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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110574/comparison-of-medical-therapy-alone-to-medical-therapy-with-surgical-treatment-of-peritonsillar-abscess
#1
Alex Battaglia, Raoul Burchette, Jacob Hussman, Matthew A Silver, Peter Martin, Paul Bernstein
Objective This study was performed to determine whether the efficacy and safety of medical management of uncomplicated peritonsillar abscess (PTA) presenting in the emergency department is equivalent to medical plus surgical therapy. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Southern California Permanente Medical Group (SCPMG). Subjects and Methods Upon successful completion of a prospective study comparing medical treatment (MT) to surgical treatment (ST) of PTA in 2008, MT was adopted by 12 SCPMG centers while 7 centers continued standard surgical drainage...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106885/outpatient-management-of-pediatric-acute-mastoiditis
#2
Ahmed Alkhateeb, Francis Morin, Haya Aziz, Mayuri Manogaran, William Guertin, Melanie Duval
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Montreal Children's Hospital experience with outpatient management of uncomplicated acute mastoiditis with parenteral antibiotic therapy alone and determine if it is a safe alternative to inpatient management. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A retrospective review of pediatric patients diagnosed with acute mastoiditis at a tertiary care pediatric hospital between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Patients with syndromes, immunodeficiency, cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media, cochlear implant in the affected ear, or incidental mastoid opacity were excluded...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089731/to-compare-the-effectiveness-of-short-term-three-dose-perioperative-antibiotic-coverage-during-decisive-period-with-conventional-prolonged-postoperative-antibiotic-usage-in-clean-elective-surgical-cases-an-indian-perspective
#3
Sudhir Khichy, Baldev Singh, Manpreet Singh, Sukha Singh
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are the most common postoperative complications and frequently cause morbidity and mortality. Different antibiotic regimens were evaluated as prophylaxis in wound infection following elective surgical procedures. Prophylactic antibiotics should be given to cover the "decisive period" which is a period after incision to mobilization of host defenses thus preventing an infection from developing. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to study the effectiveness of short-term antibiotic coverage during decisive period in the prevention of postoperative wound sepsis in clean surgical cases...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067946/can-post-operative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-following-elective-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-be-completely-done-away-with-in-the-indian-setting-a-prospective-randomised-study
#4
Vikram Singh Chauhan, P L Kariholu, Sabyasachi Saha, Himanshu Singh, Jasmine Ray
Premise and Objective: Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has low risk for post-operative infectious complications; still most clinicians use persistent post-operative prophylactic antibiotics out of habit, tradition, or simply as defensive practice due to evolving medicolegal implications of a large number of surgeries being showcased as daycare or next day discharge procedures. This randomised prospective trial was done to test the need for such prophylaxis in cases of elective LC in a rural/semi-urban setting...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067702/simulation-based-evaluation-of-the-linear-mixed-model-in-the-presence-of-an-increasing-proportion-of-singletons
#5
Robin Bruyndonckx, Niel Hens, Marc Aerts
Data in medical sciences often have a hierarchical structure with lower level units (e.g. children) nested in higher level units (e.g. departments). Several specific but frequently studied settings, mainly in longitudinal and family research, involve a large number of units that tend to be quite small, with units containing only one element referred to as singletons. Regardless of sparseness, hierarchical data should be analyzed with appropriate methodology such as, for example linear-mixed models. Using a simulation study, based on the structure of a data example on Ceftriaxone consumption in hospitalized children, we assess the impact of an increasing proportion of singletons (0-95%), in data with a low, medium, or high intracluster correlation, on the stability of linear-mixed models parameter estimates, confidence interval coverage and F test performance...
October 25, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020150/a-multicenter-study-evaluating-ceftriaxone-and-benzathine-penicillin-g-as-treatment-agents-for-early-syphilis-in-jiangsu-china
#6
Yuping Cao, Xiaohong Su, Qianqiu Wang, Huazhong Xue, Xiaofeng Zhu, Chuanfu Zhang, Juan Jiang, Shuzhen Qi, Xiangdong Gong, Xiaofang Zhu, Min Pan, Hong Ren, Wenlong Hu, Zhiping Wei, Meihua Tian, Weida Liu
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ceftriaxone and benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in nonpregnant, immunocompetent adults with early syphilis because there is a lack of clinical evidence supporting ceftriaxone as an alternative treatment for early syphilis without an human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Methods: A randomized, open-label controlled study evaluating the efficacy of ceftriaxone and BPG was conducted in 4 hospitals in Jiangsu Province...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016327/molecular-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-salmonella-paratyphi-a-isolated-from-patients-with-bacteremia-in-nepal
#7
Jatan Bahadur Sherchan, Masatomo Morita, Takashi Matono, Hidemasa Izumiya, Makoto Ohnishi, Jeevan B Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Ujjwal Laghu, Maki Nagamatsu, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Kayoko Hayakawa
Little is known about the epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Nepal. We aimed to elucidate the molecular and clinical epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Nepal. Isolates were collected from 23 cases of bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A between December 2014 and October 2015. Thirteen patients (57%) were male, and the median age was 21 years. None of the patients had an underlying chronic disease. All S. Paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991759/the-importance-of-perioperative-prophylaxis-with-cefuroxime-or-ceftriaxone-in-the-surgical-site-infections-prevention-after-cranial-and-spinal-neurosurgical-procedures
#8
Aleksandra Dimovska-Gavrilovska, Aleksandar Chaparoski, Andreja Gavrilovski, Zvonko Milenkovikj
Introduction Surgical site infections pose a significant problem in the treatment of neurosurgical procedures, regardless of the application of perioperative prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics. The infection rate in these procedures ranges from less than 1% to above 15%. Different antibiotics and administration regimes have been used in the perioperative prophylaxis so far, and there are numerous comparative studies regarding their efficiency, however, it is generally indicated that the choice thereof should be based on information and local specifics connected to the most probable bacterial causers, which would possibly contaminate the surgical site and cause infection, and moreover, the mandatory compliance with the principles of providing adequate concentration of the drug at the time of the anticipated contamination...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978652/evaluating-an-admission-avoidance-pathway-for-children-in-the-emergency-department-outpatient-intravenous-antibiotics-for-moderate-severe-cellulitis
#9
Laila F Ibrahim, Sandy M Hopper, Tom G Connell, Andrew J Daley, Penelope A Bryant, Franz E Babl
OBJECTIVE: Children with moderate/severe cellulitis requiring intravenous antibiotics are usually admitted to hospital. Admission avoidance is attractive but there are few data in children. We implemented a new pathway for children to be treated with intravenous antibiotics at home and aimed to describe the characteristics of patients treated on this pathway and in hospital and to evaluate the outcomes. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational cohort study of children aged 6 months-18 years attending the ED with uncomplicated moderate/severe cellulitis in March 2014-January 2015...
October 4, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971862/efficacy-of-ceftriaxone-cefepime-doxycycline-ciprofloxacin-and-combination-therapy-for-vibrio-vulnificus-foodborne-septicemia
#10
Sonya A Trinh, Hannah E Gavin, Karla J F Satchell
Vibrio vulnificus foodborne infections have higher rates of sepsis and mortality compared to wound infections; however, antibiotic efficacy studies have not been performed in foodborne infection models. The efficacy of ceftriaxone, cefepime, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and combination therapy was assessed in a V. vulnificus intestinal infection in mice to model foodborne infections. Consistent with prior studies of cefotaxime, cefepime was synergistic with doxycycline and ciprofloxacin in vitro; combination therapy significantly decreased bacterial growth by ≥2log10 compared to antibiotic monotherapy (p<0...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964280/pediatric-neck-abscesses-no-increase-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Avital Fellner, Tal Marom, Limor Muallem-Kalmovich, Nathan Shlamkovitch, Ephraim Eviatar, Tzilia Lazarovitch, Jacob Pitaro
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies from Western countries showed an increased incidence rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from pediatric neck abscesses cultures. We sought to examine the microbiology and antibiotic susceptibility of such samples over a 10-year period, and particularly of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), in order to determine whether a similar trend exists in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children ≤18 years that underwent needle aspiration or surgical drainage of neck abscesses, including suppurative lymphadenitis, retropharyngeal abscesses, and parapharyngeal abscesses was conducted between 1/1/06-31/12/15...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957452/vancomycin-and-ceftriaxone-can-damage-intestinal-microbiota-and-affect-the-development-of-the-intestinal-tract-and-immune-system-to-different-degrees-in-neonatal-mice
#12
Ru Yue Cheng, Ming Li, Shan Shan Li, Miao He, Xiao Hong Yu, Lei Shi, Fang He
This study aimed to determine how antibiotic-driven intestinal dysbiosis impairs the development and differentiation of the digestive tract and immune organs of host animals. BALB/C neonatal mice were orally administered ceftriaxone or vancomycin from postnatal day 1 to day 21 and sacrificed on day 21. The diversity and abundance of the intestinal bacteria, morphological changes and barrier function of intestinal tract, and the splenic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells were investigated. The gut microbiota and intestinal tissue were damaged, and the numbers of Ki67-, Muc2- and ZO-1-positive cells were significantly decreased in the antibiotic treatment groups...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919603/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobials-at-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-department-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
M M Islam, S K Saha, S Saha, U A Wahid, R R Gomes, K S Ahmed, A N Naushad, S E Suchi, C Saha, D Mondal
This cross-sectional descriptive study was done to analyse the current trends of using antimicrobials in various surgical procedures at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. Among 300 postoperative obstetrics and gynaecological surgery cases, samples were selected as non-random purposive selection method where pattern of using antimicrobials were analysed by SPSS method 20.1 versions. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the pre-antibiotic era...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906422/increased-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-children-treated-with-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam
#14
Maya R Holsen, Calvin J Meaney, Amanda B Hassinger, Nicholas M Fusco
OBJECTIVES: Compare the rates of acute kidney injury in critically ill children treated with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam versus vancomycin and ceftriaxone. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A large tertiary care children's hospital in an urban setting. PATIENTS: Children greater than or equal to 2 months old admitted to the PICU who received greater than or equal to 48 consecutive hours of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam or vancomycin and ceftriaxone...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899468/-pathogen-distribution-and-bacterial-resistance-in-children-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Yun-Yun Lu, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844213/effects-of-rhubarb-rheum-ribes-l-syrup-on-dysenteric-diarrhea-in-children-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Ali Khiveh, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Mehrdad Shakiba, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Afsaneh Shakeri, SeidKazem Kazemeini, Zohre Mousavi, Marzie Jabbari, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Majid Emtiazy
BACKGROUND: Rheum ribes L. is a plant native to China, Iran, Turkey, India, and a few other countries. Antidiarrheal activity is considered to be one of its important properties according to various systems of traditional medicine. An increasing rate of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to treatment failure in some cases of shigellosis in children, and underlines a need for safe, efficient and valid options. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of R...
September 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831325/prescription-of-antibiotics-to-treat-gonorrhoea-in-general-practice-in-flanders-2009-2013-a-registry-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Christoph Schweikardt, Geert Goderis, Steven Elli, Yves Coppieters
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) as a group have been identified as playing an important role in gonorrhoea management in Flanders. Belgian guidelines recommended ceftriaxone or alternatively spectinomycin from 2008 onwards and azithromycin combination therapy since 2012. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates to which extent contemporary gonorrhoea treatment guidelines were followed. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study (2009-2013) of antibiotic prescriptions for gonorrhoea cases registered in the Flemish Intego general practice database was carried out...
2017: Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827252/safety-of-ceftriaxone-in-paediatrics-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Linan Zeng, Imti Choonara, Lingli Zhang, Song Xue, Zhe Chen, Miaomiao He
INTRODUCTION: Ceftriaxone is widely used in children in the treatment of sepsis. However, concerns have been raised about the safety of ceftriaxone, especially in young children. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the safety of ceftriaxone in children of all age groups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring systems will be systematically searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, case series and case reports evaluating the safety of ceftriaxone in children...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826758/%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-clavulanic-acid-attenuates-ethanol-intake-and-increases-glial-glutamate-transporters-expression-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#19
Alqassem Y Hakami, Youssef Sari
Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818575/%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-among-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-in-poland
#20
Marlena Kiedrowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Żabicka, Izabela Waśko, Patrycja Ronkiewicz, Katarzyna Wasiak, Katarzyna Bojarska, Waleria Hryniewicz, Anna Skoczyńska
OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific Gram-negative coccobacillus responsible for a significant number of respiratory tract infections and severe invasive infections such as meningitis and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to characterise the mechanisms of β-lactam resistance among Polish H. influenzae isolates and to evaluate the resistance detection methods applied. METHODS: This study was conducted on 117 Polish H. influenzae isolates collected in 2012...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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