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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752064/cell-specific-imd-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-responses-enable-simultaneous-antibacterial-immunity-and-intestinal-epithelial-cell-shedding-upon-bacterial-infection
#1
Zongzhao Zhai, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
Intestinal infection triggers potent immune responses to combat pathogens and concomitantly drives epithelial renewal to maintain barrier integrity. Current models propose that epithelial renewal is primarily driven by damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we found that in Drosophila, the Imd-NF-κB pathway controlled enterocyte (EC) shedding upon infection, via a mechanism independent of ROS-associated apoptosis. Mechanistically, the Imd pathway synergized with JNK signaling to induce epithelial cell shedding specifically in the context of bacterial infection, requiring also the reduced expression of the transcription factor GATAe...
May 3, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720654/male-killing-toxin-in-a-bacterial-symbiont-of-drosophila
#2
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Bruno Lemaitre
Several lineages of symbiotic bacteria in insects selfishly manipulate host reproduction to spread in a population 1 , often by distorting host sex ratios. Spiroplasma poulsonii2,3 is a helical and motile, Gram-positive symbiotic bacterium that resides in a wide range of Drosophila species 4 . A notable feature of S. poulsonii is male killing, whereby the sons of infected female hosts are selectively killed during development1,2 . Although male killing caused by S. poulsonii has been studied since the 1950s, its underlying mechanism is unknown...
May 2, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716962/bruno-3-regulates-sarcomere-components-expression-and-contributes-to-muscle-phenotypes-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#3
L Picchio, V Legagneux, S Deschamps, Y Renaud, S Chauveau, L Paillard, K Jagla
Steinert disease or Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder caused by toxic non-coding CUG repeat transcripts leading to altered levels of two RNA binding factors, MBNL1 and CELF1. The contribution of CELF1 to DM1 phenotypes is controversial. Here, we show that Drosophila CELF1 family member Bru - 3, contributes to pathogenic muscle defects observed in Drosophila model of DM1. Bru-3 displays predominantly cytoplasmic expression in muscles and its muscle-specific overexpression causes a range of phenotypes also observed in fly DM1 model including affected motility, fiber splitting, reduced myofiber length and altered myoblast fusion...
April 30, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603451/exploring-the-role-of-post-translational-modifications-in-regulating-%C3%AE-synuclein-interactions-by-studying-the-effects-of-phosphorylation-on-nanobody-binding
#4
Farah El Turk, Erwin De Genst, Tim Guilliams, Bruno Fauvet, Mirva Hejjaoui, Justin Di Trani, Anass Chiki, Anthony Mittermaier, Michele Vendruscolo, Hilal A Lashuel, Christopher M Dobson
Intracellular deposits of α-synuclein in the form of Lewy bodies are major hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and a range of related neurodegenerative disorders. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of α-synuclein are increasingly thought to be major modulators of its structure, function, degradation and toxicity. Among these PTMs, phosphorylation near the C-terminus at S129 has emerged as a dominant pathogenic modification as it is consistently observed to occur within the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of post-mortem PD patients, and its level appears to correlate with disease progression...
March 30, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593252/dedicated-photoreceptor-pathways-in-drosophila-larvae-mediate-navigation-by-processing-either-spatial-or-temporal-cues
#5
Tim-Henning Humberg, Pascal Bruegger, Bruno Afonso, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Marc Gershow, Aravinthan Samuel, Simon G Sprecher
To integrate changing environmental cues with high spatial and temporal resolution is critical for animals to orient themselves. Drosophila larvae show an effective motor program to navigate away from light sources. How the larval visual circuit processes light stimuli to control navigational decision remains unknown. The larval visual system is composed of two sensory input channels, Rhodopsin5 (Rh5) and Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) expressing photoreceptors (PRs). We here characterize how spatial and temporal information are used to control navigation...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588027/using-drosophila-to-understand-general-anesthesia-from-synapses-to-behavior
#6
Shanker Karunanithi, Michael Troup, Bruno van Swinderen
Investigating mechanisms of general anesthesia requires access to multiple levels of neuronal function, from effects at individual synapses to responses in behaving animals. Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model to test different theories for general anesthesia because it offers robust methods for testing local as well as global target processes, in an animal that is similarly impacted by these diverse drugs as humans. Here, we outline methods to quantify two such endpoints, neurotransmission and behavioral responsiveness, focusing on the intravenous drug propofol...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563258/common-and-unique-strategies-of-male-killing-evolved-in-two-distinct-drosophila-symbionts
#7
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Takema Fukatsu, Bruno Lemaitre
Male killing is a selfish reproductive manipulation caused by symbiotic bacteria, where male offspring of infected hosts are selectively killed. The underlying mechanisms and the process of their evolution are of great interest not only in terms of fundamental biology, but also their potential applications. The two bacterial Drosophila symbionts, Wolbachia and Spiroplasma , have independently evolved male-killing ability. This raises the question whether the underlying mechanisms share some similarities or are specific to each bacterial species...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559567/-in-vitro-culture-of-the-insect-endosymbiont-spiroplasma-poulsonii-highlights-bacterial-genes-involved-in-host-symbiont-interaction
#8
Florent Masson, Sandra Calderon Copete, Fanny Schüpfer, Gonzalo Garcia-Arraez, Bruno Lemaitre
Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with eukaryotic hosts are omnipresent in nature, particularly in insects. Studying the bacterial side of host-symbiont interactions is, however, often limited by the unculturability and genetic intractability of the symbionts. Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with several Drosophila species. S. poulsonii strongly affects its host's physiology, for example by causing male killing or by protecting it against various parasites...
March 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541686/isoflurane-impairs-low-frequency-feedback-but-leaves-high-frequency-feedforward-connectivity-intact-in-the-fly-brain
#9
Dror Cohen, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444437/mutations-in-cytosine-5-trna-methyltransferases-impact-mobile-element-expression-and-genome-stability-at-specific-dna-repeats
#10
Bianca Genenncher, Zeljko Durdevic, Katharina Hanna, Daniela Zinkl, Mehrpouya Balaghy Mobin, Nevcin Senturk, Bruno Da Silva, Carine Legrand, Clément Carré, Frank Lyko, Matthias Schaefer
The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5) RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389999/chinmo-prevents-transformer-alternative-splicing-to-maintain-male-sex-identity
#11
Lydia Grmai, Bruno Hudry, Irene Miguel-Aliaga, Erika A Bach
Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367674/tryptophan-hydroxylase-trh-loss-of-function-mutations-induce-growth-and-behavioral-defects-in-daphnia-magna
#12
Claudia Rivetti, Bruno Campos, Benjamín Piña, Demetrio Raldúa, Yasuhiko Kato, Hajime Watanabe, Carlos Barata
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH) is the rate limiting enzyme in the serotonin synthesis. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to generate seven indel TRH mutants in Daphnia magna. Mono-allelic indel TRH-/+ clones showed normal levels of serotonin, measured by both immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), whereas bi-allelic indel TRH-/- clones showed no detectable levels of serotonin. Life history and behavioral responses of TRH-/- clones showed the anti-phenotype of those exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364242/in-vivo-single-molecule-tracking-at-the-drosophila-presynaptic-motor-nerve-terminal
#13
Adekunle T Bademosi, Elsa Lauwers, Rumelo Amor, Patrik Verstreken, Bruno van Swinderen, Frédéric A Meunier
An increasing number of super-resolution microscopy techniques are helping to uncover the mechanisms that govern the nanoscale cellular world. Single-molecule imaging is gaining momentum as it provides exceptional access to the visualization of individual molecules in living cells. Here, we describe a technique that we developed to perform single-particle tracking photo-activated localization microscopy (sptPALM) in Drosophila larvae. Synaptic communication relies on key presynaptic proteins that act by docking, priming, and promoting the fusion of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180766/oscillatory-brain-activity-in-spontaneous-and-induced-sleep-stages-in-flies
#14
Melvyn H W Yap, Martyna J Grabowska, Chelsie Rohrscheib, Rhiannon Jeans, Michael Troup, Angelique C Paulk, Bart van Alphen, Paul J Shaw, Bruno van Swinderen
Sleep is a dynamic process comprising multiple stages, each associated with distinct electrophysiological properties and potentially serving different functions. While these phenomena are well described in vertebrates, it is unclear if invertebrates have distinct sleep stages. We perform local field potential (LFP) recordings on flies spontaneously sleeping, and compare their brain activity to flies induced to sleep using either genetic activation of sleep-promoting circuitry or the GABAA agonist Gaboxadol...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#15
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094110/enhanced-sleep-reverses-memory-deficits-and-underlying-pathology-in-drosophila-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Stephane Dissel, Markus Klose, Jeff Donlea, Lijuan Cao, Denis English, Raphaelle Winsky-Sommerer, Bruno van Swinderen, Paul J Shaw
To test the hypothesis that sleep can reverse cognitive impairment during Alzheimer's disease, we enhanced sleep in flies either co-expressing human amyloid precursor protein and Beta-secretase (APP:BACE), or in flies expressing human tau. The ubiquitous expression of APP:BACE or human tau disrupted sleep. The sleep deficits could be reversed and sleep could be enhanced when flies were administered the GABA-A agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP). Expressing APP:BACE disrupted both Short-term memory (STM) and Long-term memory (LTM) as assessed using Aversive Phototaxic Suppression (APS) and courtship conditioning...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084242/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activin-signaling-in-neurons-increases-susceptibility-to-starvation
#17
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Rafael Koch, Xiaoxue Li, Shu Kondo, Emi Nagoshi, Bruno Lemaitre
Animals rely on complex signaling network to mobilize its energy stores during starvation. We have previously shown that the sugar-responsive TGFβ/Activin pathway, activated through the TGFβ ligand Dawdle, plays a central role in shaping the post-prandial digestive competence in the Drosophila midgut. Nevertheless, little is known about the TGFβ/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism beyond the midgut. Here, we address the importance of Dawdle (Daw) after carbohydrate ingestion. We found that Daw expression is coupled to dietary glucose through the evolutionarily conserved Mio-Mlx transcriptional complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935608/mechanical-coupling-of-microtubule-dependent-motor-teams-during-peroxisome-transport-in-drosophila-s2-cells
#18
María Cecilia De Rossi, Diana E Wetzler, Lorena Benseñor, María Emilia De Rossi, Mariela Sued, Daniela Rodríguez, Vladimir Gelfand, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
BACKGROUND: Intracellular transport requires molecular motors that step along cytoskeletal filaments actively dragging cargoes through the crowded cytoplasm. Here, we explore the interplay of the opposed polarity motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein during peroxisome transport along microtubules in Drosophila S2 cells. METHODS: We used single particle tracking with nanometer accuracy and millisecond time resolution to extract quantitative information on the bidirectional motion of organelles...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#19
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
October 16, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874153/thioester-containing-proteins-regulate-the-toll-pathway-and-play-a-role-in-drosophila-defence-against-microbial-pathogens-and-parasitoid-wasps
#20
Anna Dostálová, Samuel Rommelaere, Mickael Poidevin, Bruno Lemaitre
BACKGROUND: Members of the thioester-containing protein (TEP) family contribute to host defence in both insects and mammals. However, their role in the immune response of Drosophila is elusive. In this study, we address the role of TEPs in Drosophila immunity by generating a mutant fly line, referred to as TEPq (Δ) , lacking the four immune-inducible TEPs, TEP1, 2, 3 and 4. RESULTS: Survival analyses with TEPq (Δ) flies reveal the importance of these proteins in defence against entomopathogenic fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and parasitoid wasps...
September 5, 2017: BMC Biology
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