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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061852/the-occurrence-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-carrying-aminoglycoside-resistance-genes-in-urinary-tract-infections-in-saudi-arabia
#1
Essam J Alyamani, Anamil M Khiyami, Rayan Y Booq, Majed A Majrashi, Fayez S Bahwerth, Elena Rechkina
BACKGROUND: The infection and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a worldwide problem, and the presence of ESBLs varies between countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of plasmid-mediated ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance gene expression in Escherichia coli using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. METHODS: A total of 58 E. coli isolates were collected from hospitals in the city of Makkah and screened for the production of ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance genes...
January 6, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053705/first-report-of-human-infection-due-to-streptococcus-devriesei
#2
P Tammaro, N Richard, B Andre, A Andremont, H Mammeri
So far, Streptococcus devriesei, which belongs to the mutans streptococci group, has been incriminated in the formation of caries in Equidae. We report the first human infection due to this species in a 54-year-old man with gangrenous cholecystitis. The patient was treated successfully by cholecystectomy and ceftriaxone.
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043225/australian-meningococcal-surveillance-programme-annual-report-2015
#3
Monica M Lahra, Rodney P Enriquez
In 2015, there were 174 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network. This number was higher than that reported in 2013 and 2014, which were the lowest and second-lowest totals reported, respectively, since inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is notifiable in Australia. There were 182 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2015, again, higher than in 2013 and 2014, which were the lowest and second-lowest totals of IMD cases recorded, respectively, by this system...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033162/an-ex-vivo-model-to-decipher-the-impact-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-on-beta-lactam-degradation-kinetics
#4
Cyril Leven, Pierre Fillâtre, Antoine Petitcollin, Marie-Clémence Verdier, Jérôme Laurent, Nicolas Nesseler, Yoann Launey, Pierre Tattevin, Eric Bellissant, Erwan Flécher, Florian Lemaitre
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of drug sequestration, increase in volume of distribution or alteration of elimination, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might lead to inadequate plasma concentrations of vital drugs. The aim of this experimental study was to develop an ex vivo model to better characterize the impact of ECMO procedure on beta-lactam antibiotics pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin, oxacillin, amoxicillin, and ceftriaxone were measured in an ex vivo ECMO circuit primed with whole human blood and compared to controls stored in glass tubes and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing...
December 23, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027282/role-of-rifampin-in-reducing-inflammation-and-neuronal-damage-in-childhood-bacterial-meningitis-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Lipi Uppal, Sunit Singhi, Pratibha Singhi, Ritu Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute bacterial meningitis in children with bactericidal antibiotics causes cell wall lysis and a surge in inflammatory cascade, which in turn contributes to neuronal damage and morbidity. Pretreament with a non-bacteriolytic antibiotic, such as rifampin, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response in experimental models of bacterial meningitis. In a pilot study in children with bacterial meningitis we have studied markers of inflammatory response and neuronal damage in two groups of children with bacterial meningitis, one group received rifampin pretreatment with ceftriaxone, other group received ceftriaxone alone...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993695/effects-of-orally-administered-augmentin-on-glutamate-transporter-1-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-expression-and-ethanol-intake-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#6
Alqassem Y Hakami, Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis in different brain reward regions. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) are one of the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate ethanol consumption and reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior, in part, by restoring the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in rats...
December 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966110/antibiotic-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-pneumonia-complicated-by-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
K Zycinska, M Chmielewska, B Lenartowicz, M Hadzik-Blaszczyk, M Cieplak, Z Kur, R Krupa, K A Wardyn
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common gastrointestinal complication after antimicrobial treatment. It is estimated that CDI after pneumonia treatment is connected with a higher mortality than other causes of hospitalization. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the kind of antibiotic used for pneumonia treatment and mortality from post-pneumonia CDI. We addressed the issue by examining retrospectively the records of 217 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of CDI...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965724/enterogenous-infection-of-candida-albicans-in-immunocompromised-rats-under-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#8
Xiang-Wang Zhao, Lei Yan, Dan Xu, Yu-Hui Cui, Chun-Hui Yang, Yan-Jun Zhou, Jian-Guo Tang
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic infection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has become a serious problem in immunocompromised patients. The study aimed to explore the mechanism of enterogenous infection of C. albicans in immunocompromised rats under severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n=100) were randomly assigned into 5 groups as the following: blank group, cyclophosphamide+ceftriaxone+SAP group, cyclophosphamide+ceftriaxone group, cyclophosphamide+SAP group, and cyclophosphamide group...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964935/molecular-and-in-silico-analysis-of-a-new-plasmid-mediated-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-cmh-2-in-clinical-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#9
Birson Ingti, Monjur Ahmed Laskar, Sudip Choudhury, Anand Prakash Maurya, Deepjyoti Paul, Anupam Das Talukdar, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Debadatta Dhar, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Two Klebsiella strains isolated from urine samples were positive for blaAmpC by PCR and showed sequence similarity with CMH-1 (98.6%) after sequencing. It also shares 82% similarity with ACT-1, 85% with MIR-1 and 81% with the chromosomal AmpC gene of Enterobacter cloacae. This gene was associated with the plasmid of IncK type. It has an open reading frame of 381 amino acid with four amino acid substitutions at position D144A, C189R, Q192E, and A195T as compared to CMH-1. When expressed in E.coli DH5α and E...
December 10, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959419/antimicrobial-resistance-development-following-surgical-site-infections
#10
Daniela Călina, Anca Oana Docea, Lucica Rosu, Ovidiu Zlatian, Alexandra Floriana Rosu, Florin Anghelina, Otilia Rogoveanu, Andreea Letiția Arsene, Alina Crenguța Nicolae, Cristina Manuela Drăgoi, John Tsiaoussis, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Eliza Gofita
Surgical site infections (SSIs) determine an increase in hospitalization time and antibiotic therapy costs. The aim of this study was to identify the germs involved in SSIs in patients from the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova (SCJUC) and to assess their resistance to antimicrobials, with comparisons between surgical wards and the intensive care unit (ICU). The biological samples were subjected to classical bacteriological diagnostics. Antibiotic resistance was tested by disc diffusion. We used hierarchical clustering as a method to group the isolates based upon the antibiotic resistance profile...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941726/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobial-drugs-in-the-icu-at-a-tertiary-level-teaching-hospital-in-mymensingh
#11
S K Saha, K C Shaha, M F Haque, S Khatun, S M Akhter, H Akhter
The aim of the present study was to investigate the current trends of using antimicrobial drugs in the ICU at a tertiary level teaching hospital in Mymensingh. The study of prescribing patterns seeks to monitor, evaluate and suggest modifications in clinicians prescribing habits so as to make medical care rational. It was an observational type of descriptive study, conducted in the Mymensingh medical college hospital, Mymensingh, during the study period of June 2016 to September 2016.The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee...
October 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931077/antibiotics-for-the-neurological-complications-of-lyme-disease
#12
REVIEW
Diego Cadavid, Paul G Auwaerter, Jeffrey Rumbaugh, Harald Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Various central nervous system-penetrant antibiotics are bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against the causative agent of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi. These antibiotics are routinely used clinically to treat LNB, but their relative efficacy is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of LNB. SEARCH METHODS: On 25 October 2016 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase...
8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929243/epididymitis-an-overview
#13
John R McConaghy, Bethany Panchal
Inflammation of the epididymis, or epididymitis, is commonly seen in the outpatient setting. Etiology and treatment are based on patient age and the likely causative organisms. Epididymitis presents as the gradual onset of posterior scrotal pain that may be accompanied by urinary symptoms such as dysuria and urinary frequency. Physical findings include a swollen and tender epididymis with the testis in an anatomically normal position. Although the etiology is largely unknown, reflux of urine into the ejaculatory ducts is considered the most common cause of epididymitis in children younger than 14 years...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924179/ischemic-stroke-and-septic-shock-after-subacute-endocarditis-caused-by-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-case-report
#14
Mayra Goncalves Menegueti, Jaciara Machado-Viana, Gilberto Gambero Gaspar, Edson Antonio Nicolini, Anibal Basile-Filho, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins
Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group, is a rare cause of subacute endocarditis and may lead to ischemic stroke. A 65-year-old female patient previously diagnosed with rheumatic valve disease was submitted to surgical mitral valve repair in 1996. Physical examination did not reveal any murmurs; physical examination of the lungs and abdomen was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital with progressive dyspnea, dry cough, and fever...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903600/improved-accuracy-of-cefepime-susceptibility-testing-for-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-an-on-demand-digital-dispensing-method
#15
Kenneth P Smith, Thea Brennan-Krohn, Susan Weir, James E Kirby
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae generally cannot be treated with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, some later generation cephalosporins, including cefepime, are poorly hydrolyzed by specific ESBL enzymes, and certain strains demonstrate in vitro susceptibility to these agents, potentially affording additional treatment opportunities. Moreover, the ability to adjust both dose and dosing interval of β-lactam agents allows treatment of strains with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) formerly classified in the intermediate range...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899142/vancomycin-microspheres-reduce-postoperative-spine-infection-in-an-in-vivo-rabbit-model
#16
Gang Liu, Si Chen, Jun Fang, Baoshan Xu, Shuang Li, Yonghong Hao, Naif A Al-Dhabi, Shucai Deng, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are common and devastating complications after implants related surgeries. Staphylococcus aureus contamination is a leading cause of surgical site infections. This study aims at assessing the effect of vancomycin microspheres on reducing Staphylococcus aureus infection in an in vivo rabbit model. METHODS: Sixty surgical sites of 20 New Zealand White rabbits underwent spinal implant were randomly divided to three groups: the control group, the vancomycin group and vancomycin microspheres group...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888396/effects-of-administered-ethanol-and-methamphetamine-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-rat-striatum-and-hippocampus
#17
Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) or methamphetamine (MA) can lead to increase in extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Although studies from ours showed the effects of EtOH exposure on key glial glutamate transporters, little is known about the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA or MA alone on certain glial glutamate transporters. In this study, we investigated the effects of sequential exposure to EtOH and MA on the expression of the major glutamate transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in striatum and hippocampus...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861521/risk-factors-associated-with-paraurethral-duct-dilatation-following-gonococcal-paraurethral-duct-infection-in-men
#18
Wenge Fan, Qingsong Zhang, Lin Wang, Xun Ye, Tingwang Jiang
No studies have explored the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy. The present study was performed to explore the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy and thus guide clinical interventions. We compared the demographic, behavioral, and clinical data of men with paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae with and without dilatation of the paraurethral duct...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846855/changes-in-ceftriaxone-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-during-the-early-phase-of-sepsis-a-prospective-experimental-study-in-the-rat
#19
Valentina Selmi, Beatrice Loriga, Luca Vitali, Martina Carlucci, Alessandro Di Filippo, Giulio Carta, Eleonora Sgambati, Lorenzo Tofani, Angelo Raffaele De Gaudio, Andrea Novelli, Chiara Adembri
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is characterized by the loss of the perm-selectivity properties of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) with consequent albuminuria. We examined whether the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of ceftriaxone (CTX), an extensively protein-bound 3rd generation cephalosporin, is altered during early sepsis and whether an increase in urinary loss of bound-CTX, due to GFB alteration, can occur in this condition. METHODS: A prospective, experimental, randomized study was carried out in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821457/activity-of-electrical-current-in-experimental-propionibacterium-acnes-foreign-body-osteomyelitis
#20
Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Cassandra L Brinkman, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Melissa J Karau, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Foreign body-associated infection is often difficult to treat, given that the associated microorganisms are in a biofilm state. Previously, we showed that low-amperage direct electrical current (DC) reduces biofilms of Propionibacterium acnes formed on implant-associated materials in vitro Herein, low-amperage DC was compared to ceftriaxone or no treatment in a novel rat femur foreign body osteomyelitis model. A platinum implant seeded with 10(7) CFU/cm(2) as well as 10(9) CFU of planktonic P. acnes were placed into the femoral medullary cavity...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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