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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764520/investigation-of-a-typhoid-fever-epidemic-in-moyale-sub-county-kenya-2014-2015
#1
Dahabo Adi Galgallo, Zeinab Gura Roka, Waqo G Boru, Khalumi Abill, James Ransom
AIM: Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, 2014-2015. METHODS: We conducted active hospital and health facility surveillance and laboratory and antimicrobial sensitivity testing for all patients presenting with headache, fever, stomach pains, diarrhea, or constipation at five MSC health facilities between December 2014 and January 2015...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750894/ceftriaxone-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-as-a-risk-factor-for-enterococcal-re-infection-and-prolonged-hospitalization-a-6-year-retrospective-study
#2
Kristian Karlović, Jadranka Nikolić, Jurica Arapović
A frequent complication during hospital stay of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) is a re-infection of the urinary tract after the initial improvement. In this study, we investigated the impact of two empirical antibiotic therapies on the outcomes of complicated bacterial UTIs. We retrospectively evaluated 325 adult patients hospitalized during 6 years period with a diagnosis of complicated bacterial UTIs. The patients were classified into two groups according to the antibiotic therapy: ceftriaxone- and co-amoxiclav+gentamicin-treated group...
May 5, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740931/antimicrobial-prescription-in-patients-dying-from-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
John Taverner, Lauren Ross, Claire Bartlett, M Luthe, J Ong, Louis Irving, Natasha Smallwood
INTRODUCTION: Despite rising antimicrobial resistance, treatment guidelines for COPD exacerbations are frequently ignored. Patients with terminal conditions are often prescribed antimicrobials despite the goal of care to reduce burdensome treatments. The appropriateness of antimicrobials in patients dying from an exacerbation of COPD is unknown. AIM: To review antimicrobial prescription at the time of death in patients who died from COPD. METHODS: A retrospective medical record audit was performed for 475 patients who died over twelve years (2004-2015)...
May 9, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717974/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-meningitidis-strains-isolated-from-invasive-cases-in-brazil-from-2009-to-2016
#4
Maria Cecília Gorla, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Ueslei José Dias, Camile de Moraes, Ana Paula Lemos
PURPOSE: To describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease in Brazil from 2009 to 2016. METHODOLOGY: Among 3548 N. meningitidis isolates received, 2888 (81.4 %) were analysed for antimicrobial resistance using the broth microdilution technique, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Isolates were tested for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, penicillin G, ampicillin and rifampin...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692577/antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-shigella-isolates-in-a-tertiary-healthcare-center
#5
Anitha Madhavan, Sobha Balakrishnan, Jayalakshmi Vasudevapanicker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shigellosis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published data in the study area on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and prevalence of Shigella species among diarrheagenic cases. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was done to find the Shigella serotypes, common age group affected, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shigella isolates in South Kerala...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685049/influence-of-subinhibitory-antibiotic-concentration-on-streptococcus-pyogenes-adherence-and-biofilm-production
#6
Aleksandra Šmitran, Dragana Vuković, Nataša Opavski, Ina Gajić, Jelena Marinković, Ljiljana Božić, Irena Živanović, Dušan Kekić, Sunčica Popović, Lazar Ranin
In this study, the focus was on the effects of sub-MICs of the antibiotics on adherence, hydrophobicity, and biofilm formation by two groups of Streptococcus pyogenes strains, which were responsible for different clinical cases. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of sub-MICs of penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and clindamycin on adherence, surface hydrophobicity, and biofilm biomass in two selected collections of group A streptococcus (GAS): strains isolated from carriers (CA) and strains isolated from patients with tonsillopharyngitis (TPh)...
April 24, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684022/open-label-comparative-trial-of-mono-versus-dual-antibiotic-therapy-for-typhoid-fever-in-adults
#7
Niv Zmora, Sudeep Shrestha, Ami Neuberger, Yael Paran, Rajendra Tamrakar, Ashish Shrestha, Surendra K Madhup, T R S Bedi, Rajendra Koju, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Emerging resistance to antibiotics renders therapy of Typhoid Fever (TF) increasingly challenging. The current single-drug regimens exhibit prolonged fever clearance time (FCT), imposing a great burden on both patients and health systems, and potentially contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance and the chronic carriage of the pathogens. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of combining third-generation cephalosporin therapy with azithromycin on the outcomes of TF in patients living in an endemic region...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680398/plasma-and-peritoneal-fluid-concentrations-of-ceftriaxone-after-intravenous-and-intraperitoneal-administration-in-horses
#8
J M Alonso, R G Peccinini, M L Campos, T Y Nitta, T Y M Akutagawa, A P Crescencio, A L G Alves, C A Rodrigues, M J Watanabe, C A Hussni
Intraperitoneal (IP) use of antimicrobial agents may lead to therapeutic effects with better clinical results than intravenous (IV) administration. The aim of this study was to compare plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of ceftriaxone after IP and IV administration in horses, and to evaluate possible adverse effects. One group of five horses received 25mg/kg ceftriaxone diluted in 1L saline solution by IP catheter once daily for 5 days, while a second group of five horses received 25mg/kg ceftriaxone diluted in 250mL saline solution by IV injection once daily for 5days and 1L saline solution by IP catheter once daily for 5 days...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658459/-effect-of-ceftriaxone-on-the-intestinal-epithelium-and-microbiota-in-neonatal-mice
#9
Qun Wan, Ru-Yue Cheng, Jia-Wen Guo, Ke Wang, Xi Shen, Fang-Fang Pu, Ming Li, Fang He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ceftriaxone on the intestinal epithelium and microbiota in mice in the early-life stage, as well as the recovery of the intestinal epithelium and reconstruction of intestinal microbiota in adult mice. METHODS: A total of 36 BALB/C neonatal mice were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in the experimental group were given ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg every day by gavage within 21 days after birth...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626176/preventive-antibiotics-in-stroke-study-pass-a-cost-effectiveness-study
#10
Willeke F Westendorp, Elles Zock, Jan-Dirk Vermeij, Henk Kerkhoff, Paul J Nederkoorn, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Diederik van de Beek
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of preventive ceftriaxone vs standard stroke unit care without preventive antimicrobial therapy in acute stroke patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial with masked endpoint assessment, 2,550 patients with acute stroke were included between 2010 and 2014. Economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 3 months. Volumes and costs of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical care were assessed...
May 1, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616895/ceftriaxone-resistant-salmonella-typhi-carries-an-inci1-st31-plasmid-encoding-ctx-m-15
#11
Bilal Djeghout, Senjuti Saha, Mohammad Saiful Islam Sajib, Arif Mohammad Tanmoy, Maksuda Islam, Gemma L Kay, Gemma C Langridge, Hubert P Endtz, John Wain, Samir K Saha
PURPOSE: Ceftriaxone is the drug of choice for typhoid fever and the emergence of resistant Salmonella Typhi raises major concerns for treatment. There are an increasing number of sporadic reports of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhi and limiting the risk of treatment failure in the patient and outbreaks in the community must be prioritized. This study describes the use of whole genome sequencing to guide outbreak identification and case management. METHODOLOGY: An isolate of ceftriaxone-resistant S...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578426/dysfunction-of-various-organ-systems-induced-by-sepsis-with-underlying-severe-myelomic-diseases-and-prostate-cancer-case-report
#12
L Ratiani, N Intskirveli, L Goliadze, T Chkhikvadze, L Koptonashvili, E Khuchua
A 65-year-old male patient, unconscious, was admitted into the clinic by the Ambulance. From the patient's medical history it was revealed that several hours before the admission in the clinic the following symptoms were present: shortness of breath, fever, hypotonia, consciousness inhibition, because of which emergency brigade was called and was brought by the Emergency Brigade. The history is loaded by chronic pathologies: myeloma disease, prostate cancer, ciliary arrhythmia, heart failure; received several courses of polichemotherapy, last ten days has been treated for pneumonia with antibiotics of ceftriaxone group in outpatient setting...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574688/dosing-of-ceftriaxone-and-metronidazole-for-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition
#13
Joseph F Standing, Martin O Ongas, Caroline Ogwang, Nancy Kagwanja, Sheila Murunga, Shalton Mwaringa, Rehema Ali, Neema Mturi, Moline Timbwa, Christine Manyasi, Laura Mwalekwa, Victor L Bandika, Bernhards Ogutu, Joseph Waichungo, Karin Kipper, James A Berkley
Infants and young children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are treated with empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Parenteral ceftriaxone is currently a second-line agent for invasive infection. Oral metronidazole principally targets small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Children with SAM may have altered drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone and metronidazole were studied, with the aim of recommending optimal dosing. Eighty-one patients with SAM (aged 2-45 months) provided 234 post-dose pharmacokinetic samples for total ceftriaxone, metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564239/prevalence-and-characterisation-of-shigatoxigenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-beef-cattle-fed-with-prebiotics
#14
Luca Grispoldi, Filippo Bertero, Serena Franceschini, Francesco Mastrosimone, Paola Sechi, Maria Francesca Iulietto, Margherita Ceccarelli, Beniamino Terzo Cenci-Goga
Ten Holstein Friesian calves were divided into two groups of five: one group was given prebiotics in their food, while the other group served as the control group. Every two weeks from birth up to 18 months, samples of feces were taken from the rectal ampulla to determine the concentration of E. coli . At each sampling session, three aliquots per sample were collected. The arithmetic mean was calculated and all values (converted into logs) were analysed with GraphPad InStat for analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey-Kramer test...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563488/pyogenic-ventriculitis-and-meningitis-caused-by-streptococcus-acidominimus-in-humans-a-case-report
#15
Gaurang S Shah
BACKGROUND Streptococcus acidominimus, which belongs to the viridans streptococci group, is rarely considered pathogenic in humans. However, over the past 10 years, this bacterium has been reported to cause serious infections in humans, particularly among the critically ill. This article is the first case report of pyogenic ventriculitis (PV) and meningitis caused by S. acidominimus in North America. CASE REPORT A 49-year-old Asian male presented to the emergency department with complaints of a headache, fever greater than 37...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559109/inferring-the-interaction-structure-of-resistance-to-antimicrobials
#16
Kelson Zawack, Will Love, Cristina Lanzas, James G Booth, Yrjö T Gröhn
The growth of antimicrobial resistance presents a significant threat to human and animal health. Of particular concern is multi-drug resistance, as this increases the chances an infection will be untreatable by any antibiotic. In order to understand multi-drug resistance, it is essential to understand the association between drug resistances. Pairwise associations characterize the connectivity between resistances and are useful in making decisions about courses of treatment, or the design of drug cocktails...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558475/molecular-epidemiology-and-drug-resistant-mechanism-in-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-pediatric-patients-in-shanghai-china
#17
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543327/systemic-corticosteroids-for-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533176/characterisation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-invasive-disease-in-adults-following-the-introduction-of-pcv10-in-brazil
#19
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531653/characterization-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profile-of-bacteraemia-causing-pathogens-isolated-from-febrile-children-with-and-without-sickle-cell-disease-in-kano-nigeria
#20
Nafisatu Bello, Abubakar Tukur Dawakin Kudu, Azeezat Bolanle Adetokun, Dalha Wada Taura, Yusuf Dan'asabe Jobbi, Mustapha Umar, Ibrahim Yusuf
Background and Objectives: Bacterial infection in sickle cell anaemic patients is a major cause of mortality and requires proper treatment with appropriate antibiotics. However, continue defiant of these infections causing pathogens to many antibiotics and inadequate screening methods in overburden health care facilities such as our in Kano, Nigeria necessitates the conduct of this study. A research was therefore conducted to isolate, characterize and test for antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteraemia-causing pathogens from febrile children with and without sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
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