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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923532/physiological-adaptations-to-sugar-intake-new-paradigms-from-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
REVIEW
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Ville Hietakangas, Bruno Lemaitre
Sugars are important energy sources, but high sugar intake poses a metabolic challenge and leads to diseases. Drosophila melanogaster is a generalist fruit breeder that encounters high levels of dietary sugars in its natural habitat. Consequently, Drosophila displays adaptive responses to dietary sugars, including highly conserved and unique metabolic adaptations not described in mammals. Carbohydrate homeostasis is maintained by a network comprising intracellular energy sensors, transcriptional regulators, and hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that together coordinate animal behavior, gut function, and metabolic flux...
December 3, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876630/disruptions-of-the-genes-involved-in-lysine-biosynthesis-iron-acquisition-and-secondary-metabolisms-affect-virulence-and-fitness-in-metarhizium-robertsii
#2
Bruno Giuliano Garisto Donzelli, B Gillian Turgeon, Donna M Gibson, Stuart B Krasnoff
Based on genomic analysis, polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathways account for biosynthesis of the majority of the secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. To evaluate the contribution of these pathways to M. robertsii fitness and/or virulence, mutants deleted for mrpptA, the Sfp-type 4' phosphopantetheinyl transferase gene required for their activation were generated. ΔmrpptA strains were deficient in PKS and NRPS activity resulting in colonies that lacked the typical green pigment and failed to produce the nonribosomal peptides (destruxins, serinocylins, and the siderophores ferricrocin and metachelins) as well as the hybrid polyketide-peptides (NG-39x) that are all produced by the wild type (WT) M...
November 19, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851910/pgrp-sd-an-extracellular-pattern-recognition-receptor-enhances-peptidoglycan-mediated-activation-of-the-drosophila-imd-pathway
#3
Igor Iatsenko, Shu Kondo, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Bruno Lemaitre
Activation of the innate immune response in Metazoans is initiated through the recognition of microbes by host pattern-recognition receptors. In Drosophila, diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-containing peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria is detected by the transmembrane receptor PGRP-LC and by the intracellular receptor PGRP-LE. Here, we show that PGRP-SD acted upstream of PGRP-LC as an extracellular receptor to enhance peptidoglycan-mediated activation of Imd signaling. Consistent with this, PGRP-SD mutants exhibited impaired activation of the Imd pathway and increased susceptibility to DAP-type bacteria...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771340/apoptotic-forces-in-tissue-morphogenesis
#4
Arnaud Ambrosini, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
It is now well established that apoptosis is induced in response to mechanical strain. Indeed, increasing compressive forces induces apoptosis in confined spheroids of tumour cells, whereas releasing stress reduces apoptosis in spheroids cultivated in free suspension (Abrams et al., 1993). Apoptosis can also be induced by applying a 100 to 250MPa pressure, as shown in different cultured cells (for review, see (Belacortu & Paricio, 2011)). During epithelium development, the pressure caused by a fast-growing clone can trigger apoptosis at the vicinity of the clone, mediating mechanical cell competition (Bertet et al...
October 19, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730580/performing-chromophore-assisted-laser-inactivation-in-drosophila-embryos-using-gfp
#5
Anne Pélissier-Monier, Bénédicte Sanson, Bruno Monier
Chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is an optogenetic technique in which light-induced release of reactive oxygen species triggers acute inactivation of a protein of interest, with high spatial and temporal resolution. At its simplest, selective protein inactivation can be achieved via the genetic fusion of the protein to a photosensitizer such as EGFP, and using standard optical setups such as laser scanning confocal microscopes. Although use of CALI in Drosophila is relatively recent, this technique can be a powerful complement to developmental genetics, especially in vivo as it allows visualization of the immediate consequences of local protein inactivation when coupled to time-lapse microscopy analysis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687129/flux-of-signalling-endosomes-undergoing-axonal-retrograde-transport-is-encoded-by-presynaptic-activity-and-trkb
#6
Tong Wang, Sally Martin, Tam H Nguyen, Callista B Harper, Rachel S Gormal, Ramon Martínez-Mármol, Shanker Karunanithi, Elizabeth J Coulson, Nick R Glass, Justin J Cooper-White, Bruno van Swinderen, Frédéric A Meunier
Axonal retrograde transport of signalling endosomes from the nerve terminal to the soma underpins survival. As each signalling endosome carries a quantal amount of activated receptors, we hypothesized that it is the frequency of endosomes reaching the soma that determines the scale of the trophic signal. Here we show that upregulating synaptic activity markedly increased the flux of plasma membrane-derived retrograde endosomes (labelled using cholera toxin subunit-B: CTB) in hippocampal neurons cultured in microfluidic devices, and live Drosophila larval motor neurons...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661080/intensity-of-mutualism-breakdown-is-determined-by-temperature-not-amplification-of-wolbachia-genes
#7
Chelsie E Rohrscheib, Francesca D Frentiu, Emilie Horn, Fiona K Ritchie, Bruno van Swinderen, Michael W Weible, Scott L O'Neill, Jeremy C Brownlie
Wolbachia are maternally transmitted intracellular bacterial symbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species. Though several strains of Wolbachia naturally infect Drosophila melanogaster and provide resistance against viral pathogens, or provision metabolites during periods of nutritional stress, one virulent strain, wMelPop, reduces fly lifespan by half, possibly as a consequence of over-replication. While the mechanisms that allow wMelPop to over-replicate are still of debate, a unique tandem repeat locus in the wMelPop genome that contains eight genes, referred to as the "Octomom" locus has been identified and is thought to play an important regulatory role...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659466/52-genetic-loci-influencing-myocardial%C3%A2-mass
#8
Pim van der Harst, Jessica van Setten, Niek Verweij, Georg Vogler, Lude Franke, Matthew T Maurano, Xinchen Wang, Irene Mateo Leach, Mark Eijgelsheim, Nona Sotoodehnia, Caroline Hayward, Rossella Sorice, Osorio Meirelles, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Ozren Polašek, Toshiko Tanaka, Dan E Arking, Sheila Ulivi, Stella Trompet, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Albert V Smith, Marcus Dörr, Kathleen F Kerr, Jared W Magnani, Fabiola Del Greco M, Weihua Zhang, Ilja M Nolte, Claudia T Silva, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Vinicius Tragante, Tõnu Esko, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Michiel E Adriaens, Karl Andersen, Phil Barnett, Joshua C Bis, Rolf Bodmer, Brendan M Buckley, Harry Campbell, Megan V Cannon, Aravinda Chakravarti, Lin Y Chen, Alessandro Delitala, Richard B Devereux, Pieter A Doevendans, Anna F Dominiczak, Luigi Ferrucci, Ian Ford, Christian Gieger, Tamara B Harris, Eric Haugen, Matthias Heinig, Dena G Hernandez, Hans L Hillege, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, Norbert Hubner, Shih-Jen Hwang, Annamaria Iorio, Mika Kähönen, Manolis Kellis, Ivana Kolcic, Ishminder K Kooner, Jaspal S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Edward G Lakatta, Kasper Lage, Lenore J Launer, Daniel Levy, Alicia Lundby, Peter W Macfarlane, Dalit May, Thomas Meitinger, Andres Metspalu, Stefania Nappo, Silvia Naitza, Shane Neph, Alex S Nord, Teresa Nutile, Peter M Okin, Jesper V Olsen, Ben A Oostra, Josef M Penninger, Len A Pennacchio, Tune H Pers, Siegfried Perz, Annette Peters, Yigal M Pinto, Arne Pfeufer, Maria Grazia Pilia, Peter P Pramstaller, Bram P Prins, Olli T Raitakari, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Ken M Rice, Elizabeth J Rossin, Jerome I Rotter, Sebastian Schafer, David Schlessinger, Carsten O Schmidt, Jobanpreet Sehmi, Herman H W Silljé, Gianfranco Sinagra, Moritz F Sinner, Kamil Slowikowski, Elsayed Z Soliman, Timothy D Spector, Wilko Spiering, John A Stamatoyannopoulos, Ronald P Stolk, Konstantin Strauch, Sian-Tsung Tan, Kirill V Tarasov, Bosco Trinh, Andre G Uitterlinden, Malou van den Boogaard, Cornelia M van Duijn, Wiek H van Gilst, Jorma S Viikari, Peter M Visscher, Veronique Vitart, Uwe Völker, Melanie Waldenberger, Christian X Weichenberger, Harm-Jan Westra, Cisca Wijmenga, Bruce H Wolffenbuttel, Jian Yang, Connie R Bezzina, Patricia B Munroe, Harold Snieder, Alan F Wright, Igor Rudan, Laurie A Boyer, Folkert W Asselbergs, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Bruno H Stricker, Bruce M Psaty, Marina Ciullo, Serena Sanna, Terho Lehtimäki, James F Wilson, Stefania Bandinelli, Alvaro Alonso, Paolo Gasparini, J Wouter Jukema, Stefan Kääb, Vilmundur Gudnason, Stephan B Felix, Susan R Heckbert, Rudolf A de Boer, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Andrew A Hicks, John C Chambers, Yalda Jamshidi, Axel Visel, Vincent M Christoffels, Aaron Isaacs, Nilesh J Samani, Paul I W de Bakker
BACKGROUND: Myocardial mass is a key determinant of cardiac muscle function and hypertrophy. Myocardial depolarization leading to cardiac muscle contraction is reflected by the amplitude and duration of the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormal QRS amplitude or duration reflect changes in myocardial mass and conduction, and are associated with increased risk of heart failure and death. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis sought to gain insights into the genetic determinants of myocardial mass...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650264/male-killing-symbiont-damages-host-s-dosage-compensated-sex-chromosome-to-induce-embryonic-apoptosis
#9
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Hisashi Anbutsu, Bruno Lemaitre, Takema Fukatsu
Some symbiotic bacteria are capable of interfering with host reproduction in selfish ways. How such bacteria can manipulate host's sex-related mechanisms is of fundamental interest encompassing cell, developmental and evolutionary biology. Here, we uncover the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Spiroplasma-induced embryonic male lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that many genes related to DNA damage and apoptosis are up-regulated specifically in infected male embryos...
September 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548432/the-regulatory-isoform-rpgrp-lc-induces-immune-resolution-via-endosomal-degradation-of-receptors
#10
Claudine Neyen, Christopher Runchel, Fanny Schüpfer, Pascal Meier, Bruno Lemaitre
The innate immune system needs to distinguish between harmful and innocuous stimuli to adapt its activation to the level of threat. How Drosophila mounts differential immune responses to dead and live Gram-negative bacteria using the single peptidoglycan receptor PGRP-LC is unknown. Here we describe rPGRP-LC, an alternative splice variant of PGRP-LC that selectively dampens immune response activation in response to dead bacteria. rPGRP-LC-deficient flies cannot resolve immune activation after Gram-negative infection and die prematurely...
October 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517084/local-versus-global-effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-visual-processing-in-the-fly-brain
#11
Dror Cohen, Oressia H Zalucki, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
What characteristics of neural activity distinguish the awake and anesthetized brain? Drugs such as isoflurane abolish behavioral responsiveness in all animals, implying evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether this conservation is reflected at the level of neural activity. Studies in humans have shown that anesthesia is characterized by spatially distinct spectral and coherence signatures that have also been implicated in the global impairment of cortical communication. We questioned whether anesthesia has similar effects on global and local neural processing in one of the smallest brains, that of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460796/cell-division-by-longitudinal-scission-in-the-insect-endosymbiont-spiroplasma-poulsonii
#12
Elodie Ramond, Catherine Maclachlan, Stéphanie Clerc-Rosset, Graham W Knott, Bruno Lemaitre
UNLABELLED: Spiroplasma bacteria are highly motile bacteria with no cell wall and a helical morphology. This clade includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster S. poulsonii bacteria are mainly found in the hemolymph of infected female flies and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. As is the case for many facultative endosymbionts, S. poulsonii can manipulate the reproduction of its host; in particular, S...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412266/the-labial-gene-is-required-to-terminate-proliferation-of-identified-neuroblasts-in-postembryonic-development-of-the-drosophila-brain
#13
Philipp A Kuert, Bruno C Bello, Heinrich Reichert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406568/the-role-of-lipid-competition-for-endosymbiont-mediated-protection-against-parasitoid-wasps-in-drosophila
#14
Juan C Paredes, Jeremy K Herren, Fanny Schüpfer, Bruno Lemaitre
UNLABELLED: Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii Our results indicate that S...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337563/chemometric-analysis-of-bacterial-peptidoglycan-reveals-atypical-modifications-that-empower-the-cell-wall-against-predatory-enzymes-and-fly-innate-immunity
#15
Akbar Espaillat, Oskar Forsmo, Khouzaima El Biari, Rafael Björk, Bruno Lemaitre, Johan Trygg, Francisco Javier Cañada, Miguel A de Pedro, Felipe Cava
Peptidoglycan is a fundamental structure for most bacteria. It contributes to the cell morphology and provides cell wall integrity against environmental insults. While several studies have reported a significant degree of variability in the chemical composition and organization of peptidoglycan in the domain Bacteria, the real diversity of this polymer is far from fully explored. This work exploits rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography and multivariate data analysis to uncover peptidoglycan chemical diversity in the Class Alphaproteobacteria, a group of Gram negative bacteria that are highly heterogeneous in terms of metabolism, morphology and life-styles...
July 27, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231872/remote-control-of-intestinal-stem-cell-activity-by-haemocytes-in-drosophila
#16
Sveta Chakrabarti, Jan Paul Dudzic, Xiaoxue Li, Esther Jeanne Collas, Jean-Phillipe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The JAK/STAT pathway is a key signaling pathway in the regulation of development and immunity in metazoans. In contrast to the multiple combinatorial JAK/STAT pathways in mammals, only one canonical JAK/STAT pathway exists in Drosophila. It is activated by three secreted proteins of the Unpaired family (Upd): Upd1, Upd2 and Upd3. Although many studies have established a link between JAK/STAT activation and tissue damage, the mode of activation and the precise function of this pathway in the Drosophila systemic immune response remain unclear...
May 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227072/trp-channels-a-missing-bond-in-the-entrainment-mechanism-of-peripheral-clocks-throughout-evolution
#17
REVIEW
Maristela O Poletini, Maria Nathália Moraes, Bruno César Ramos, Rodrigo Jerônimo, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Circadian rhythm may be understood as a temporal organization that works to orchestrate physiological processes and behavior in a period of approximately 24 h. Because such temporal organization has evolved in the presence of predictable environmental clues, such as day length, tides, seasons, and temperature, the organism has confronted the natural selection in highly precise intervals of opportunities and risks, generating temporal programs and resetting mechanisms, which are well conserved among different taxa of animals...
October 2015: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942287/disruption-of-pogz-is-associated-with-intellectual-disability-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Holly A F Stessman, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Osnat Penn, Alexander Hoischen, Bo Xiong, Tianyun Wang, Kendra Hoekzema, Laura Vives, Ida Vogel, Han G Brunner, Ineke van der Burgt, Charlotte W Ockeloen, Janneke H Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Jolien S Klein Wassink-Ruiter, Connie Stumpel, Servi J C Stevens, Hans S Vles, Carlo M Marcelis, Hans van Bokhoven, Vincent Cantagrel, Laurence Colleaux, Michael Nicouleau, Stanislas Lyonnet, Raphael A Bernier, Jennifer Gerdts, Bradley P Coe, Corrado Romano, Antonino Alberti, Lucia Grillo, Carmela Scuderi, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Malin Kvarnung, Hui Guo, Kun Xia, Amélie Piton, Bénédicte Gerard, David Genevieve, Bruno Delobel, Daphne Lehalle, Laurence Perrin, Fabienne Prieur, Julien Thevenon, Jozef Gecz, Marie Shaw, Rolph Pfundt, Boris Keren, Aurelia Jacquette, Annette Schenck, Evan E Eichler, Tjitske Kleefstra
Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are genetically heterogeneous, and a significant number of genes have been associated with both conditions. A few mutations in POGZ have been reported in recent exome studies; however, these studies do not provide detailed clinical information. We collected the clinical and molecular data of 25 individuals with disruptive mutations in POGZ by diagnostic whole-exome, whole-genome, or targeted sequencing of 5,223 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (ID primarily) or by targeted resequencing of this locus in 12,041 individuals with ASD and/or ID...
March 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887495/the-sexual-identity-of-adult-intestinal-stem-cells-controls-organ-size-and-plasticity
#19
Bruno Hudry, Sanjay Khadayate, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism...
February 18, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690827/accumulation-of-differentiating-intestinal-stem-cell-progenies-drives-tumorigenesis
#20
Zongzhao Zhai, Shu Kondo, Nati Ha, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Michael Brunner, Ryu Ueda, Bruno Lemaitre
Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are coordinated to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent cancer. Mutations causing stem cell proliferation are traditionally the focus of cancer studies. However, the contribution of the differentiating stem cell progenies in tumorigenesis is poorly characterized. Here we report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation programme of enteroblast (EB), the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut. This results in EB accumulation and formation of tumours...
2015: Nature Communications
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