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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#1
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAI) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708024/quality-improvement-initiative-preventative-surgical-site-infection-protocol-in-vascular-surgery
#2
David Parizh, Enrico Ascher, Syed Ali Raza Rizvi, Anil Hingorani, Michael Amaturo, Eric Johnson
Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673854/nano-therapeutics-a-revolution-in-infection-control-in-post-antibiotic-era
#3
REVIEW
Sahar Zaidi, Lama Misba, Asad U Khan
With the arrival of antibiotics 70 years ago, meant a paradigm shift in overcoming infectious diseases. For decades, drugs have been used to treat different infections. However, with time bacteria have become resistant to multiple antibiotics, making some diseases difficult to fight. Nanoparticles (NPs) as antibacterial agents appear to have potential to overcome such problems and to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, there is significant interest in the use of NPs to treat variety of infections, particularly caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains...
June 30, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605359/production-of-metal-nanoparticles-by-pulsed-laser-ablation-in-liquids-a-tool-for-studying-the-antibacterial-properties-of-nanoparticles
#4
Matthew Ratti, Joseph J Naddeo, Julianne C Griepenburg, Sean M O'Malley, Daniel M Bubb, Eric A Klein
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global clinical concern leading some to speculate about our return to a "pre-antibiotics" era of medicine. In addition to efforts to identify novel small-molecule antimicrobial drugs, there has been great interest in the use of metal nanoparticles as coatings for medical devices, wound dressings, and consumer packaging, due to their antimicrobial properties. The wide variety of methods available for nanoparticle synthesis results in a broad spectrum of chemical and physical properties which can affect antibacterial efficacy...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483246/comparison-of-first-year-of-life-acute-otitis-media-admissions-before-and-after-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tal Marom, Ofer Israel, Haim Gavriel, Jacob Pitaro, Ali Abo Baker, Ephraim Eviatar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood infection, which is usually managed in the outpatient setting. Yet, the more severe cases are referred for inpatient treatment. We hypothesized that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), administered during the first year of life, would decrease AOM admissions rate in this age group. We studied the characteristics of infants admitted with AOM and acute mastoiditis (AM) in the PCV13 era, routinely given from November 2010 to all infants...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481158/predatory-bacteria-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-a-post-antibiotic-era
#6
Kenneth Shatzkes, Nancy D Connell, Daniel E Kadouri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472614/serotype-changes-and-antimicrobial-nonsusceptibility-rates-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-after-implementation-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-in-bulgaria
#7
Lena Setchanova, Marianna Murdjeva, Iglika Stancheva, Alexandra Alexandrova, Maria Sredkova, Temenuga Stoeva, Magda Yoneva, Anna Kurchatova, Ivan Mitov
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) has been included in Bulgarian Childhood Immunization Program since 2010. This study aimed to assess serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 198 invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated in Bulgaria during 2011-2016 from patients with invasive (IPD) and non-invasive (NIPD) pneumococcal diseases. The most common invasive serotypes were 3 (10.1%), 19F (4.0%), and 7F (3.0%). A significant decrease in the proportion of invasive vaccine types (VTs) from 64...
May 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470334/transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-in-the-era-of-increasing-fluoroquinolone-resistance-prophylaxis-with-single-dose-ertapenem
#8
Michael Seitz, Christian Stief, Raphaela Waidelich, Markus Bader, Derya Tilki
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare single-dose ertapenem (ERT) with the 3-day regime of ciprofloxacin (CIP) for prophylaxis of possible infections following transrectal prostate biopsy. METHODS: Data from a consecutive group of 542 patients from January 2012 to January 2017 were retrospectively analysed. As preinterventional prophylaxis patient group A (179) received 500 mg CIP twice a day for three days, beginning on the day before the biopsy (until June 2013); group B (363) received a single dose of ERT 60 min prior to intervention...
May 3, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414696/decrease-in-pneumococcal-otitis-media-cultures-with-concomitant-increased-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-era
#9
Basel Jabarin, Jacob Pitaro, Tzilia Lazarovitch, Haim Gavriel, Limor Muallem-Kalmovich, Ephraim Eviatar, Tal Marom
OBJECTIVE: To study the change in the incidence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) in cultures obtained from children with otitis media (OM) during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) era. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Secondary medical care center. PATIENTS: Children less than 8 years who presented with OM and had positive pneumococcal cultures during January 1, 2007 to December 12, 2014 were identified...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403759/death-from-an-untreatable-infection-may-signal-the-start-of-the-post-antibiotic-era
#10
Cheryl A Jones, Joshua S Davis, David Fm Looke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365471/biosynthetic-pathways-of-aminoglycosides-and-their-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Je Won Park, Yeon Hee Ban, Sang-Jip Nam, Sun-Shin Cha, Yeo Joon Yoon
Despite decades long clinical usage, aminoglycosides still remain a valuable pharmaceutical source for fighting Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and their newly identified bioactivities are also renewing interest in this old class of antibiotics. As Nature's gift, some aminoglycosides possess natural defensive structural elements that can circumvent drug resistance mechanisms. Thus, a detailed understanding of aminoglycoside biosynthesis will enable us to apply Nature's biosynthetic strategy towards expanding structural diversity in order to produce novel and more robust aminoglycoside analogs...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320342/enhanced-recovery-after-elective-caesarean-a-rapid-review-of-clinical-protocols-and-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews
#12
Ellena Corso, Daniel Hind, Daniel Beever, Gordon Fuller, Matthew J Wilson, Ian J Wrench, Duncan Chambers
BACKGROUND: The rate of elective Caesarean Section (CS) is rising in many countries. Many obstetric units in the UK have either introduced or are planning to introduce enhanced recovery (ER) as a means of reducing length of stay for planned CS. However, to date there has been very little evidence produced regarding the necessary components of ER for the obstetric population. We conducted a rapid review of the composition of published ER pathways for elective CS and undertook an umbrella review of systematic reviews evaluating ER components and pathways in any surgical setting...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301705/reprioritizing-research-activity-for-the-post-antibiotic-era-ethical-legal-and-social-considerations
#13
Spencer Phillips Hey, Aaron S Kesselheim
Many hold that the so-called golden era of antibiotic discovery has passed, leaving only a limited clinical pipeline for new antibiotics. A logical conclusion of such arguments is that we need to reform the current system of antibiotic drug research-including clinical trials and regulatory requirements-to spur activity in discovery and development. The United States Congress in the past few years has debated a number of bills to address this crisis, including the 2012 Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act and the 2016 21st Century Cures Act...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288838/routine-ertapenem-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-does-not-select-for-carbapenem-resistant-organisms-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Maxim G Bloomfield, Matthew J Page, Alice G McLachlan, Rodney C Studd, Timothy K Blackmore
PURPOSE: Sepsis after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is an increasing problem in this era of rising antibiotic resistance. Although ertapenem prophylaxis has proved effective at our institution to reduce this, it has raised local and regional antimicrobial stewardship concerns. We investigated the possible selective effect of single dose ertapenem prophylaxis on fecal colonization with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent a rectal swab prior to receiving prebiopsy ertapenem prophylaxis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281094/clinical-features-and-inflammatory-markers-in-pediatric-pneumonia-a-prospective-study
#15
Are Stuwitz Berg, Christopher Stephen Inchley, Hans Olav Fjaerli, Truls Michael Leegaard, Morten Lindbaek, Britt Nakstad
In this prospective, observational study on previously healthy children <18 years, we aimed to study the diagnostic ability of clinical features and inflammatory markers to (i) predict pathologic chest radiography in suspected pneumonia and (ii) differentiate etiology in radiological proven pneumonia. In 394 cases of suspected pneumonia, 265 (67%) had radiographs consistent with pneumonia; 34/265 had proof of bacterial etiology. Of the cases, 86.5% had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. In suspected pneumonia, positive chest radiography was significantly associated with increasing C-reactive protein (CRP) values, higher age, and SpO2 ≤92% in multivariate logistic regression, OR 1...
May 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258235/antibiotic-non-antibiotic-combinations-for-combating-extremely-drug-resistant-gram-negative-superbugs
#16
REVIEW
Elena K Schneider, Felisa Reyes-Ortega, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative pathogens has become a worldwide crisis. The status quo for combating resistance is to employ synergistic combinations of antibiotics. Faced with this fast-approaching post-antibiotic era, it is critical that we devise strategies to prolong and maximize the clinical efficacy of existing antibiotics. Unfortunately, reports of extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative pathogens have become more common. Combining antibiotics such as polymyxin B or the broad-spectrum tetracycline and minocycline with various FDA-approved non-antibiotic drugs have emerged as a novel combination strategy against otherwise untreatable XDR pathogens...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258226/impact-of-anthropogenic-activities-on-the-dissemination-of-antibiotic-resistance-across-ecological-boundaries
#17
REVIEW
Vijay Tripathi, Eddie Cytryn
Antibiotics are considered to be one of the major medical breakthroughs in history. Nonetheless, over the past four decades, antibiotic resistance has reached alarming levels worldwide and this trend is expected to continue to increase, leading some experts to forecast the coming of a 'post-antibiotic' era. Although antibiotic resistance in pathogens is traditionally linked to clinical environments, there is a rising concern that the global propagation of antibiotic resistance is also associated with environmental reservoirs that are linked to anthropogenic activities such as animal husbandry, agronomic practices and wastewater treatment...
February 28, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220735/sustained-reduction-in-antibiotic-consumption-in-a-south-african-public-sector-hospital-four-year-outcomes-from-the-groote-schuur-hospital-antibiotic-stewardship-program
#18
T H Boyles, V Naicker, N Rawoot, P J Raubenheimer, B Eick, M Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics has driven global bacterial resistance to the extent that we have entered a post-antibiotic era, where infections that were once easily treatable are now becoming untreatable. Efforts to control consumption have focused on antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs), aimed at optimising use. OBJECTIVE: To report antibiotic consumption and cost over 4 years from a public hospital ASP in South Africa (SA). METHODS: A comprehensive ASP comprising online education, a dedicated antibiotic prescription chart and weekly dedicated ward rounds was introduced at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, in 2012...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207079/the-growing-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#19
Jose M Munita, Samuel Shelburne, David E Greenberg, Cesar A Arias
The emergence and widespread dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms is considered one of the three most important public health threats for humankind in the 21st century and jeopardizes the practice of modern medicine. Failure to tackle this problem in a comprehensive fashion could result in a dire post-antibiotic era, impairing the future development of treatments against important diseases, such as cancer, and transplant medicine, among others. Here, we provide a global perspective of the problem and describe some of the most important antibiotic-resistant organisms affecting the health of our patients...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149935/readmission-rate-and-causes-at-90-day-after-radical-cystectomy-in-patients-on-early-recovery-after-surgery-protocol
#20
Emanuela Altobelli, Maurizio Buscarini, Harcharan S Gill, Eila C Skinner
Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014...
January 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
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