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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454983/old-and-new-glycopeptide-antibiotics-from-product-to-gene-and-back-in-the-post-genomic-era
#1
REVIEW
Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Francesca Berini, Flavia Marinelli
Glycopeptide antibiotics are drugs of last resort for treating severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. First-generation glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are produced by soil-dwelling actinomycetes. Second-generation glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin) are semi-synthetic derivatives of the progenitor natural products. Herein, we cover past and present biotechnological approaches for searching for and producing old and new glycopeptide antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438542/discovery-and-development-of-new-antibacterial-drugs-learning-from-experience
#2
Nicole Jackson, Lloyd Czaplewski, Laura J V Piddock
Antibiotic (antibacterial) resistance is a serious global problem and the need for new treatments is urgent. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of antibiotic resistance. This has led to fears of the arrival of a 'post-antibiotic era'. Scientific difficulties, an unfavourable regulatory climate, multiple company mergers and the low financial returns associated with antibiotic drug development have led to the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical companies from the field...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431421/synthetic-immunobiotics-a-future-success-story-in-small-molecule-based-immunotherapy
#3
Mary J Sabulski Feigman, Marcos M Pires
Antibiotics represent the most successful class of drugs developed by modern science. They have spurred numerous medical advances by facilitating invasive surgeries with minimal risk of infection. Today, a major healthcare crisis looms as we are fast approaching a post-antibiotic era. The alarming rise in drug-resistant bacterial infections is driving a renewed effort to find antibiotics with unique mechanisms of action. In this perspective, we survey strategies that have been developed that use synthetic molecules to enlist an immune response against pathogenic bacteria...
February 12, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416857/glp1-and-gip-are-involved-in-the-action-of-synbiotics-in-broiler-chickens
#4
Pawel Antoni Kolodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Daniela Chalupka, Natalia Leciejewska, Leszek Nogowski, Pawel Mackowiak, Damian Jozefiak, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Maria Siwek, Marek Bednarczyk, Tomasz Szwaczkowski, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek
Background: In order to discover new strategies to replace antibiotics in the post-antibiotic era in meat-type chicken production, two new synbiotics were tested: (Lactobacillus salivarius IBB3154 plus galactooligosaccharide (Syn1) and Lactobacillus plantarum IBB3036 plus raffinose family oligosaccharides (Syn2). Methods: The synbiotics were administered via syringe, using a special automatic system, into the egg air chamber of Cobb 500 broiler chicks on the 12th day of egg incubation (2 mg of prebiotics + 105 cfu bacteria per egg)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370056/the-history-and-promising-future-of-phage-therapy-in-the-military-service
#5
Daniel Gelman, Arik Eisenkraft, Nina Chanishvili, Nachman Dean, Shunit Coppenhagem Glazer, Ronen Hazan
The continuous evolvement of bacterial resistance to most, if not all currently available antibiotics is a worldwide problem. These strains, frequently isolated from military-associated environments, have created an urgent need to develop supplementary anti-infective modalities. One of the leading directions is phage therapy, which includes the administration of bacteriophages, viruses that specifically target bacteria, as bio-therapies. Though neglected in the West until recent years, bacteriophages have been widely studied and clinically administered in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe for over a century, where they were found to be incredibly efficient at battling numerous infectious diseases...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295973/protein-inspired-antibiotics-active-against-vancomycin-and-daptomycin-resistant-bacteria
#6
Mark A T Blaskovich, Karl A Hansford, Yujing Gong, Mark S Butler, Craig Muldoon, Johnny X Huang, Soumya Ramu, Alberto B Silva, Mu Cheng, Angela M Kavanagh, Zyta Ziora, Rajaratnam Premraj, Fredrik Lindahl, Tanya A Bradford, June C Lee, Tomislav Karoli, Ruby Pelingon, David J Edwards, Maite Amado, Alysha G Elliott, Wanida Phetsang, Noor Huda Daud, Johan E Deecke, Hanna E Sidjabat, Sefetogi Ramaologa, Johannes Zuegg, Jason R Betley, Andrew P G Beevers, Richard A G Smith, Jason A Roberts, David L Paterson, Matthew A Cooper
The public health threat posed by a looming 'post-antibiotic' era necessitates new approaches to antibiotic discovery. Drug development has typically avoided exploitation of membrane-binding properties, in contrast to nature's control of biological pathways via modulation of membrane-associated proteins and membrane lipid composition. Here, we describe the rejuvenation of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin via selective targeting of bacterial membranes. Peptide libraries based on positively charged electrostatic effector sequences are ligated to N-terminal lipophilic membrane-insertive elements and then conjugated to vancomycin...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288004/targeted-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-during-active-surveillance-effect-on-hospitalization
#7
Carling Cheung, Hiten D Patel, Patricia Landis, H Ballentine Carter, Misop Han
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis using rectal swab cultures on hospitalization for infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of men (1995-2016) with prostate cancer on active surveillance receiving annual TRUSP biopsies was surveyed to determine the incidence of hospitalization for suspected postbiopsy sepsis. We compared biopsy events (i.e., unique biopsies) in the era of empiric prophylaxis to those in the era of targeted prophylaxis based on culture...
December 26, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202142/antibiotic-overprescribing-still-a-major-concern
#8
David C Fiore, Lacy P Fettic, Stephanie D Wright, Bonnie R Ferrara
Despite universal agreement that antibiotic overprescribing is a problem, the practice continues to vex us. Antibiotic use--whether appropriate or not--has been linked to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, disruption of the gut microbiome leading to Clostridium difficile infections, allergic reactions, and increased health care costs. And yet, physicians continue to overprescribe this class of medication. A 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report estimates that at least 30% of antibiotics prescribed in US outpatient settings are unnecessary...
December 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202138/effects-and-time-kill-assessment-of-amoxicillin-used-in-combination-with-chloramphenicol-against-bacteria-of-clinical-importance
#9
Olufunmiso O Olajuyigbe, Roger M Coopoosamy, Anthony J Afolayan
With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms in an era when drug development faces challenges causing pharmaceutical companies to curtail or abandon research on anti-infective agents, the use of combined existing antimicrobial agents may be an alternative. This study evaluated the effects of combining amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, to which many bacteria have become resistant, in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar diffusion, checkerboard and time-kill assays. The test isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0...
November 30, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177092/genome-guided-identification-of-novel-head-to-tail-cyclized-antimicrobial-peptides-exemplified-by-the-discovery-of-pumilarin
#10
Auke J van Heel, Manuel Montalban-Lopez, Quentin Oliveau, Oscar P Kuipers
The need for novel antibiotics in an era where antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, and the number of new approved antimicrobial drugs reaching the market is declining, is evident. The underused potential of post-translationally modified peptides for clinical use makes this class of peptides interesting candidates. In this study, we made use of the vast amounts of available genomic data and screened all publicly available prokaryotic genomes (~3000) to identify 394 novel head-to-tail cyclized antimicrobial peptides...
October 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165505/-evolutionary-interactions-as-a-possible-mechanism-of-drug-interactions-an-approach-to-the-control-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#11
Héctor Holguín, Pedro Amariles, William Ospina
In the 21st century, the world is facing a post-antibiotic era, in which the appearance of infections with a minor or no therapeutic alternative is common. In this context, it is essential to implement measures that optimize the available therapeutic tool, thus generating new strategies that strengthen the fight against growing bacterial resistance. The evolutionary interactions suggest that the development of sensitivity or resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial will have an inverse effect (collateral sensitivity) or similar (cross resistance) in a second antimicrobial that is involved in this system...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158030/the-role-of-ayurveda-management-in-preventing-surgical-site-infections-instead-of-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#12
Subhash Yadav, Sanjay Jain, Jatinder Chaudhary, Rahul Bansal, Manoj Sharma
It is probably for the first time in the history of modern surgery that Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) surgery which belongs to 'clean contaminated' class and requires at least 3 doses of prophylactic antibiotic as per recommendations by American Urology Association, was done without the use of any as the patient had a history of severe intolerance to them. The case was an 83 year old male patient presenting with acute urinary retention. He was a known case of BPH being managed continuously on Ayurvedic therapy for many years...
October 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126217/change-in-pneumococcus-serotypes-but-not-mortality-or-morbidity-in-pre-and-post-13-valent-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-era-epidemiology-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-10-years
#13
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, Michelle Ho Yan Cheung, Kathy Yin C Tsang, Lawrence C N Chan, Renee W Y Chan, Ting Fan Leung, Margaret Ip
Aim: Pneumococcus is a common commensal and an important pathogen among children for which immunization is available. Some serotypes occasionally cause severe pneumococcal disease with high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed all pneumococcal serotypes and mortality/morbidity in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization. Methods: A 13-valent PCV was introduced in the universal immunization program in late 2011 in Hong Kong...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067727/editorial-comment-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-prostatic-abscess-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#14
Katsumi Shigemura, Masato Fujisawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066797/destination-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#15
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Takahashi, Masayuki Igarashi
Aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGAs) were developed at the dawn of the antibiotics era and have significantly aided in the treatment of infectious diseases. Aminoglycosides have become one of the four major types of antibiotics in use today and, fortunately, still have an important role in the clinical treatment of severe bacterial infections. In this review, the current usage, modes of action and side effects of AGAs, along with the most common bacterial resistance mechanisms, are outlined. Finally, the recent development situation and possibility of new AGAs in the 'post-antibiotic era' are considered...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944509/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-prostatic-abscess-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#16
REVIEW
Anne Lenore Ackerman, Pooja S Parameshwar, Jennifer T Anger
We reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcomes of prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era, focusing on how patient risk factors and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms influence management of the condition. A MEDLINE search for "prostate abscess" or "prostatic abscess" was carried out. Prostate abscess is no longer considered a consequence of untreated urinary infection; now, men with prostatic abscess are typically debilitated or immunologically compromised, with >50% of patients having diabetes...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887247/rare-presentation-of-a-syphilitic-aneurysm-of-the-infrarenal-aorta-with-contained-rupture
#17
Gautham Chitragari, Anne T Laux, Taylor D Hicks, Mark G Davies, Georges M Haidar
We report, to our knowledge, the first case of a rare syphilitic infrarenal aortouniiliac aneurysm with contained rupture that presented with midepigastric abdominal pain. Review of the patient's medical history revealed untreated syphilis and poorly treated congestive heart failure. Given his comorbidities, the patient was treated with an emergent endovascular aneurysm repair. His 30-day postoperative recovery period was uneventful, and follow-up imaging revealed complete resolution of the aneurysms. Syphilitic infrarenal aortic aneurysm is currently considered a rare entity in this era of antibiotics...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882020/non-antibiotic-treatment-for-infectious-diseases
#18
REVIEW
J Ruiz, I Castro, E Calabuig, M Salavert
The abuse and uncontrolled use of antibiotics has resulted in the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. The utility of conventional antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections has become increasingly strained due to increased rates of resistance coupled with reduced rates of development of new agents. As a result, multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pan-drug-resistant bacterial strains are now frequently encountered. This has led to fears of a "post-antibiotic era" in which many bacterial infections could be untreatable...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856141/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-cavity-after-liver-transplantation
#19
Yongxiang Xia, Haoming Zhou, Feipeng Zhu, Wei Zhang, Chen Wu, Ling Lu
BACKGROUND: Although the outcomes have improved in the current era, pulmonary infection remains a significant post-transplant complication in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Pulmonary infection with cavity formation often leads to higher mortality rates after LT. We wished to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary cavity (PC) formation after LT. METHODS: We evaluated (retrospectively) five cases of PC formation, shown on CT scans of the chest after LT, by analyzing imaging features, diagnosis, treatment, liver function, and the concentration changes and efficacy of immunosuppressants...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846138/eras-safety-checklists-antibiotics-and-vte-prophylaxis
#20
REVIEW
Susan D Moffatt-Bruce, Brian Hilligoss, Iahn Gonsenhauser
The concept rested on several components that many of us have now tried to adopt or improve on, inclusive of a multidisciplinary team, a multimodal approach to anesthesia and preoperative preparedness, evidence-based approach to care protocols; and a change in management using interactive and continuous audit prior to and post-procedure. This article describes the development of ERAS protocols relative to checklist implementation, antibiotic use, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, how these ideas are developed and operationalized as well as how they are evolving and spreading across the care continuum to achieve sustained outcome improvements...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
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