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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#1
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874153/thioester-containing-proteins-regulate-the-toll-pathway-and-play-a-role-in-drosophila-defence-against-microbial-pathogens-and-parasitoid-wasps
#2
Anna Dostálová, Samuel Rommelaere, Mickael Poidevin, Bruno Lemaitre
BACKGROUND: Members of the thioester-containing protein (TEP) family contribute to host defence in both insects and mammals. However, their role in the immune response of Drosophila is elusive. In this study, we address the role of TEPs in Drosophila immunity by generating a mutant fly line, referred to as TEPq (Δ) , lacking the four immune-inducible TEPs, TEP1, 2, 3 and 4. RESULTS: Survival analyses with TEPq (Δ) flies reveal the importance of these proteins in defence against entomopathogenic fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and parasitoid wasps...
September 5, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870988/a-fluorescent-toolkit-for-spatiotemporal-tracking-of-apoptotic-cells-in-living-drosophila-tissues
#3
Sonia Schott, Arnaud Ambrosini, Audrey Barbaste, Corinne Benassayag, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
Far from being passive, apoptotic cells influence their environment. For instance, they promote tissue folding, myoblast fusion and modulate tumor growth. Understanding the role of apoptotic cells necessitates their efficient tracking within living tissues, a task which is currently challenging. In order to easily spot apoptotic cells in developing Drosophila tissues, we generated a series of fly lines expressing different fluorescent sensors of caspase activity. We show that three of these reporters (GFP, Cerulean and Venus derived molecules) are detected specifically in apoptotic cells and throughout the whole process of programmed cell death...
September 4, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854624/transposable-element-misregulation-is-linked-to-the-divergence-between-parental-pirna-pathways-in-drosophila-hybrids
#4
Valèria Romero-Soriano, Laurent Modolo, Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Bruno Mugat, Eugénie Pessia, Séverine Chambeyron, Cristina Vieira, Maria Pilar Garcia Guerreiro
Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827349/the-4e-bp-growth-pathway-regulates-the-effect-of-ambient-temperature-on-drosophila-metabolism-and-lifespan
#5
Gil B Carvalho, Ilaria Drago, Sany Hoxha, Ryuichi Yamada, Olena Mahneva, Kimberley D Bruce, Alina Soto Obando, Bruno Conti, William W Ja
Changes in body temperature can profoundly affect survival. The dramatic longevity-enhancing effect of cold has long been known in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, yet the underlying mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, this process is regulated by a thermosensitive membrane TRP channel and the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, but in more complex organisms the underpinnings of cold-induced longevity remain largely mysterious. We report that, in Drosophila melanogaster, variation in ambient temperature triggers metabolic changes in protein translation, mitochondrial protein synthesis, and posttranslational regulation of the translation repressor, 4E-BP (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein)...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808138/an-ampk-dependent-regulatory-pathway-in-tau-mediated-toxicity
#6
Alessia Galasso, Charles S Cameron, Bruno G Frenguelli, Kevin G Moffat
Neurodegenerative tauopathies are characterized by accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates primarily degraded by autophagy.The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is expressed in most cells, including neurons. Alongside its metabolic functions, it is also known to be activated in Alzheimer's brains, phosphorylate tau and be a critical autophagy activator. Whether it plays a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role remains unclear. Complexly in tauopathies, while stress conditions can result in AMPK activation enhancing tau-mediated toxicity, AMPK activation is not always concomitant with autophagic induction...
August 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760927/multiple-cis-acting-signals-some-weak-by-necessity-collectively-direct-robust-transport-of-oskar-mrna-to-the-oocyte
#7
Young Hee Ryu, Andrew Kenny, Youme Gim, Mark Snee, Paul M Macdonald
Localization of mRNAs can involve multiple steps, each with its own cis-acting localization signals and transport factors. How is the transition between different steps orchestrated? We show that the initial step in localization of Drosophila oskar mRNA - transport from nurse cells to the oocyte - relies on multiple cis-acting signals. Some of these are binding sites for the translational control factor Bruno, suggesting that Bruno plays an additional role in mRNA transport. Although transport of oskar mRNA is essential and robust, the localization activity of individual transport signals is weak...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662029/a-genetic-framework-controlling-the-differentiation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-during-regeneration-in-drosophila
#8
Zongzhao Zhai, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The speed of stem cell differentiation has to be properly coupled with self-renewal, both under basal conditions for tissue maintenance and during regeneration for tissue repair. Using the Drosophila midgut model, we analyze at the cellular and molecular levels the differentiation program required for robust regeneration. We observe that the intestinal stem cell (ISC) and its differentiating daughter, the enteroblast (EB), form extended cell-cell contacts in regenerating intestines. The contact between progenitors is stabilized by cell adhesion molecules, and can be dynamically remodeled to elicit optimal juxtacrine Notch signaling to determine the speed of progenitor differentiation...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457744/piwi-is-required-during-drosophila-embryogenesis-to-license-dual-strand-pirna-clusters-for-transposon-repression-in-adult-ovaries
#9
Abdou Akkouche, Bruno Mugat, Bridlin Barckmann, Carolina Varela-Chavez, Blaise Li, Raoul Raffel, Alain Pélisson, Séverine Chambeyron
Most piRNAs in the Drosophila female germline are transcribed from heterochromatic regions called dual-strand piRNA clusters. Histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) is required for licensing piRNA production by these clusters. However, it is unclear when and how they acquire this permissive heterochromatic state. Here, we show that transient Piwi depletion in Drosophila embryos results in H3K9me3 decrease at piRNA clusters in ovaries. This is accompanied by impaired biogenesis of ovarian piRNAs, accumulation of transposable element transcripts, and female sterility...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347816/evolutionary-conservation-of-notch-signaling-inhibition-by-tmem131l-overexpression
#10
Sébastien Szuplewski, Nesrine Maharzi, Elisabeth Nelson, Kutaiba Alhaj Hussen, Bernard Mignotte, Isabelle Guénal, Bruno Canque
Human KIAA0922/TMEM131L encodes a transmembrane protein, TMEM131L, that regulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by eliciting the lysosome-dependent degradation of phosphorylated LRP6 co-receptor. Here, we use a heterospecific Drosophila transgenic model to examine the potential evolutionary conservation of TMEM131L function. Analysis of TMEM131L transgenic flies shows that TMEM131L interference with the Wnt pathway results primarily from a Notch-dependent decrease in Wingless production. Consistently, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TMEM131L in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells leads to decreased susceptibility to Notch1 ligation and defective commitment toward the T lineage...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243212/transient-dysregulation-of-dopamine-signaling-in-a-developing-drosophila-arousal-circuit-permanently-impairs-behavioral-responsiveness-in-adults
#11
Lachlan Ferguson, Alice Petty, Chelsie Rohrscheib, Michael Troup, Leonie Kirszenblat, Darryl W Eyles, Bruno van Swinderen
The dopamine ontogeny hypothesis for schizophrenia proposes that transient dysregulation of the dopaminergic system during brain development increases the likelihood of this disorder in adulthood. To test this hypothesis in a high-throughput animal model, we have transiently manipulated dopamine signaling in the developing fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and examined behavioral responsiveness in adult flies. We found that either a transient increase of dopamine neuron activity or a transient decrease of dopamine receptor expression during fly brain development permanently impairs behavioral responsiveness in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123080/cortactin-is-a-regulator-of-activity-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-controlled-by-wingless
#12
Daniel Alicea, Marizabeth Perez, Carolina Maldonado, Carihann Dominicci-Cotto, Bruno Marie
Major signaling molecules initially characterized as key early developmental regulators are also essential for the plasticity of the nervous system. Previously, the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway was shown to underlie the structural and electrophysiological changes during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. A challenge remains to understand how this signal mediates the cellular changes underlying this plasticity. Here, we focus on the actin regulator Cortactin, a major organizer of protrusion, membrane mobility, and invasiveness, and define its new role in synaptic plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092765/cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-evaluation-of-surface-waters-from-a-coal-exploration-region
#13
Cynthia Silva Porta, Débora Lemes Dos Santos, Hélio Vieira Bernardes, Bruno Corrêa Bellagamba, Anaí Duarte, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Coal mining generates a considerable amount of waste, which is disposed of in piles or dams near mining sites. As a result, leachates may reach rivers and streams, promoting the wide dispersion of contaminants in solution and as particulate matter. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic action of surface waters collected around a thermoelectric power plant and the largest mining area in Brazil (Candiota). Four sites in Candiota stream were selected, and samples were collected in winter and summer...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091568/identification-of-misexpressed-genetic-elements-in-hybrids-between-drosophila-related-species
#14
Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Elias A G Carnelossi, Vincent Lacroix, Nelly Burlet, Bruno Mugat, Séverine Chambeyron, Claudia M A Carareto, Cristina Vieira
Crosses between close species can lead to genomic disorders, often considered to be the cause of hybrid incompatibility, one of the initial steps in the speciation process. How these incompatibilities are established and what are their causes remain unclear. To understand the initiation of hybrid incompatibility, we performed reciprocal crosses between two species of Drosophila (D. mojavensis and D. arizonae) that diverged less than 1 Mya. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on ovaries from parental lines and on hybrids from reciprocal crosses...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045048/in-vivo-single-molecule-imaging-of-syntaxin1a-reveals-polyphosphoinositide-and-activity-dependent-trapping-in-presynaptic-nanoclusters
#15
Adekunle T Bademosi, Elsa Lauwers, Pranesh Padmanabhan, Lorenzo Odierna, Ye Jin Chai, Andreas Papadopulos, Geoffrey J Goodhill, Patrik Verstreken, Bruno van Swinderen, Frédéric A Meunier
Syntaxin1A is organized in nanoclusters that are critical for the docking and priming of secretory vesicles from neurosecretory cells. Whether and how these nanoclusters are affected by neurotransmitter release in nerve terminals from a living organism is unknown. Here we imaged photoconvertible syntaxin1A-mEos2 in the motor nerve terminal of Drosophila larvae by single-particle tracking photoactivation localization microscopy. Opto- and thermo-genetic neuronal stimulation increased syntaxin1A-mEos2 mobility, and reduced the size and molecular density of nanoclusters, suggesting an activity-dependent release of syntaxin1A from the confinement of nanoclusters...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923532/physiological-adaptations-to-sugar-intake-new-paradigms-from-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
REVIEW
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Ville Hietakangas, Bruno Lemaitre
Sugars are important energy sources, but high sugar intake poses a metabolic challenge and leads to diseases. Drosophila melanogaster is a generalist fruit breeder that encounters high levels of dietary sugars in its natural habitat. Consequently, Drosophila displays adaptive responses to dietary sugars, including highly conserved and unique metabolic adaptations not described in mammals. Carbohydrate homeostasis is maintained by a network comprising intracellular energy sensors, transcriptional regulators, and hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that together coordinate animal behavior, gut function, and metabolic flux...
February 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876630/disruptions-of-the-genes-involved-in-lysine-biosynthesis-iron-acquisition-and-secondary-metabolisms-affect-virulence-and-fitness-in-metarhizium-robertsii
#17
Bruno Giuliano Garisto Donzelli, B Gillian Turgeon, Donna M Gibson, Stuart B Krasnoff
Based on genomic analysis, polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathways account for biosynthesis of the majority of the secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. To evaluate the contribution of these pathways to M. robertsii fitness and/or virulence, mutants deleted for mrpptA, the Sfp-type 4' phosphopantetheinyl transferase gene required for their activation were generated. ΔmrpptA strains were deficient in PKS and NRPS activity resulting in colonies that lacked the typical green pigment and failed to produce the nonribosomal peptides (destruxins, serinocylins, and the siderophores ferricrocin and metachelins) as well as the hybrid polyketide-peptides (NG-39x) that are all produced by the wild type (WT) M...
November 19, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851910/pgrp-sd-an-extracellular-pattern-recognition-receptor-enhances-peptidoglycan-mediated-activation-of-the-drosophila-imd-pathway
#18
Igor Iatsenko, Shu Kondo, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Bruno Lemaitre
Activation of the innate immune response in Metazoans is initiated through the recognition of microbes by host pattern-recognition receptors. In Drosophila, diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-containing peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria is detected by the transmembrane receptor PGRP-LC and by the intracellular receptor PGRP-LE. Here, we show that PGRP-SD acted upstream of PGRP-LC as an extracellular receptor to enhance peptidoglycan-mediated activation of Imd signaling. Consistent with this, PGRP-SD mutants exhibited impaired activation of the Imd pathway and increased susceptibility to DAP-type bacteria...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771340/apoptotic-forces-in-tissue-morphogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Arnaud Ambrosini, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
It is now well established that apoptosis is induced in response to mechanical strain. Indeed, increasing compressive forces induces apoptosis in confined spheroids of tumour cells, whereas releasing stress reduces apoptosis in spheroids cultivated in free suspension (Cheng et al., 2009). Apoptosis can also be induced by applying a 100 to 250MPa pressure, as shown in different cultured cells (for review, see (Frey et al., 2008)). During epithelium development, the pressure caused by a fast-growing clone can trigger apoptosis at the vicinity of the clone, mediating mechanical cell competition (Levayer et al...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730580/performing-chromophore-assisted-laser-inactivation-in-drosophila-embryos-using-gfp
#20
Anne Pélissier-Monier, Bénédicte Sanson, Bruno Monier
Chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is an optogenetic technique in which light-induced release of reactive oxygen species triggers acute inactivation of a protein of interest, with high spatial and temporal resolution. At its simplest, selective protein inactivation can be achieved via the genetic fusion of the protein to a photosensitizer such as EGFP, and using standard optical setups such as laser scanning confocal microscopes. Although use of CALI in Drosophila is relatively recent, this technique can be a powerful complement to developmental genetics, especially in vivo as it allows visualization of the immediate consequences of local protein inactivation when coupled to time-lapse microscopy analysis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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