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post antibiotic era

Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Valerie W C Soo, Brian W Kwan, Héctor Quezada, Israel Castillo-Juárez, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Silvia Julieta García-Contreras, Mariano Martínez-Vázquez, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Despite the fact that bacterial infections are one of the leading causes of death worldwide and that mortality rates are increasing at alarming rates, no new antibiotics have been produced by the pharmaceutical industry in more than a decade. The situation is so dire that the World Health Organization warned that we may enter a "post-antibiotic era" within this century; accordingly, bacteria resistant against all known antibiotics are becoming common and already producing untreatable infections. Although several novel approaches to combat bacterial infections have been proposed, they have yet to be implemented in clinical practice...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jordi Rello, Eleonora Bunsow, Antonio Perez
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past years and discuss a variety of treatments that may be able to replace antimicrobials: monoclonal antibodies, bacteriophages, stem cells and anti-virulence agents such as liposomes. Expert commentary: There are a series of economic, scientific-research and regulatory reasons for the scarcity of new antimicrobials...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Timothy A Wencewicz
The doom and gloom of antibiotic resistance dominates public perception of this drug class. Many believe the world has entered the post-antibiotic era. Classic and modern approaches to antibacterial drug discovery have delivered a plethora of lead molecules with a great majority being natural products of ancient microbial origin. The failure of antibiotics in the resistance era comes from an inability to develop new leads into clinical candidates, which is a costly and risky endeavor for any therapeutic area, especially when resistance is at play...
September 13, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Declan G Murphy, Jeremy P Grummet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Donald R Noll
The contemporary management of infectious diseases is built around antimicrobial therapy. However, the development of antimicrobial resistance threatens to create a post-antibiotic era. Antimicrobial stewardship attempts to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance by improving their appropriate use. Osteopathic manipulative treatment as an adjunctive treatment has the potential for enhancing antimicrobial stewardship by enhancing the human immune system, shortening the duration of antimicrobial therapy, reducing complications, and improving treatment outcomes...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Mithila Rajagopal, Melissa J Martin, Marina Santiago, Wonsik Lee, Veronica N Kos, Tim Meredith, Michael S Gilmore, Suzanne Walker
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections worldwide. The MIC of an antibiotic against S. aureus, as well as other microbes, is determined by the affinity of the antibiotic for its target in addition to a complex interplay of many other cellular factors. Identifying nontarget factors impacting resistance to multiple antibiotics could inform the design of new compounds and lead to more-effective antimicrobial strategies. We examined large collections of transposon insertion mutants in S...
2016: MBio
Kenneth R Nakazawa, Natalia N Egorova, John R Power, Peter L Faries, Ageliki G Vouyouka
OBJECTIVE: As part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), a national quality partnership of organizations including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented several perioperative guidelines regarding antibiotic, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and beta-blocker prophylaxis for surgical patients. We evaluated the effect of SCIP on in-hospital surgical site infections (SSI), graft infections, VTE, myocardial infarctions (MI), cardiac complications, mortality, and length of stay following elective major vascular surgery...
August 10, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Deepika Koganti, Sean P Ryan, Jeon Kwon, Babak Abai, Paul J Dimuzio, Dawn M Salvatore
Mycotic aortic aneurysms are rare occurrences and such aneurysms associated with Streptococcal pneumoniae are seldom seen in the current antibiotic era. We present the unusual case of a 68 year old healthy female with a Streptococcal mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm of unknown etiology treated with antibiotics and open surgical intervention. Post-operative imaging revealed multiple new thoracic mycotic aortic aneurysms for which she was treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Sequential abdominal and thoracic Streptococcal mycotic aortic aneurysms treated with a combination of open and endovascular surgery demonstrates a unique and rare case...
July 14, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Tina Goldbach, Daniel Knappe, Christoph Reinsdorf, Thorsten Berg, Ralf Hoffmann
Recent surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance predict the beginning of the post-antibiotic era with pan-resistant bacteria even overcoming polymyxin as the last available treatment option. Thus, new substances using novel modes of antimicrobial action are urgently needed to reduce this health threat. Antimicrobial peptides are part of the innate immune system of most vertebrates and invertebrates and accepted as valid substances for antibiotic drug development efforts. Especially, short proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMP) of insect origin have been optimized for activity against Gram-negative strains...
September 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Perrine Bortolotti, Benjamin Hennart, Camille Thieffry, Guillaume Jausions, Emmanuel Faure, Teddy Grandjean, Marion Thepaut, Rodrigue Dessein, Delphine Allorge, Benoit P Guery, Karine Faure, Eric Kipnis, Bertrand Toussaint, Audrey Le Gouellec
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is a Gram-negative bacteria frequently involved in healthcare-associated pneumonia with poor clinical outcome. To face the announced post-antibiotic era due to increasing resistance and lack of new antibiotics, new treatment strategies have to be developed. Immunomodulation of the host response involved in outcome could be an alternative therapeutic target in Pa-induced lung infection. Kynurenines are metabolites resulting from tryptophan catabolism and are known for their immunomodulatory properties...
2016: BMC Microbiology
G Winzor, J Gray, M Patel
The WHO has recognised antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest threats to human health. As a microbiologist, antibiotic resistance is a problem that keeps me awake at night and inevitably the impact of antibiotic resistance on paediatricians is a matter of when, and not if. I fear for the future of paediatric services such as neonatology, oncology and elective surgery. A recent US study found that 26.8% of post chemotherapy infections and 38.7-50.9% of post-operative infections were caused by bacteria resistant to standard antibiotic prophylaxis...
July 7, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Rashmi Gaur, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Pooja Singh, Anirban Pal, Mahendra Padurang Darokar, Rajendra Singh Bhakuni
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) and liquiritigenin (LTG) are structurally related flavonoids found in a variety of plants. Discovery of novel antimicrobial combinations for combating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is of vital importance in the post-antibiotic era. The present study was taken to explore the in vitro and in vivo combination effect of LTG and ISL with β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin and oxacillin) against mec A-containing strains of MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both LTG and ISL exhibited significant anti-MRSA activity (50-100 µg/mL) against clinical isolates of MRSA...
July 8, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Alejandro Aguayo, Sergio Mella, Gisela Riedel, Helia Bello, Mariana Domínguez, Gerardo González-Rocha
One of the most important features of the post-antibiotic era in the late 20th century is the resurgence of colistin for the treatment of extensively drug resistant gram-negative bacteria (XDR). Colistin is a narrow spectrum anti-biotic, active against microorganisms with clinical significance such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Nowadays its toxicity is lower, partly explained by better pharmaceuticals and management of the critically ill patients. However, there has been much confusion regarding the dosage of the drug, its name and labeling, therefore, experts have recommended using a common language about this polymyxin...
April 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Brian T Wessman, Carrie Sona, Marilyn Schallom
BACKGROUND: Poor communication among health-care providers is cited as the most common cause of sentinel events involving patients. Patient care in the critical care setting is incredibly complex. A consistent care plan is necessary between day/night shift teams and among bedside intensive care unit (ICU) nurses, consultants, and physicians. Our goal was to create a novel, easily accessible communication device to improve ICU patient care. METHODS: This communication improvement project was done at an academic tertiary surgical/trauma/mixed 36-bed ICU with an average of 214 admissions per month...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
German Matias Traglia, Brettni Quinn, Sareda T J Schramm, Alfonso Soler-Bistue, Maria Soledad Ramirez
The increasing frequency of bacteria showing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) raises the menace of entering into a postantibiotic era. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is one of the prime reasons for AMR acquisition. Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen with outstanding abilities to survive in the hospital environment and to acquire resistance determinants. Its capacity to incorporate exogenous DNA is a major source of AMR genes; however, few studies have addressed this subject. The transformation machinery as well as the factors that induce natural competence in A...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Neha A Patel, David Garber, Shirley Hu, Ameet Kamat
CONTEXT: Intracranial complications of rhinosinusitis are rare in the post-antibiotic era. However, due to potentially devastating outcomes, prompt recognition and management are essential. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to perform the first systematic review of the intracranial complications of rhinosinusitis in order to better characterize their clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment, and report a case of frontal lobe empyema secondary to pediatric frontoethmoid sinusitis...
July 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mauro Rubini, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Vanessa S Manzon, Natascia Rinaldo, Raffaella Bianucci
INTRODUCTION: Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Sandip V Pawar, Joe C H Ho, Ganapati D Yadav, Vikramaditya G Yadav
Antibiotics are wonder drugs. Unfortunately, owing to overuse, antibiotic resistance is now a serious problem. Society now finds itself in the post-antibiotic era, and the threat of infectious diseases is on the rise. New antibiotics are sorely needed. From literature review it is revealed that natural products are an attractive source of new antimicrobials. They posses desirable structural and chemical properties that make them potent thearpeutics. However, steep tehnological challenges associated with screening and manufacturing these molecules has stifled the discovery, development and marketing of new antimicrobials...
May 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jeffrey L Fortman, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
Antibiotic resistance is on the rise while the number of antibiotics being brought to market continues to drop. While this is a dire situation, a number of emerging technologies have the potential to reverse this trend. These, and supporting legislative initiatives, promise to stave off the post-antibiotic era.
July 2016: Trends in Microbiology
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