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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202142/antibiotic-overprescribing-still-a-major-concern
#1
David C Fiore, Lacy P Fettic, Stephanie D Wright, Bonnie R Ferrara
Despite universal agreement that antibiotic overprescribing is a problem, the practice continues to vex us. Antibiotic use--whether appropriate or not--has been linked to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, disruption of the gut microbiome leading to Clostridium difficile infections, allergic reactions, and increased health care costs. And yet, physicians continue to overprescribe this class of medication. A 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report estimates that at least 30% of antibiotics prescribed in US outpatient settings are unnecessary...
December 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202138/effects-and-time-kill-assessment-of-amoxicillin-used-in-combination-with-chloramphenicol-against-bacteria-of-clinical-importance
#2
Olufunmiso O Olajuyigbe, Roger M Coopoosamy, Anthony J Afolayan
With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms in an era when drug development faces challenges causing pharmaceutical companies to curtail or abandon research on anti-infective agents, the use of combined existing antimicrobial agents may be an alternative. This study evaluated the effects of combining amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, to which many bacteria have become resistant, in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar diffusion, checkerboard and time-kill assays. The test isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0...
November 30, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177092/genome-guided-identification-of-novel-head-to-tail-cyclized-antimicrobial-peptides-exemplified-by-the-discovery-of-pumilarin
#3
Auke J van Heel, Manuel Montalban-Lopez, Quentin Oliveau, Oscar P Kuipers
The need for novel antibiotics in an era where antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, and the number of new approved antimicrobial drugs reaching the market is declining, is evident. The underused potential of post-translationally modified peptides for clinical use makes this class of peptides interesting candidates. In this study, we made use of the vast amounts of available genomic data and screened all publicly available prokaryotic genomes (~3000) to identify 394 novel head-to-tail cyclized antimicrobial peptides...
October 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165505/-evolutionary-interactions-as-a-possible-mechanism-of-drug-interactions-an-approach-to-the-control-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#4
Héctor Holguín, Pedro Amariles, William Ospina
In the 21st century, the world is facing a post-antibiotic era, in which the appearance of infections with a minor or no therapeutic alternative is common. In this context, it is essential to implement measures that optimize the available therapeutic tool, thus generating new strategies that strengthen the fight against growing bacterial resistance. The evolutionary interactions suggest that the development of sensitivity or resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial will have an inverse effect (collateral sensitivity) or similar (cross resistance) in a second antimicrobial that is involved in this system...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158030/the-role-of-ayurveda-management-in-preventing-surgical-site-infections-instead-of-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#5
Subhash Yadav, Sanjay Jain, Jatinder Chaudhary, Rahul Bansal, Manoj Sharma
It is probably for the first time in the history of modern surgery that Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) surgery which belongs to 'clean contaminated' class and requires at least 3 doses of prophylactic antibiotic as per recommendations by American Urology Association, was done without the use of any as the patient had a history of severe intolerance to them. The case was an 83 year old male patient presenting with acute urinary retention. He was a known case of BPH being managed continuously on Ayurvedic therapy for many years...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126217/change-in-pneumococcus-serotypes-but-not-mortality-or-morbidity-in-pre-and-post-13-valent-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-era-epidemiology-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-10-years
#6
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, Michelle Ho Yan Cheung, Kathy Yin C Tsang, Lawrence C N Chan, Renee W Y Chan, Ting Fan Leung, Margaret Ip
Aim: Pneumococcus is a common commensal and an important pathogen among children for which immunization is available. Some serotypes occasionally cause severe pneumococcal disease with high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed all pneumococcal serotypes and mortality/morbidity in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization. Methods: A 13-valent PCV was introduced in the universal immunization program in late 2011 in Hong Kong...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067727/editorial-comment-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-prostatic-abscess-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#7
Katsumi Shigemura, Masato Fujisawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066797/destination-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#8
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Takahashi, Masayuki Igarashi
Aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGAs) were developed at the dawn of the antibiotics era and have significantly aided in the treatment of infectious diseases. Aminoglycosides have become one of the four major types of antibiotics in use today and, fortunately, still have an important role in the clinical treatment of severe bacterial infections. In this review, the current usage, modes of action and side effects of AGAs, along with the most common bacterial resistance mechanisms, are outlined. Finally, the recent development situation and possibility of new AGAs in the 'post-antibiotic era' are considered...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944509/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-prostatic-abscess-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#9
REVIEW
Anne Lenore Ackerman, Pooja S Parameshwar, Jennifer T Anger
We reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcomes of prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era, focusing on how patient risk factors and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms influence management of the condition. A MEDLINE search for "prostate abscess" or "prostatic abscess" was carried out. Prostate abscess is no longer considered a consequence of untreated urinary infection; now, men with prostatic abscess are typically debilitated or immunologically compromised, with >50% of patients having diabetes...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887247/rare-presentation-of-a-syphilitic-aneurysm-of-the-infrarenal-aorta-with-contained-rupture
#10
Gautham Chitragari, Anne T Laux, Taylor D Hicks, Mark G Davies, Georges M Haidar
We report, to our knowledge, the first case of a rare syphilitic infrarenal aortouniiliac aneurysm with contained rupture that presented with midepigastric abdominal pain. Review of the patient's medical history revealed untreated syphilis and poorly treated congestive heart failure. Given his comorbidities, the patient was treated with an emergent endovascular aneurysm repair. His 30-day postoperative recovery period was uneventful, and follow-up imaging revealed complete resolution of the aneurysms. Syphilitic infrarenal aortic aneurysm is currently considered a rare entity in this era of antibiotics...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882020/non-antibiotic-treatment-for-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
J Ruiz, I Castro, E Calabuig, M Salavert
The abuse and uncontrolled use of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. The utility of conventional antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections has become increasingly strained due to increased rates of resistance coupled with reduced rates of development of new agents. As a result, multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pan-drug-resistant bacterial strains are now frequently encountered. This has led to fears of a "post-antibiotic era" in which many bacterial infections could be untreatable...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856141/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-cavity-after-liver-transplantation
#12
Yongxiang Xia, Haoming Zhou, Feipeng Zhu, Wei Zhang, Chen Wu, Ling Lu
BACKGROUND: Although the outcomes have improved in the current era, pulmonary infection remains a significant post-transplant complication in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Pulmonary infection with cavity formation often leads to higher mortality rates after LT. We wished to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary cavity (PC) formation after LT. METHODS: We evaluated (retrospectively) five cases of PC formation, shown on CT scans of the chest after LT, by analyzing imaging features, diagnosis, treatment, liver function, and the concentration changes and efficacy of immunosuppressants...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846138/eras-safety-checklists-antibiotics-and-vte-prophylaxis
#13
REVIEW
Susan D Moffatt-Bruce, Brian Hilligoss, Iahn Gonsenhauser
The concept rested on several components that many of us have now tried to adopt or improve on, inclusive of a multidisciplinary team, a multimodal approach to anesthesia and preoperative preparedness, evidence-based approach to care protocols; and a change in management using interactive and continuous audit prior to and post-procedure. This article describes the development of ERAS protocols relative to checklist implementation, antibiotic use, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, how these ideas are developed and operationalized as well as how they are evolving and spreading across the care continuum to achieve sustained outcome improvements...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844103/the-mla-pathway-is-critical-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-resistance-to-outer-membrane-permeabilization-and-host-innate-immune-clearance
#14
Jason Munguia, Doris L LaRock, Hannah Tsunemoto, Joshua Olson, Ingrid Cornax, Joseph Pogliano, Victor Nizet
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that has become a serious problem due to increased rates of antibiotic resistance. Due to this along with a dearth in novel antibiotic development, especially against Gram-negative pathogens, new therapeutic strategies are needed to prevent a post-antibiotic era. Here, we describe the importance of the vacJ/Mla pathway in resisting bactericidal actions of the host innate immune response. P. aeruginosa tn5 transposon mutants in genes from the VacJ/Mla pathway showed increased susceptibility to killing by the host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, when compared to the wild-type parent strain...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836870/phytotherapy-as-an-alternative-to-conventional-antimicrobials-combating-microbial-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Elena Yu Enioutina, Lida Teng, Tatyana V Fateeva, Jessica C S Brown, Kathleen M Job, Valentina V Bortnikova, Lubov V Krepkova, Michael I Gubarev, Catherine M T Sherwin
In the modern antimicrobial era, the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics and introduction of new and mutating viruses is a global concern. Combating antimicrobial resistant microbes (AMR) requires coordinated international efforts that incorporate new conventional antibiotic development as well as development of alternative drugs with antimicrobial activity, management of existing antimicrobials, and rapid detection of AMR pathogens. Areas covered: This manuscript discusses some conventional strategies to control microbial resistance...
November 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833518/post-sternotomy-mediastinitis-in-the-modern-era
#16
Siew S C Goh
BACKGROUND: Post-sternotomy mediastinitis is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Despite surgical advances in cardiac surgery and improvements in perioperative care, mediastinitis remains a devastating post-operative complication. This study provides a comprehension review of post-sternotomy mediastinitis in the modern era, and discusses the incidence, risk factors, microbiology, prevention, and management of this complication. METHODS: This review was based on a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search up until 9th March 2017 for publications relevant to mediastinitis post-cardiac surgery...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826305/clinical-evaluation-of-intravenous-ampicillin-as-empirical-antimicrobial-treatment-of-acute-epiglottitis
#17
Ann Marlene Gram Kjaerulff, Maria Rusan, Tejs Ehlers Klug
INTRODUCTION: The significant pathogens in acute epiglottitis (AE) are poorly defined in the post Haemophilus influenza type b-vaccine era. Furthermore, there is a lack of clinical evaluations of antibiotic regimens in patients with AE. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of empiric intravenous ampicillin in the treatment of patients with AE. MATERIALS & METHODS: All patients admitted with AE to the Ear-Nose-Throat Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 2001 to 2015 were included...
August 21, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#18
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAIs) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708024/quality-improvement-initiative-preventative-surgical-site-infection-protocol-in-vascular-surgery
#19
David Parizh, Enrico Ascher, Syed Ali Raza Rizvi, Anil Hingorani, Michael Amaturo, Eric Johnson
Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673854/nano-therapeutics-a-revolution-in-infection-control-in-post-antibiotic-era
#20
REVIEW
Sahar Zaidi, Lama Misba, Asad U Khan
With the arrival of antibiotics 70 years ago, meant a paradigm shift in overcoming infectious diseases. For decades, drugs have been used to treat different infections. However, with time bacteria have become resistant to multiple antibiotics, making some diseases difficult to fight. Nanoparticles (NPs) as antibacterial agents appear to have potential to overcome such problems and to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, there is significant interest in the use of NPs to treat variety of infections, particularly caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains...
October 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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