hughes, Lisa Tussing-Humphreys
Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA). Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9) were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
James L J Coleman, Margaret A Mouat, Jianxin Wu, Nikola Jancovski, Jaspreet K Bassi, Andrea Y Chan, David T Humphreys, Nadine Mrad, Ze-Yan Yu, Tony Ngo, Siiri Iismaa, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Michael P Feneley, Andrew M Allen, Robert M Graham, Nicola J Smith
BACKGROUND: Over 100 mammalian G protein-coupled receptors are yet to be matched with endogenous ligands; these so-called orphans are prospective drug targets for the treatment of disease. GPR37L1 is one such orphan, abundant in the brain and detectable as mRNA in the heart and kidney. GPR37L1 ablation was reported to cause hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, and thus, we sought to further define the role of GPR37L1 in blood pressure homeostasis. METHODS: We investigated the cardiovascular effects of GPR37L1 using wild-type (GPR37L1wt/wt ) and null (GPR37L1KO/KO ) mice established on a C57BL/6J background, both under baseline conditions and during AngII infusion...
April 6, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Tariq Mehmood Aslam, Zaria Christine Ali, Yanfang Wang, Cecilia Fenerty, Susmito Biswas, Emmanouil Tsamis, David Barry Henson
Purpose: To demonstrate utility of a game-based test ("Caspar's Castle") for the detection of visual field defects in children. Methods: A validity and reliability study was carried out at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital Pediatric Ophthalmology Outpatients Department. We recruited 108 children with no eye pathology (aged 4-12 years) and examined a single eye with the Caspar's Castle system using either normal thresholds or thresholds artificially adapted to recreate defects to assess diagnostic utility...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Siamak Yousefi, Hiroshi Sakai, Hiroshi Murata, Yuri Fujino, David Garway-Heath, Robert Weinreb, Ryo Asaoka
Purpose: To compare the hemifield asymmetry of visual field (VF) loss in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) across all severity levels. Methods: A total of 522 eyes of 327 patients with POAG (mean age ± SD, 54.1 ± 12.4 years) and 375 eyes of 204 patients with PACG (67.3 ± 8.9 years) were included. Subjects meeting the definitions of POAG or PACG were included. Means of the total deviation (TD) values (Humphrey 24-2 VF) in the Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT) regions were calculated in early (≥ -6 dB), moderate (< -6 dB and ≥ -12 dB), and advanced (< -12 dB) stages of POAG and PACG eyes...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christopher J Helal, Eric P Arnold, Tracey L Boyden, Cheng Chang, Thomas A Chappie, Kimberly F Fennell, Michael D Forman, Mihaly Hajos, John F Harms, William E Hoffman, John M Humphrey, Zhijun Kang, Robin J Kleiman, Bethany L Kormos, Erik A LaChapelle, Che-Wah Lee, Jiemin Lu, Noha Maklad, Laura McDowell, Scot Mente, Rebecca E O'Connor, Jayvardhan Pandit, Mary Piotrowski, Anne W Schmidt, Christopher J Schmidt, Hirokazu Ueno, Patrick R Verhoest, Edward X Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Rodrigo Abreu-Gonzalez, Marta Gonzalez-Hernandez, Cristina Pena-Betancor, Paloma Rodriguez-Esteve, Manuel Gonzalez De La Rosa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the specificity of new perimetric indices based on harmony, alone and in combination with structural data, for glaucoma detection. METHODS: In this prospective observational cross-sectional study, one eye of 105 healthy subjects and 97 early and suspect glaucomas were sequentially included and examined with Cirrus optical coherence tomography, twice with OCULUS Smartfield perimeter (SPARK strategy) and twice with Humphrey Analyzer (24-2 SITA-Fast) at the Ophthalmology Department from the University Hospital La Candelaria...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Chunwei Zhang, Andrew J Tatham, Fábio B Daga, Alessandro A Jammal, Felipe A Medeiros
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between progression assessed by the visual field guided progression analysis (GPA) and rates of structural and functional change in glaucoma eyes. METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of 135 eyes of 97 patients with glaucoma followed for an average of 3.5 ± 0.9 years. All patients had standard automated perimetry (SAP) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), with an average of 6...
April 5, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Julian Trachsel, Samuel Humphrey, Heather K Allen
A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, butyrate-producing coccus was cultured from the distal ileum of swine. This organism was isolated on rumen-fluid medium, consumes acetate, and produces butyrate as its major end product when grown on mono- and di-saccharides. A phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as whole-genome phylogenies suggests that this isolate is most closely related to species in the genus Butyricicoccus, with Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum being the closest named relative (93...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Keith Humphreys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Christian Ezeibe, Chukwudi Ilo, Chika Oguonu, Alphonsus Ali, Ifeanyi Abada, Ezinwanne Ezeibe, Chukwunonso Oguonu, Felicia Abada, Edwin Izueke, Humphrey Agbo
This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Nayuta Yoshioka, Barbara Zangerl, Jack Phu, Agnes Y J Choi, Sieu K Khuu, Katherine Masselos, Michael P Hennessy, Michael Kalloniatis
Purpose: To investigate the effect of stimulus size and disease status on the structure-function relationship within the central retina, we correlated the differential light sensitivity (DLS) with Goldmann stimulus size I to V (GI-V) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) derived in vivo ganglion cell count per stimulus area (GCc) within the macular area in normal subjects and patients with early glaucoma. Methods: Humphrey Field Analyzer 10-2 visual field data with GI through V and Spectralis OCT macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness measurements were collected from normal and early glaucoma cohorts including 25 subjects each...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ming Chen, Laura Kueny, Arthur L Schwartz
Purpose: There are multiple reports of the role of corneal hysteresis (CH) as an independent risk factor for the diagnosis and risk of progression of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Our study measured CH with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mmHg to investigate if a low CH would identify NTG in this Asian-based practice. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients who underwent routine eye examination during 2016 in a private practice in Honolulu, Hawaii, where most patients are Asian...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Rocco Chiou, Gina F Humphreys, JeYoung Jung, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Built upon a wealth of neuroimaging, neurostimulation, and neuropsychology data, a recent proposal set forth a framework termed controlled semantic cognition (CSC) to account for how the brain underpins the ability to flexibly use semantic knowledge (Lambon Ralph et al., 2017; Nature Reviews Neuroscience). In CSC, the 'semantic control' system, underpinned predominantly by the prefrontal cortex, dynamically monitors and modulates the 'semantic representation' system that consists of a 'hub' (anterior temporal lobe, ATL) and multiple 'spokes' (modality-specific areas)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Louise Eriksson, Jonas Bergh, Keith Humphreys, Fredrik Wärnberg, Sven Törnberg, Kamila Czene
Theoretically, time from breast cancer diagnosis to therapeutic surgery should affect survival. However, it is unclear whether this holds true in a modern healthcare setting in which breast cancer surgery is carried out within weeks to months of diagnosis. This is a population- and register-based study of all women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Stockholm-Gotland healthcare region in Sweden, 2001 - 2008, and who were initially operated. Follow-up of vital status ended 2014. 7017 women were included in analysis...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
P T Humphrey, A D Gloss, J Frazier, A C Nelson-Dittrich, S Faries, N K Whiteman
Organismal phenotypes often co-vary with environmental variables across broad geographic ranges. Less is known about the extent to which phenotypes match local conditions when multiple biotic and abiotic stressors vary at fine spatial scales. Bittercress (Brassicaceae: Cardamine cordifolia), a perennial forb, grows across a microgeographic mosaic of two contrasting herbivory regimes: high herbivory in meadows (sun habitats) and low herbivory in deeply shaded forest understories (shade habitats). We tested for local phenotypic differentiation in plant size, leaf morphology, and anti-herbivore defense (realized resistance and defensive chemicals, i...
March 30, 2018: Oecologia
Qifei Sun, Yipin Wu, Sima Jonusaite, John M Pleinis, John M Humphreys, Haixia He, Jeffrey N Schellinger, Radha Akella, Drew Stenesen, Helmut Krämer, Elizabeth J Goldsmith, Aylin R Rodan
Background With No Lysine kinase (WNK) signaling regulates mammalian renal epithelial ion transport to maintain electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Our previous studies showed a conserved role for WNK in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. Methods Using in vitro assays and transgenic Drosophila lines, we examined two potential WNK regulators, chloride ion and the scaffold protein mouse protein 25 (Mo25), in the stimulation of transepithelial ion flux. Results In vitro , autophosphorylation of purified Drosophila WNK decreased as chloride concentration increased...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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