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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679812/protective-role-of-nimbolide-against-chemotherapeutic-drug-hydroxyurea-induced-genetic-and-oxidative-damage-in-an-animal-model
#1
Md Fahim Ahmad, Mohd Owais Ansari, Sana Jameel, Ab Latif Wani, Nuzhat Parveen, Hifzur R Siddique, G G H A Shadab
Nimbolide is known to be an antioxidant found in neem plant. Hydroxyurea is a medication frequently used in sickle-cell disease, different cancers and HIV infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of HU and possible amelioration by nimbolide in Wistar rats. To test our hypothesis, we performed genotoxicity tests, biochemical assays, and histopathological studies. We observed that HU caused higher levels of genotoxicity in the treated animals. The observed genetic and oxidative damage might be due to the presence of reactive species as HU increased the level of the malondialdehyde-a biomarker of oxidative damage...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679745/integrated-genomic-and-metabolomic-profiling-of-isc1-an-emerging-leishmania-donovani-population-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#2
Bart Cuypers, Maya Berg, Hideo Imamura, Franck Dumetz, Géraldine De Muylder, Malgorzata A Domagalska, Suman Rijal, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Ilse Maes, Mandy Sanders, James A Cotton, Pieter Meysman, Kris Laukens, Jean-Claude Dujardin
Leishmania donovani is the responsible agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). The disease is lethal without treatment and causes 0.2 to 0.4 million cases each year. Recently, reports of VL in Nepalese hilly districts have increased as well as VL cases caused by L. donovani from the ISC1 genetic group, a new and emerging genotype. In this study, we perform for the first time an integrated, untargeted genomics and metabolomics approach to characterize ISC1, in comparison with the Core Group (CG), main population that drove the last outbreak of VL in the ISC...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679657/eleven-loci-with-new-reproducible-genetic-associations-with-allergic-disease-risk
#3
Manuel Ar Ferreira, Judith M Vonk, Hansjörg Baurecht, Ingo Marenholz, Chao Tian, Joshua D Hoffman, Quinta Helmer, Annika Tillander, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Yi Lu, Franz Rüschendorf, David A Hinds, Norbert Hübner, Stephan Weidinger, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Eric Jorgenson, Young-Ae Lee, Dorret I Boomsma, Robert Karlsson, Catarina Almqvist, Gerard H Koppelman, Lavinia Paternoster
BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 99 loci that contain genetic risk variants shared between asthma, hay fever and eczema. Many more risk loci shared between these common allergic diseases remain to be discovered, which could point to new therapeutic opportunities. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel risk loci shared between asthma, hay fever and eczema by applying a gene-based test of association to results from a published GWAS that included data from 360,838 individuals...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679617/retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-review-of-risk-factors-and-their-clinical-significance
#4
REVIEW
Sang Jin Kim, Alexander D Port, Ryan Swan, J Peter Campbell, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors...
April 19, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679399/inherited-epidermolysis-bullosa-new-diagnostics-and-new-clinical-phenotypes
#5
Cristina Has, Judith Fischer
Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by skin fragility. EB comprises a large spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from severe cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement caused by lack of key adhesion proteins, to mild cutaneous fragility caused by subtle molecular defects. Disease-causing variants in 20 different genes account for the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of EB. Here we discuss the development of laboratory methods that enabled these discoveries and the clinical and molecular features of some new EB entities elucidated during the past 5-6 years...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679366/blood-group-and-incidence-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Bożena Mroczek, Zygmunt Sitko, Agnieszka Sujewicz, Weronika Wolińska, Iwona Karpeta-Pawlak, Donata Kurpas
Chronic respiratory diseases are determined by genetic predisposition, and environmental and socioeconomic variables. One genetic factor underlying susceptibility to such diseases can be the ABO blood group system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that there would be a relationship between the blood group and risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We reviewed medical history files of patients with the diagnosis of COPD or asthma, including those suffering from a cancerous disease accompanied by asthma or COPD, hospitalized from January 2016 to July 2017...
April 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679304/analytic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-and-its-impact-on-vascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Soo-Sang Kang, Robert S Rosenson
Homocysteine is an intermediary metabolite in the methionine cycle. Accumulation of homocysteine is caused either by mutation of relevant genes or by nutritional depletion of related vitamin(s). This review covers the historical background of hyperhomocysteinemia in which indispensable subjects in relation to underlying pathophysiological processes are discussed with the view of metabolism and genetics of folate and methionine cycles. This review emphasizes the unique role of homocysteine that is clearly distinct from other risk factors, particularly cholesterol in the development of vascular disease...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679010/genetically-engineered-two-warhead-evasins-provide-a-method-to-achieve-precision-targeting-of-disease-relevant-chemokine-subsets
#8
Yara Alenazi, Kamayani Singh, Graham Davies, James R O Eaton, Philip Elders, Akane Kawamura, Shoumo Bhattacharya
Both CC and CXC-class chemokines drive inflammatory disease. Tick salivary chemokine-binding proteins (CKBPs), or evasins, specifically bind subsets of CC- or CXC-chemokines, and could precisely target disease-relevant chemokines. Here we have used yeast surface display to identify two tick evasins: a CC-CKBP, P1243 from Amblyomma americanum and a CXC-CKBP, P1156 from Ixodes ricinus. P1243 binds 11 CC-chemokines with Kd  < 10 nM, and 10 CC-chemokines with Kd between 10 and 100 nM. P1156 binds two ELR + CXC-chemokines with Kd  < 10 nM, and four ELR + CXC-chemokines with Kd between 10 and 100 nM...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678953/metabolic-adjustment-to-high-altitude-hypoxia-from-genetic-signals-to-physiological-implications
#9
REVIEW
Andrew J Murray, Hugh E Montgomery, Martin Feelisch, Michael P W Grocott, Daniel S Martin
Ascent to high altitude is associated with physiological responses that counter the stress of hypobaric hypoxia by increasing oxygen delivery and by altering tissue oxygen utilisation via metabolic modulation. At the cellular level, the transcriptional response to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and results in promotion of glycolytic capacity and suppression of oxidative metabolism. In Tibetan highlanders, gene variants encoding components of the HIF pathway have undergone selection and are associated with adaptive phenotypic changes, including suppression of erythropoiesis and increased blood lactate levels...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678917/genomic-inference-of-recombination-mediated-evolution-in-xanthomonas-euvesicatoria-and-x-perforans
#10
Mustafa O Jibrin, Neha Potnis, Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, Gary E Vallad, Pamela D Roberts, Jeffrey B Jones, Erica M Goss
Recombination is a major driver of evolution in bacterial populations because it can spread and combine independently evolved beneficial mutations. Recombinant lineages of plant bacterial pathogens are typically associated with colonization of novel hosts and emergence of new diseases. Here, we show that recombination between evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct plant pathogenic lineages generated recombinant lineages with unique combinations of pathogenicity and virulence factors. X. euvesicatoria ( Xe ) and X...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678888/bovine-spastic-syndrome-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Victoria Goeckmann, Sophie Rothammer, Ivica Medugorac
Bovine spastic syndrome (BSS) was described for the first time in 1941. The disease occurs in various-maybe even all-cattle breeds and is a chronic-progressive neuromuscular disorder that commonly affects cattle of at least three years of age. Typical clinical signs of the disease are clonic-tonic cramps of the hindlimbs that occur in attacks. Since BSS does not recover, affected animals can only be treated symptomatically by improving welfare conditions and management factors, or with physical therapy or drugs...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678753/human-apolipoprotein-e-genotype-differentially-affects-olfactory-behavior-and-sensory-physiology-in-mice
#12
Brett S East, Gloria Fleming, Kathy Peng, Jonas K Olofsson, Efrat Levy, Paul M Mathews, Donald A Wilson
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an important lipid carrier in both the periphery and the brain. The ApoE ε4 allele (ApoE4) is the single most important genetic risk-factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) while the ε 2 allele (ApoE2) is associated with a lower risk of AD-related neurodegeneration compared to the most common variant, ε 3 (ApoE3). ApoE genotype affects a variety of neural circuits; however, the olfactory system appears to provide early biomarkers of ApoE genotype effects. Here, we directly compared olfactory behavior and olfactory system physiology across all three ApoE genotypes in 6-month- and 12-month-old mice with targeted replacement for the human ApoE2, ApoE3, or ApoE4 genes...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678681/genome-wide-meta-analysis-identifies-novel-gender-specific-loci-associated-with-thyroid-antibodies-level-in-croatians
#13
Antonela Matana, Marijana Popović, Thibaud Boutin, Vesela Torlak, Dubravka Brdar, Ivana Gunjača, Ivana Kolčić, Vesna Boraska Perica, Ante Punda, Ozren Polašek, Caroline Hayward, Maja Barbalić, Tatijana Zemunik
Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are multifactorial endocrine diseases most frequently accompanied by Tg and TPO autoantibodies. Both antibodies have a higher prevalence in females and act under a strong genetic influence. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid antibody levels, we performed GWAS meta-analysis on the plasma levels of TgAb and TPOAb in three Croatian cohorts, as well as gender specific GWAS and a bivariate analysis. No significant association was detected with the level of TgAb and TPOAb in the meta-analysis of GWAS or bivariate results for all individuals...
April 17, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678672/genetic-restriction-of-antigen-presentation-dictates-allergic-sensitization-and-disease-in-humanized-mice
#14
Alina Neunkirchner, Bernhard Kratzer, Cordula Köhler, Ursula Smole, Lukas F Mager, Klaus G Schmetterer, Doris Trapin, Victoria Leb-Reichl, Edward Rosloniec, Ronald Naumann, Lukas Kenner, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid, Barbara Bohle, Rudolf Valenta, Winfried F Pickl
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin(Ig)E-associated allergies result from misguided immune responses against innocuous antigens. CD4+ T lymphocytes are critical for initiating and perpetuating that process, yet the crucial factors determining whether an individual becomes sensitized towards a given allergen remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the key factors for sensitization and allergy towards a given allergen. METHODS: We here created a novel human T cell receptor(TCR) and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 (TCR-DR1) transgenic mouse model of asthma, based on the human-relevant major mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen allergen Art v 1 to examine the critical factors for sensitization and allergy upon natural allergen exposure via the airways in the absence of systemic priming and adjuvants...
April 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678354/actin-dynamics-at-focal-adhesions-a-common-endpoint-and-putative-therapeutic-target-for-proteinuric-kidney-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Sanja Sever, Mario Schiffer
Proteinuria encompasses diverse causes including both genetic diseases and acquired forms such as diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy. The basis of proteinuria is a disturbance in size selectivity of the glomerular filtration barrier, which largely depends on the podocyte: a terminally differentiated epithelial cell type covering the outer surface of the glomerulus. Compromised podocyte structure is one of the earliest signs of glomerular injury. The phenotype of diverse animal models and podocyte cell culture firmly established the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton in maintaining functional podocyte structure...
April 17, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678289/pathophysiology-of-melanocortin-receptors-and-their-accessory-proteins
#16
REVIEW
T V Novoselova, L F Chan, A J L Clark
The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and their accessory proteins (MRAPs) are involved in regulation of a diverse range of endocrine pathways. Genetic variants of these components result in phenotypic variation and disease. The MC1R is expressed in skin and variants in the MC1R gene are associated with ginger hair color. The MC2R mediates the action of ACTH in the adrenal gland to stimulate glucocorticoid production and MC2R mutations result in familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD). MC3R and MC4R are involved in metabolic regulation and their gene variants are associated with severe pediatric obesity, whereas the function of MC5R remains to be fully elucidated...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678284/aberrant-g-protein-coupled-hormone-receptor-in-adrenal-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Matthieu St-Jean, Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The regulation of cortisol or aldosterone production when ACTH of pituitary origin or the renin-angiotensin systems are suppressed in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome or in primary aldosteronism is exerted by diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. In addition to recently identified mutations in various genes implicated in the cyclic AMP or ion channel pathways, steroidogenesis is not really autonomous as it is frequently regulated by the aberrant adrenocortical expression of diverse hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) which can substitute for the normal function of ACTH or angiotensin-II...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678282/multiple-hormone-resistance-and-alterations-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Mantovani Giovanna, Elli Francesca Marta
Metabolic disorders deriving from the non-responsiveness of target organs to hormones, which manifest clinically similar to the deficiency of a given hormone itself, derive from molecular alterations affecting specific hormone receptors. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and related disorders exemplify an unusual form of hormone resistance as the underlying molecular defect is a partial deficiency of the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a key regulator of cAMP signaling pathway, or, as more recently described, of downstream effector proteins of the same pathway, such as PKA regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) and phosphodyestarase type 4D (PDE4D)...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678232/type-i-and-type-ii-cytokine-production-of-cd4-t-cells-in-immune-response-biased-dairy-cattle-around-calving
#19
M A Paibomesai, S Sharif, N Karrow, B A Mallard
The peripartum period is a period of high stress, transition and management changes for dairy cows. It is associated with higher incidence of both metabolic and pathogenic disease. Both antibody-(AMIR) and cell-(CMIR) mediated immune responses play a key role in the maintenance of health in mammals protecting against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. Generally, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been associated with CMIR, whereas interleukin 4 (IL-4) has been associated with AMIR bias, and interleukin 17 (IL-17A) is associated with pro-inflammatory...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678231/incorporation-of-membrane-anchored-flagellin-into-salmonella-gallinarum-bacterial-ghosts-induces-early-immune-responses-and-protection-against-fowl-typhoid-in-young-layer-chickens
#20
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Je Hyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
The present study aimed to investigate whether the incorporation of flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, in the bacterial ghosts (BGs) of Salmonella Gallinarum can enhance protective immune responses against fowl typhoid, a septicemic disease of poultry, in chickens. BGs are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria through the bacteriophage phiX174 gene E mediated lysis. In this study, the S. Gallinarum ghosts carrying flagellin were genetically constructed utilizing a lysis plasmid pJHL184-flagellin, designed for the coexpression of the flagellin and the lysis protein E...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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