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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#1
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909252/nurses-as-antibiotic-brokers-institutionalized-praxis-in-the-hospital
#2
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Graham Scambler
We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905836/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-post-vaccine-era
#3
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
A breakthrough infection occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Turkey are previously described. A breakthrough infection is defined as IPD in a child who had received ≥1 PCV-7 or PCV-13 and for which the pneumococcal isolate was a vaccine serotype. During one year period, among six patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, two patients were considered to have a vaccine failure with serotype 19F. Antibiotic resistance results were remarkable; macrolide resistance were observed in all strains except one, and high and intermediate penicillin resistance were determined in two strains...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876463/re-evaluating-the-sensitivity-of-the-rabbit-infectivity-test-for-treponema-pallidum-in-modern-era
#4
Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Jin-Yi Fan, Kun Gao, Li-Rong Lin, Li-Li Liu, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Zhi-Feng Lin, Jian-Jun Niu, Wei-Hong Zheng, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: The rabbit infectivity test (RIT) was previously described as a highly-sensitive method for clinically detecting Treponema pallidum. But our primary study indicated this result may have changed in current antibiotics era. METHODS: By inoculating rabbits testis with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=63) and exudate from hard chancre lesions (n=13), we re-evaluated the sensitivity of RIT in modern era. All isolated T. pallidum strains from the RIT were performed for the strain type based on "CDC subtype/tp0548" method...
November 20, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869519/a-post-planktonic-era-of-in-vitro-infectious-models-issues-and-changes-addressed-by-a-clinically-relevant-wound-like-media
#5
Urvish Trivedi, Jonas S Madsen, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Randall D Wolcott, Mette Burmølle, Søren J Sørensen
Medical science is pitted against an ever-increasing rise in antibiotic tolerant microorganisms. Concurrently, during the past decade, biofilms have garnered much attention within research and clinical practice. Although the significance of clinical biofilms is becoming very apparent, current methods for diagnostics and direction of therapy plans in many hospitals do not reflect this knowledge; with many of the present tools proving to be inadequate for accurately mimicking the biofilm phenomenon. Based on current findings, we address some of the fundamental issues overlooked by clinical labs: the paradigm shifts that need to occur in assessing chronic wounds; better simulation of physiological conditions in vitro; and the importance of incorporating polymicrobial populations into biofilm models...
November 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862712/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-following-transplantation-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#6
Liset Olarte, Philana Ling Lin, William J Barson, Jose R Romero, Tina Q Tan, Laurence B Givner, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). Data on IPI in this population is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the epidemiology of IPI among pediatric transplant recipients in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. METHODS: We identified transplant recipients with IPI at 8 children's hospitals in the U.S. from our surveillance database (2000-2014)...
November 9, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847383/rare-purulent-cardiac-tamponade-caused-by-streptococcus-constellatus-in-a-young-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Zakaria Hindi
BACKGROUND Purulent pericardial tamponade is a very rare occurrence in the current era of widespread antibiotic use. It is even rarer when caused by Streptococcus constellatus: a microorganism usually classified among the normal flora of the human body. It is occasionally diagnosed with certain predisposing factors. CASE REPORT We present the third case of Streptococcus constellatus cardiac tamponade reported in the current medical literature, occurring in a previously healthy young man who was initially admitted and treated for possible community-acquired pneumonia...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814687/bacterial-genome-engineering-and-synthetic-biology-combating-pathogens
#8
REVIEW
Malathy Krishnamurthy, Richard T Moore, Sathish Rajamani, Rekha G Panchal
BACKGROUND: The emergence and prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria poses a serious threat to human and animal health globally. Nosocomial infections and common ailments such as pneumonia, wound, urinary tract, and bloodstream infections are becoming more challenging to treat due to the rapid spread of MDR pathogenic bacteria. According to recent reports by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there is an unprecedented increase in the occurrence of MDR infections worldwide...
November 4, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793719/enabling-techniques-in-the-search-for-new-antibiotics-combinatorial-biosynthesis-of-sugar-containing-antibiotics
#9
REVIEW
Je Won Park, Sang-Jip Nam, Yeo Joon Yoon
Nature has a talent for inventing a vast number of natural products, including hybrids generated by blending different scaffolds, resulting in a myriad of bioactive chemical entities. Herein, we review the highlights and recent trends (2010 to 2016) in the combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics where nature's structural diversification capabilities are exploited to enable the creation of new anti-infective and anti-proliferative drugs. In this review, we describe the modern combinatorial biosynthetic approaches for polyketide synthase-derived complex and aromatic polyketides, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-directed lipo-/glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, nucleoside antibiotics, and alkaloids, along with their therapeutic potential...
October 25, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779299/-neurosyphilis-in-the-21st-century-a-descriptive-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-madrid
#10
R N Villar-Quiles, J Porta-Etessam
INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any time following infection by Treponema pallidum and its incidence has increased over recent years. The epidemiological and clinical pattern has undergone a substantial change in the post-antibiotic era. AIMS: To describe and analyse the population of patients diagnosed with neurosyphilis at a tertiary hospital in Madrid from January to May 2015. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the following data was performed: demographic, clinical, complementary tests -serology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging- and progression of 28 patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755118/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-post-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#11
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697046/repurposing-of-anticancer-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-infections
#12
Valerie W C Soo, Brian W Kwan, Héctor Quezada, Israel Castillo-Juárez, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Silvia Julieta García-Contreras, Mariano Martínez-Vázquez, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Despite the fact that bacterial infections are one of the leading causes of death worldwide and that mortality rates are increasing at alarming rates, no new antibiotics have been produced by the pharmaceutical industry in more than a decade. The situation is so dire that the World Health Organization warned that we may enter a "post-antibiotic era" within this century; accordingly, bacteria resistant against all known antibiotics are becoming common and already producing untreatable infections. Although several novel approaches to combat bacterial infections have been proposed, they have yet to be implemented in clinical practice...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678160/what-if-there-were-no-new-antibiotics-a-look-at-alternatives
#13
Jordi Rello, Eleonora Bunsow, Antonio Perez
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past years and discuss a variety of treatments that may be able to replace antimicrobials: monoclonal antibodies, bacteriophages, stem cells and anti-virulence agents such as liposomes. Expert commentary: There are a series of economic, scientific-research and regulatory reasons for the scarcity of new antimicrobials...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658795/new-antibiotics-from-nature-s-chemical-inventory
#14
Timothy A Wencewicz
The doom and gloom of antibiotic resistance dominates public perception of this drug class. Many believe the world has entered the post-antibiotic era. Classic and modern approaches to antibacterial drug discovery have delivered a plethora of lead molecules with a great majority being natural products of ancient microbial origin. The failure of antibiotics in the resistance era comes from an inability to develop new leads into clinical candidates, which is a costly and risky endeavor for any therapeutic area, especially when resistance is at play...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644935/planning-for-the-post-antibiotic-era-why-we-must-avoid-trus-guided-biopsy-sampling
#15
Declan G Murphy, Jeremy P Grummet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571297/the-potential-of-osteopathic-manipulative-treatment-in-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-narrative-review
#16
Donald R Noll
The contemporary management of infectious diseases is built around antimicrobial therapy. However, the development of antimicrobial resistance threatens to create a post-antibiotic era. Antimicrobial stewardship attempts to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance by improving their appropriate use. Osteopathic manipulative treatment as an adjunctive treatment has the potential for enhancing antimicrobial stewardship by enhancing the human immune system, shortening the duration of antimicrobial therapy, reducing complications, and improving treatment outcomes...
September 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531908/multidrug-intrinsic-resistance-factors-in-staphylococcus-aureus-identified-by-profiling-fitness-within-high-diversity-transposon-libraries
#17
Mithila Rajagopal, Melissa J Martin, Marina Santiago, Wonsik Lee, Veronica N Kos, Tim Meredith, Michael S Gilmore, Suzanne Walker
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections worldwide. The MIC of an antibiotic against S. aureus, as well as other microbes, is determined by the affinity of the antibiotic for its target in addition to a complex interplay of many other cellular factors. Identifying nontarget factors impacting resistance to multiple antibiotics could inform the design of new compounds and lead to more-effective antimicrobial strategies. We examined large collections of transposon insertion mutants in S...
2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521819/the-impact-of-scip-measures-on-in-hospital-outcomes-following-elective-vascular-procedures
#18
Kenneth R Nakazawa, Natalia N Egorova, John R Power, Peter L Faries, Ageliki G Vouyouka
OBJECTIVE: As part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP), a national quality partnership of organizations including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented several perioperative guidelines regarding antibiotic, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and beta-blocker prophylaxis for surgical patients. We evaluated the effect of SCIP on in-hospital surgical site infections (SSI), graft infections, VTE, myocardial infarctions (MI), cardiac complications, mortality, and length of stay following elective major vascular surgery...
August 10, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427352/atypical-mycotic-aortic-aneurysms
#19
Deepika Koganti, Sean P Ryan, Jeon Kwon, Babak Abai, Paul J Dimuzio, Dawn M Salvatore
Mycotic aortic aneurysms are rare occurrences and such aneurysms associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae are seldom seen in the current antibiotic era. We present the unusual case of a 68-year-old healthy female with a Streptococcal mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm of unknown etiology treated with antibiotics and open surgical intervention. Postoperative imaging revealed multiple new thoracic mycotic aortic aneurysms for which she was treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Sequential abdominal and thoracic Streptococcal mycotic aortic aneurysms treated with a combination of open and endovascular surgery demonstrate a unique and rare case...
October 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406684/ribosomal-binding-and-antibacterial-activity-of-ethylene-glycol-bridged-apidaecin-api137-and-oncocin-onc112-conjugates
#20
Tina Goldbach, Daniel Knappe, Christoph Reinsdorf, Thorsten Berg, Ralf Hoffmann
Recent surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance predict the beginning of the post-antibiotic era with pan-resistant bacteria even overcoming polymyxin as the last available treatment option. Thus, new substances using novel modes of antimicrobial action are urgently needed to reduce this health threat. Antimicrobial peptides are part of the innate immune system of most vertebrates and invertebrates and accepted as valid substances for antibiotic drug development efforts. Especially, short proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMP) of insect origin have been optimized for activity against Gram-negative strains...
September 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
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