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hyponatraemia pediatric

M Jose Rodríguez, Andrés Alcaraz, Maria Jose Solana, Ana García
AIM: To review the incidence of hyponatraemic encephalopathy in children treated in a tertiary care centre hospital, together with the clinical setting and clinical management of these cases. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study by chart review of patients admitted to hospital during 2000-2010. Patients older than 1 month were included who had severe hyponatraemia (sodium concentration <125 mmol/L) on admission or during their hospital stay and co-incidental neurological symptoms...
January 2014: Acta Paediatrica
Jane Hosking, Kate Dowling, David Costi
BACKGROUND:   An alarming incidence of significant intraoperative hyponatremia during major pediatric craniofacial surgery has recently been reported, the mechanism of which is unclear. AIMS:   To establish the incidence and severity of hyponatremia occurring during and after major craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis in our institution and identify any associated risk factors. METHODS:   Retrospective review of case notes and blood test results for all cases of major craniofacial surgery for craniosynostosis in children under 10 years of age from January 2007 to May 2011...
July 2012: Paediatric Anaesthesia
G Sideri, M E Falagas, M Grigoriou, E K Vouloumanou, J H Papadatos, E Lebessi, D A Kafetzis
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Literature provides much evidence regarding liposomal amphotericin B treatment for fungal infections in neonates and infants. Relevant data regarding critically ill paediatric patients of older age are scarce. We aimed to present our experience regarding liposomal amphotericin B use in critically ill paediatric patients from a tertiary-care paediatric hospital in Athens, Greece. METHODS: We prospectively identified all paediatric patients who received treatment with liposomal amphotericin B in the intensive care unit of a tertiary-care paediatric hospital during a 3-year period (2005-2008)...
June 2012: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Corsino Rey, Marta Los-Arcos, Arturo Hernández, Amelia Sánchez, Juan-José Díaz, Jesús López-Herce
AIM: Study the influence of hypotonic (HT) and isotonic (IT) maintenance fluids in the incidence of dysnatraemias in critically ill children. METHODS: Prospective, randomized study conducted in three paediatric intensive care units (PICU). One hundred and twenty-five children requiring maintenance fluid therapy were included: 62 received HT fluids (50-70 mmol/L tonicity) and 63 IT fluids (156 mmol/L tonicity). Age, weight, cause of admission, sodium and fluid intake, and diuresis were collected...
August 2011: Acta Paediatrica
Simon B Drysdale, Timothy Coulson, Natalie Cronin, Zita-Rose Manjaly, Chinthika Piyasena, Adam North, Martha E Ford-Adams, Simon Broughton
In March 2007, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) issued an alert regarding intravenous fluid (IVF) prescription to hospitalised infants and children, to be implemented in UK hospitals by September 2007. Previously, the most commonly used IVF (0.18% saline/4% dextrose) has been associated with iatrogenic hyponatraemia, resulting in four deaths and one near miss since 2000. The alert recommended 0.45% (or 0.9%) saline/5% dextrose as maintenance IVF and banned 0.18% saline/4% dextrose. We audited practice and outcome in children receiving maintenance IVF in June 2007 (before guideline implementation) and June 2008 (after guideline implementation)...
July 2010: European Journal of Pediatrics
Michael Yung, Steve Keeley
AIM: Traditional paediatric intravenous maintenance fluids are prescribed using hypotonic fluids and the weight-based 4:2:1 formula for administration rate. However, this may cause hyponatraemia in sick and post-operative children. We studied the effect of two types of intravenous maintenance fluid and two administration rates on plasma sodium concentration in intensive care patients. METHODS: A Factorial-design, double-blind, randomised controlled trial was used...
January 2009: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Amber E Young, Katharine L Thornton
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a toxin-mediated disease, is the most common cause of unexpected mortality in children with small burns. It is a diagnosis that is often missed because of non-specific signs and an ability to mimic other childhood illnesses. Any child with a pyrexia greater than 38.9 degrees C, a rash, or a sudden change in clinical condition within a few days of a burn injury should be monitored closely for TSS. If there is co-incident hyponatraemia or lymphopaenia, or if there is any deterioration in clinical condition, the child should be managed with anti-staphylococcal and streptococcal antibiotics and passive immunity for toxins provided by fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...
August 2007: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Jarlath McAloon, Raj Kottyal
Guidance on the prevention of hyponatraemia in children was issued by DHSSPSNI in March 2002. Two years later Dr Henrietta Campbell, the Chief Medical Officer, wrote to the Chief Executives of acute and combined trusts to seek assurances that the guideline had been incorporated into clinical practice and its implementation monitored. This paper reports the findings of the first prospective study undertaken to examine practice following introduction of the guidance. The evidence suggests that implementation has so far been incomplete and highlights problem areas...
September 2005: Ulster Medical Journal
S Hanna, S M Tibby, A Durward, I A Murdoch
AIM: To document the incidence and early evolution of hyponatraemia (serum sodium < 136 mmol l(-1)) associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infants requiring intensive care. METHODS: In a retrospective review over two winter seasons, 130 infants were admitted with confirmed RSV infection, of whom 39 were excluded because of either pre-existing risk factors for hyponatraemia: diuretic therapy (n = 14), cardiac disease (n = 10), renal disease (n = 2) or lack of admission sodium data (n = 13)...
April 2003: Acta Paediatrica
M G Bianchetti, H R Thyssen, R Laux-End, U B Schaad
Since the mechanisms underlying hyponatraemia in meningitis are poorly understood, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 187 paediatric patients with bacterial meningitis treated at the Department of Pediatrics, University of Bern, Switzerland, between 1982 and 1994. The degree of dehydration calculated from naked weight on admission and at 5 days was consistently (by 2.8 x 10(-2) and significantly more pronounced in 30 hyponatraemic (plasma sodium 130 mmol l-1 or less) than in 157 normonatraemic patients (plasma sodium 131 mmol l-1 or more)...
October 1996: Acta Paediatrica
M A Oztürk, F Keleştimur, S Kurtoğlu, K Güven, D Arslan
A retrospective study was conducted on 269 patients with anticholinesterase poisoning who had been admitted to the Internal Medicine and Pediatric Clinics over the past 10 years. Their ages ranged from 17 d to 62 years. In adults, suicide was the most common means of intoxication. Miosis was the most frequent symptom and was seen in 80.66% of the patients. Hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperchloraemia, hypochloraemia and hyponatraemia were among the electrolytic and haematologic disorders (hyperglycaemia 48...
September 1990: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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