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Camila Henriques Coelho, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva, Maíra Mazzoni Pucci, Angela Vieira Serufo, Haendel Goncalves Nogueira Oliveira Busatti, Maurício Durigan, Jonas Perales, Alex Chapeaurouge, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Juliano Simões Toledo, Steven M Singer, Rosiane A Silva-Pereira, Ana Paula Fernandes
The zoonotic potential of giardiasis, as proposed by WHO since the late 70's, has been largely confirmed in this century. The genetic assemblages A and B of Giardia duodenalis are frequently isolated from human and canine hosts. Most of the assemblage A strains are not infective to adult mice, which can limit the range of studies regarding to biology of G. duodenalis, including virulence factors and the interaction with host immune system. This study aimed to determine the infectivity in mice of an assemblage A Giardia duodenalis strain (BHFC1) isolated from a dog and to classify the strain in sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII) through the phylogenetic analysis of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes...
2016: PloS One
Meng Qi, Haiyan Wang, Bo Jing, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite. It is an established zoonotic pathogen and dairy calves have been implicated as one of the most important sources of human infection. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in dairy calves in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. FINDINGS: A total of 514 fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from dairy calves in 15 farms in Xinjiang, 13...
October 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Luísa Nogueira, Gérald Quatrehomme, Christophe Rallon, Pascal Adalian, Véronique Alunni
This experimental study examined false starts because these are seldom discussed in the forensic literature and usually concern animal bones rather than human bones. We created 170 experimental false starts (50 on pig femurs and 120 on human femurs) using five different saws (4 with an alternating set of teeth, and one with a wavy set). Teeth per inch (TPI) ranged from 7 to 24. Saws were classified as either rip saws or universal saws. The bone lesions were studied using stereomicroscopy. This study focused on three features that are easily observed with a stereomicroscope: the minimum width of the kerf, the profile of the lesions (concave or convex), and the shape of the edges (narrow-wide pattern, necking in the middle, or straight pattern)...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science International
Michael J Stewart, Tianfang Wang, Bradley I Harding, U Bose, Russell C Wyeth, Kenneth B Storey, Scott F Cummins
Increased understanding of the molecular components involved in reproduction may assist in understanding the evolutionary adaptations used by animals, including hermaphrodites, to produce offspring and retain a continuation of their lineage. In this study, we focus on the Mediterranean snail, Theba pisana, a hermaphroditic land snail that has become a highly invasive pest species within agricultural areas throughout the world. Our analysis of T. pisana CNS tissue has revealed gene transcripts encoding molluscan reproduction-associated proteins including APGWamide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and an egg-laying hormone (ELH)...
2016: PloS One
Olga Arkova, Nikita Kuznetsov, Olga Fedorova, Ludmila Savinkova
It is known that only a single-nucleotide substitution (SNP: a single nucleotide polymorphism) in the sequence of a TATA box can influence the affinity of the interaction of TBP with the TATA box and contribute to the pathogenesis of complex hereditary human diseases and sometimes may be a cause of monogenic diseases (for instance, β-thalassemia).. In the present work, we studied the interaction of human TBP with a double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) 15 or 26 bp long identical to a TATA box of promoters of a real-life human gene, TPI or LEP, and labeled with fluorophores TAMRA and FAM...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Gap-Don Kim, Jin-Kyu Seo, Hyeon-Woong Yum, Jin-Yeon Jeong, Han-Sul Yang
The purpose of this study was to find discrimination markers for four major meat species such as beef, pork, chicken and duck. Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins isolated from each meat type were analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and some proteins were identified through LC-MS/MS analysis. We confirmed that troponin I (TnI), enolase 3, l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) could be useful markers for discrimination of mammals from poultry due to their different electrophoretic mobility...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yehouda Marcus, Noam Tal, Mordechai Ronen, Raanan Carmieli, Michael Gurevitz
Ornidazole of the 5-nitroimidazole drug family is used to treat protozoan and anaerobic bacterial infections via a mechanism that involves pre-activation by reduction of the nitro group, and production of toxic derivatives and radicals. Metronidazole, another drug family member, has been suggested to affect photosynthesis by draining electrons from the electron carrier, ferredoxin, thus inhibiting NADP(+) reduction and stimulating radical and peroxide production. Here we show, however, that ornidazole inhibits photosynthesis via a different mechanism...
September 19, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Neslihan Bayraktar Bilen, Ibrahim F Hepsen, Carlos G Arce
AIM: To analyze the relationship between two visual functions and refractive, topographic, pachymetric and aberrometric indicators in eyes with keratoconus. METHODS: Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and letter contrast sensitivity (CS) were correlated with refraction, corneal topography, pachymetry, and total corneal wavefront data prospectively in 71 eyes with keratoconus. The topographic indices assessed were simulated keratometry for the flattest and steepest meridians (SimK1 and SimK2), posterior steeper K (Ks), elevation value in best-fit sphere (BFS) maps, squared eccentricity (Є(2)), aspheric asymmetric index (AAI), pachymetry, thickness progression index (TPI), the amount of pachymetric decentralization (APD), and GalileiTM-keratoconus indices...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wen-Bin Zheng, Jian-Gang Ma, Qiu-Xia Yao, Yang Zou, Cai-Jia Bubu, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis, the only causative agent of human giardiasis, can infect a wide range of animals. As no information concerning the prevalence and genotyping of G. intestinalis in raccoon dogs in China is available, examination of 305 faecal samples from raccoon dogs in Jilin Province (n = 110), Heilongjiang Province (n = 40), Liaoning Province (n = 72), Hebei Province (n = 54) and Shandong Province (n = 29) was conducted to estimate the prevalence of G...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Lei Cheng, Yao Jiang, Ni Yan, Shu-Feng Shan, Xiao-Qin Liu, Lin-Bing Sun
Selective adsorption and efficient regeneration are two crucial issues for adsorption processes; unfortunately, only one of them instead of both is favored by traditional adsorbents with fixed pore orifices. Herein, we fabricated a new generation of smart adsorbents through grafting photoresponsive molecules, namely, 4-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl-ureido)azobenzene (AB-TPI), onto pore orifices of the support mesoporous silica. The azobenzene (AB) derivatives serve as the molecular gates of mesopores and are reversibly opened and closed upon light irradiation...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rodney N Nagoshi, Todd M Gilligan, Julieta Brambila
The recent establishment of the Old World pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) into South America has had significant economic consequences and places the rest of the hemisphere at risk, emphasizing the need for improved methods of monitoring. A major complication is that a sibling species endemic to the New World, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is morphologically very similar, with the two species capable of producing fertile hybrids in the laboratory. The consequences of such hybridization in the field are uncertain, but could result in significant and unpredictable changes in the timing, range, and pesticide susceptibilities of Helicoverpa infestations...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jennifer L McQuade, Liberty P Posada, Srisuda Lecagoonporn, Suzanne Cain, Roland L Bassett, Sapna P Patel, Wen-Jen Hwu, Patrick Hwu, Michael A Davies, Agop Y Bedikian, Rodabe N Amaria
TPI 287 is a synthetic taxane derivative with structural modifications allowing for central nervous system penetration and potential circumvention of multidrug resistance efflux pump mechanisms. The aim of this phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of the combination of TPI 287 and temozolomide in metastatic melanoma. Patients with stage IV unresectable or recurrent stage III melanoma were eligible. Stable untreated or treated brain metastases were allowed. Patients with previous taxane exposure were excluded...
August 18, 2016: Melanoma Research
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Álvaro Marín-Hernández, Isis Del Mazo-Monsalvo, Emma Saavedra, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez
BACKGROUND: Exceedingly high therapeutic/experimental doses of metabolic drugs such as oxamate, aminooxyacetate (AOA) and dichloroacetate (DCA) are required to diminish growth, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) of different cancer cells. To identify the mechanisms of action of these drugs on cancer energy metabolism, a systematic analysis of their specificities was undertaken. METHODS: Hepatocarcinoma AS-30D cells were treated with the inhibitors and glycolysis and OxPhos enzyme activities, metabolites and fluxes were analyzed...
August 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mary C Christman, Daniel H Doctor, Matthew L Niemiller, David J Weary, John A Young, Kirk S Zigler, David C Culver
One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained...
2016: PloS One
Clarissa Perez Faria, Graziela Maria Zanini, Gisele Silva Dias, Sidnei da Silva, Maria do Céu Sousa
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro...
2016: PloS One
Karen Lasch, Stephen Liu, Lyann Ursos, Reema Mody, Kristen King-Concialdi, Marco DiBonaventura, Julie Leberman, Marla Dubinsky
INTRODUCTION: Misperceptions about ulcerative colitis (UC) may influence management strategies and limit opportunities for improving patient outcomes. This study assessed physicians' perceptions of UC, concepts of disease severity and remission, and treatment goals. METHODS: Gastroenterologists who typically treated ≥10 adults with UC per month were recruited for a large-scale, web-based survey. Participants were asked about their perceptions of UC (often vs. Crohn's disease [CD]), treatment goals, and medication use...
October 2016: Advances in Therapy
Bing-zhi Dong, Jia-li Zhang, Chang He
The influences of ozone dosage, pH and ionic strength on the formation of Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) during ozonation were investigated. The result demonstrated that within the range of 1-5 mg · L⁻¹ O₃, the formation of AOC increased with increasing ozone dosage, but higher ozone dosage (9 mg · L⁻¹) resulted in reduction of AOC formation. AOC formation increased with higher pH but decreased with increasing ionic strength. The result also showed that AOC formation with hydrophobic fraction (HPO) was the most, followed by transphilic fraction (TPI), and charged hydrophilic fraction (CHPI), while neutral hydrophilic fraction (NHPI) was the least...
May 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Vidya R Hinge, Hemant B Patil, Altafhusain B Nadaf
BACKGROUND: Rice plant growth is comprised of distinct phases, such as vegetative, reproductive, grain filling and maturity phases. In these phases synthesis and availability of primary and secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds (VOC's) is highly variable. In scented rice, aroma volatiles are synthesized in aerial plant parts and deposited in mature grains. There are more than 100 VOCs reported to be responsible for flavor in basmati rice. It will be interesting to keep track of aroma volatiles across the developmental stages in scented rice...
December 2016: Rice
Bo Fan, Victor A Neel, Anna N Yaroslavsky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer worldwide. The most effective form of treating this cancer is its surgical removal. As NMSC rarely metastasize, its complete excision is often curative. We investigated the potential of combining Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) with polarization enhanced reflectance optical imaging for the accurate intraoperative delineation of NMSC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh thick samples with residual cancer were obtained from surgeries...
August 4, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Nada El Darra, Hiba N Rajha, Marie-Agnès Ducasse, Mohammad F Turk, Nabil Grimi, Richard G Maroun, Nicolas Louka, Eugène Vorobiev
This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
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