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Perisaccadic compression

Steffen Klingenhoefer, Bart Krekelberg
Primates use frequent, rapid eye movements to sample their visual environment. This is a fruitful strategy to make the best use of the highly sensitive foveal part of the retina, but it requires neural mechanisms to bind the rapidly changing visual input into a single, stable percept. Studies investigating these neural mechanisms have typically assumed that perisaccadic perception in nonhuman primates matches that of humans. We tested this assumption by performing identical experiments in human and nonhuman primates...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
Maria Matziridi, Eli Brenner, Jeroen B J Smeets
Flashes presented around the time of a saccade appear to be closer to the saccade endpoint than they really are. The resulting compression of perceived positions has been found to increase with the amplitude of the saccade. In most studies on perisaccadic compression the head is static, so the eye-in-head movement is equal to the change in gaze. What if moving the head causes part of the change in gaze? Does decreasing the eye-in-head rotation by moving the head decrease the compression of perceived positions? To find out, we asked participants to shift their gaze between two positions, either without moving their head or with the head contributing to the change in gaze...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Sabine Born, Hannah M Krüger, Eckart Zimmermann, Patrick Cavanagh
Stimuli briefly flashed just before a saccade are perceived closer to the saccade target, a phenomenon known as perisaccadic compression of space (Ross et al., 1997). More recently, we have demonstrated that brief probes are attracted towards a visual reference when followed by a mask, even in the absence of saccades (Zimmermann et al., 2014a). Here, we ask whether spatial compression depends on the transient disruptions of the visual input stream caused by either a mask or a saccade. Both of these degrade the probe visibility but we show that low probe visibility alone causes compression in the absence of any disruption...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Antimo Buonocore, David Melcher
Our perception of the surrounding environment remains stable despite the fact that we frequently change the retinal position of input by rapid gaze shifts (saccades). There is a long-standing debate whether visual stability depends on an active mechanism using an efference copy of the impending saccadic motor command. Behavioral studies showing changes in perception around the time of saccades are consistent with a predictive mechanism, but previous studies of perceptual effects in humans confounded saccade programming with the resulting physical eye movement...
2015: Journal of Vision
Eckart Zimmermann
Visual objects presented briefly at the time of saccade onset appear compressed toward the saccade target. Compression strength depends on the presentation of a visual saccade target signal and is strongly reduced during the second saccade of a double-step saccade sequence (Zimmermann et al., 2014b). Here, I tested whether perisaccadic compression is linked to saccade planning by contrasting two double-step paradigms. In the same-direction double-step paradigm, subjects were required to perform two rightward 10° saccades successively...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Michele Fornaciai, Paola Binda
Briefly presented stimuli occurring just before or during a saccadic eye movement are mislocalized, leading to a compression of visual space toward the target of the saccade. In most cases this has been measured in subjects over-trained to perform a stereotyped and unnatural task where saccades are repeatedly driven to the same location, marked by a highly salient abrupt onset. Here, we asked to what extent the pattern of perisaccadic mislocalization depends on this specific context. We addressed this question by studying perisaccadic localization in a set of participants with no prior experience in eye-movement research, measuring localization performance as they practiced the saccade task...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Sabine Born, Eckart Zimmermann, Patrick Cavanagh
The visual input reaching our perceptual system is frequently disrupted: Objects may be temporarily occluded, the lighting might change abruptly, and drastic changes in the retinal image occur every time we move our eyes. Some phenomena, such as change blindness (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997), demonstrate the challenges of such visual disruptions for perception. In addition, previous research has reported dramatic localization errors around the time of visual disruptions: Stimuli briefly flashed just before a saccade are perceived closer to the saccade target, a phenomenon known as perisaccadic compression of space (Ross, Morrone, & Burr, 1997)...
2015: Journal of Vision
Maria Matziridi, Karl Gegenfurtner
Stimuli that are briefly presented around the time of a saccade tend to systematically be misperceived in a wrong location. In the total absence of visual references, this mislocalization reveals a uniform shift in the direction of the saccade. When visual references are available, a spatial compression of the stimuli's apparent locations towards the saccade target location or the endpoint of the saccade is revealed. A lot of research has been devoted on the role of visual references on perisaccadic compression, using a broad range of abstract stimuli on uniform backgrounds...
2015: Journal of Vision
Jan Churan, Dirk Hofmann, Philipp Hesse, Markus Lappe, Frank Bremmer
Visual perception across eye-movements is not veridical. As an example, saccadic eye-movements modulate the perceived location of a briefly flashed stimulus leading to a perceptual compression of space. During everyday-life eye movements occur also during navigation through an environment, thereby challenging the perception of self-motion direction (heading). Here we asked if saccades influence also the perceived heading in humans. We found a perisaccadic compression of perceived heading and aimed to identify a neural correlate of this new perceptual phenomenon in the animal model (macaque monkey)...
2015: Journal of Vision
Eckart Zimmermann, Maria Concetta Morrone, David Burr
Visual objects briefly presented around the time of saccadic eye movements are perceived compressed towards the saccade target. Here, we investigated perisaccadic mislocalization with a double-step saccade paradigm, measuring localization of small probe dots briefly flashed at various times around the sequence of the two saccades. At onset of the first saccade, probe dots were mislocalized towards the first and, to a lesser extent, also towards the second saccade target. However, there was very little mislocalization at the onset of the second saccade...
February 2015: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Eckart Zimmermann, M Concetta Morrone, David C Burr
Visual objects presented around the time of saccadic eye movements are strongly mislocalized towards the saccadic target, a phenomenon known as "saccadic compression." Here we show that perisaccadic compression is modulated by the presence of a visual saccadic target. When subjects saccaded to the center of the screen with no visible target, perisaccadic localization was more veridical than when tested with a target. Presenting a saccadic target sometime before saccade initiation was sufficient to induce mislocalization...
October 13, 2014: Journal of Vision
Wilsaan M Joiner, James Cavanaugh, Robert H Wurtz
Before each saccade, neurons in frontal eye field anticipate the impending eye movement by showing sensitivity to stimuli appearing where the neuron's receptive field will be at the end of the saccade, referred to as the future field (FF) of the neuron. We explored the time course of this anticipatory activity in monkeys by briefly flashing stimuli in the FF at different times before saccades. Different neurons showed substantial variation in FF time course, but two salient observations emerged. First, when we compared the time span of stimulus probes before the saccade to the time span of FF activity, we found a striking temporal compression of FF activity, similar to compression seen for perisaccadic stimuli in human psychophysics...
November 13, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jianliang Tong, Zhi-Lei Zhang, Christopher R L Cantor, Clifton M Schor
Perisaccadic spatial distortion (PSD) occurs when a target is flashed immediately before the onset of a saccade and it appears displaced in the direction of the saccade. In previous studies, the magnitude of PSD of a single target was affected by multiple experimental parameters, such as the target's luminance and its position relative to the central fixation target. Here we describe a contextual effect in which the magnitude of the PSD for a target was influenced by the synchronous presentation of another target: PSD for simultaneously presented targets was more uniform than when each was presented individually...
2012: Journal of Vision
Louisa Lavergne, Karine Doré-Mazars, Markus Lappe, Christelle Lemoine, Dorine Vergilino-Perez
Around the onset of a saccade toward a target, localization judgments are systematically biased toward the saccade endpoint. This perisaccadic compression is thought to be related to transsaccadic reorganization and due to interfering motor signals in visual maps. It has, however, only been investigated for saccades targeting a single target. Here, we examined whether saccade-sequence programming to stationary target(s) would affect the pattern of localization judgments of a briefly flashed stimulus. We presented saccade targets that could induce either a single saccade or two-saccade sequences and we flashed a bar around saccade onsets...
2012: Journal of Vision
Michela Panichi, David Burr, Maria Concetta Morrone, Stefano Baldassi
We actively scan our environment with fast ballistic movements called saccades, which create large and rapid displacements of the image on the retina. At the time of saccades, vision becomes transiently distorted in many ways: Briefly flashed stimuli are displaced in space and in time, and spatial and temporal intervals appear compressed. Here we apply the psychophysical technique of classification images to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of visual mechanisms during saccades. We show that saccades cause gross distortions of the classification images...
2012: Journal of Vision
Marc Zirnsak, Ricarda G K Gerhards, Roozbeh Kiani, Markus Lappe, Fred H Hamker
As we shift our gaze to explore the visual world, information enters cortex in a sequence of successive snapshots, interrupted by phases of blur. Our experience, in contrast, appears like a movie of a continuous stream of objects embedded in a stable world. This perception of stability across eye movements has been linked to changes in spatial sensitivity of visual neurons anticipating the upcoming saccade, often referred to as shifting receptive fields (Duhamel et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1995; Umeno and Goldberg, 1997; Nakamura and Colby, 2002)...
December 7, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jordan Pola
A large number of experiments show that perisaccadic flash mislocalization can vary according to the spatial location of the flash relative to the saccade, especially in the presence of background stimuli. The temporal attributes of this mislocalization suggest that, around the time of a saccade, a transient compression of visual space occurs. The present study offers a model to account for such compression. A basic aspect of the model is that the mislocalization is a consequence of flash retinal signal persistence interacting with an extraretinal signal...
February 23, 2011: Vision Research
Alby Richard, Jan Churan, Daniel E Guitton, Christopher C Pack
Our ability to explore our surroundings requires a combination of high-resolution vision and frequent rotations of the visual axis toward objects of interest. Such gaze shifts are themselves a source of powerful retinal stimulation, and so the visual system appears to have evolved mechanisms to maintain perceptual stability during movements of the eyes in space. The mechanisms underlying this perceptual stability can be probed in the laboratory by briefly presenting a stimulus around the time of a saccadic eye movement and asking subjects to report its position...
August 12, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Paul Reeve, James J Clark, J Kevin O'Regan
Visual space is sometimes said to be "compressed" before saccadic eye movements. The most central evidence for this hypothesis is a converging pattern of localization errors on single flashes presented close to saccade time under certain conditions. An intuitive version of the compression hypothesis predicts that the reported distance between simultaneous, spatially separated presaccadic flashes should contract in the same way as their individual locations. In our experiment we tested this prediction by having subjects perform one of two tasks on stimuli made up of two bars simultaneously flashed near saccade time: either localizing one of the bars or judging the separation between the two...
2008: Journal of Vision
Sigrid M C I Van Wetter, A John Van Opstal
Localization of a brief visual target is inaccurate when presented around saccade onset. Perisaccadic mislocalization is maximal in the saccade direction and varies systematically with the target-saccade onset disparity. It has been hypothesized that this effect is either due to a sluggish representation of eye position, to low-pass filtering of the visual event, to saccade-induced compression of visual space, or to a combination of these effects. Despite their differences, these schemes all predict that the pattern of localization errors varies systematically with the saccade amplitude and kinematics...
2008: Journal of Vision
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