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prophylaxis hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926409/effects-of-concurrent-exposure-to-antiretrovirals-and-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#2
Alexander C Ewing, Caroline C King, Jeffrey B Wiener, Charles S Chasela, Michael G Hudgens, Debbie Kamwendo, Gerald Tegha, Mina C Hosseinipour, Denise J Jamieson, Charles Van der Horst, Athena P Kourtis
BACKGROUND: Given the potential of Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) to prevent bacterial and malarial infections in HIV exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants, it is important to evaluate the effects of its concurrent use with ARV agents that have overlapping toxicity profiles. METHODS: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition-BAN study (2004-2010) to evaluate the association of CPT and ARV with hematologic measures (hemoglobin, neutrophil, and alanine aminotransferase levels) from 6 to 48 weeks of age in 2,006 HEU infants in Lilongwe, Malawi...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898281/randomized-prospective-study-evaluating-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-prophylaxis-against-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-anti-hbc-positive-patients-with-rituximab-based-regimens-to-treat-hematologic-malignancies-the-preblin-study
#3
María Buti, María L Manzano, Rosa M Morillas, Montserrat García-Retortillo, Leticia Martín, Martín Prieto, María L Gutiérrez, Emilio Suárez, Mariano Gómez Rubio, Javier López, Pilar Castillo, Manuel Rodríguez, José M Zozaya, Miguel A Simón, Luis E Morano, José L Calleja, María Yébenes, Rafael Esteban
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with resolved HBV infection (HBsAg negative, antiHBc positive) is uncommon, but potentially fatal. The role of HBV prophylaxis in this setting is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) prophylaxis versus close monitoring in antiHBc-positive, HBsAg-negative patients under treatment with rituximab (RTX)-based regimens for hematologic malignancy. METHODS: PREBLIN is a phase IV, randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter, parallel-group trial conducted in 17 hospitals throughout Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891453/management-of-hemophilic-arthropathy-of-the-ankle
#4
E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
BACKGROUND: Hemophilic arthropathy (HA) of the ankle is prevalent in people with hemophilia (PWH). It is frequently severe and incapacitating, due to recurrent bleeding into the ankle articulation during infancy. Around 50% of hemophilic patients suffer from ankle pain and radiological signs of HA. OBJECTIVE: To review current treatment of HA of the ankle in PWH. METHOD: A literature review of hemophilic ankle arthropathy in PWH was performed utilizing MEDLINE (PubMed) and the Cochrane Library...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856437/diagnosis-and-empirical-treatment-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-fuo-in-adult-neutropenic-patients-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#5
REVIEW
W J Heinz, D Buchheidt, M Christopeit, M von Lilienfeld-Toal, O A Cornely, H Einsele, M Karthaus, H Link, R Mahlberg, S Neumann, H Ostermann, O Penack, M Ruhnke, M Sandherr, X Schiel, J J Vehreschild, F Weissinger, G Maschmeyer
Fever may be the only clinical symptom at the onset of infection in neutropenic cancer patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy. A prompt and evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approach is mandatory. A systematic search of current literature was conducted, including only full papers and excluding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy were developed by an expert panel and approved after plenary discussion by the AGIHO. Randomized clinical trials were mainly available for therapeutic decisions, and new diagnostic procedures have been introduced into clinical practice in the past decade...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855480/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mucormycosis-in-patients-withhematological-malignancies%C3%AF-translated-article%C3%AF
#6
Yuki Asano-Mori
The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis. The aggressive nature of mucormycosis easily leads to high mortality because of delays in diagnosis and incorrect treatment decisions, which are due in part to lack of adjunctive diagnostic tools and having similar clinical and radiological features with invasive aspergillosis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852282/the-bone-pain-crisis-of-sickle-cell-disease-and-malaria-observations-from-gujarat-india
#7
Jyotish Patel, Bharati Patel, Graham R Serjeant
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a common problem across central India, but its clinical features may differ from that in African populations. There is a need to define the features of sickle cell disease in India, and the current study addresses some features of the bone pain crisis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of the bone pain crisis of sickle cell disease in Gujarat and explore the relationship with infection by Plasmodium vivax...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851760/tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-with-novel-targeted-agents
#8
Bruce D Cheson, Sari Heitner Enschede, Elisa Cerri, Monali Desai, Jalaja Potluri, Nicole Lamanna, Constantine Tam
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication associated with the treatment of some cancers. If left untreated, TLS may result in acute renal failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, neurologic complications, seizures, or death. Tumor lysis syndrome is most commonly observed in patients with hematologic malignancies with a high proliferation rate undergoing treatment with very effective therapies. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), historically, TLS has been observed less often, owing to a low proliferation rate and slow response to chemotherapy...
August 29, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846051/in-vivo-or-ex-vivo-t-cell-depletion-or-both-to-prevent-graft-versus-host-disease-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Alessandro Busca, Franco Aversa
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a widely accepted therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hematologic disorders which are otherwise considered incurable. Alloreactive T cells infused with the stem cell inoculum may generate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) representing one the most relevant obstacles to the successful outcome of patients receiving allogeneic HSCT. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an overview of the most recent approaches of T-cell depletion (TCD) including ex-vivo αβ+ TCD and in-vivo TCD with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)...
August 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819709/use-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-on-immunomodulatory-agents
#10
L Man, A Morris, J Brown, S Palkimas, K Davidson
Immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs) are used to treat multiple hematologic malignancies. Their use is also associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been increasingly utilized but due to their relative novelty, their role in malignancy has only been recently investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of DOACs in patients receiving IMiDs. This was a retrospective study of patients at our institution treated with an IMiD and concomitant warfarin or DOAC between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817489/the-use-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-in-clozapine-rechallenge-a-systematic-review
#11
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Amir Krivoy, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, with neutropenia and agranulocytosis of most concern. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used to support clozapine rechallenge after neutropenia with the aim of maintaining the neutrophil count. This study aims to explore the practice, use, safety, and efficacy of G-CSF in this context. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review to identify all studies investigating or describing G-CSF as a prophylaxis to enable continued clozapine treatment during a rechallenge...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816795/voriconazole-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-children-with-malignancies-a-nationwide-study
#12
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Maria Kourti, Katerina Vikelouda, Antonia Vlahou, Nikolaos Katzilakis, Maria Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Doganis, Loizos Petrikkos, Anna Paisiou, Dimitrios Koliouskas, Antonios Kattamis, Eftichia Stiakaki, Maria Chatzistilianou, Helen Vasilatou-Kosmidis, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Stelios Grafakos, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) is recommended in at-risk hematology-oncology patients. We evaluated the safety of AFP with voriconazole (VRC) in pediatric hematology/oncology patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of VRC AFP in children with malignancies hospitalized in all 7 Greek pediatric hematology/oncology centers during 2008 to 2012 was conducted. Patients' demographics, outcome, and adverse event (AE) data were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-nine VRC AFP courses in 249 patients (median age 6 y, 55% boys) were studied...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806922/hepatitis-b-reactivation-characterized-by-hbsag-negativity-and-anti-hbsag-antibodies-persistence-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplanted-patient-after-lamivudine-withdrawal
#13
C Cerva, G Maffongelli, V Svicher, R Salpini, L Colagrossi, A Battisti, B Mariotti, R Cerretti, L Cudillo, L Sarmati
BACKGROUND: HBV reactivation is associated with high mortality rates in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and prophylactic lamivudine (LMV) treatment is suggested to prevent this phenomenon. However, the duration of LMV treatment in HSCT patients is not fully defined and the time of immune recovery is considered the best parameter for a drug to be safely interrupted. In patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, the time of immune recovery is not easy to define and may take years after transplantation and prolonged LMV treatments, which can lead to drug-resistant viral strains...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791666/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-micafungin
#14
REVIEW
Roeland E Wasmann, Eline W Muilwijk, David M Burger, Paul E Verweij, Catherijne A Knibbe, Roger J Brüggemann
Micafungin is a selective inhibitor of the synthesis of fungal 1,3-β-D-glucan, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. It is available as a powder for infusion only and is registered for the treatment of invasive and esophageal candidiasis in addition to prophylaxis of Candida infections in both adults and children. Average exposure after a single intravenous 100 mg dose in healthy adults is 133 mg h/L. Both exposure and maximum plasma concentration show linear dose proportional pharmacokinetics (PK) over a 0...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781151/2016-guideline-strategies-for-the-use-of%C3%A2-antifungal-agents-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-or-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-in-taiwan
#15
REVIEW
Bor-Sheng Ko, Wei-Ting Chen, Hsiang-Chi Kung, Un-In Wu, Jih-Luh Tang, Ming Yao, Yee-Chun Chen, Hwei-Fang Tien, Shan-Chwen Chang, Yin-Ching Chuang, Dong-Tsamn Lin
The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan (IDST), the Hematology Society of Taiwan, the Taiwan Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines cooperatively published this guideline for the use of antifungal agents in hematological patients with invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Taiwan. The guideline is the first one endorsed by IDST focusing on selection of antifungal strategies, including prophylaxis, empirical (or symptom-driven) and pre-emptive (or diagnostic-driven) strategy...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776170/viridans-group-streptococci-bloodstream-infections-in-neutropenic-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy-single-center-experience
#16
J Radocha, P Paterová, A Zavřelová, B Víšek, F Gabalec, H Žemličková, P Žák
Viridans group streptococci bloodstream infections (VGS BSI) remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with severe neutropenia. The goal of our study was to evaluate clinical course and microbiological susceptibility of VGS BSI at our center. Retrospective analysis of all microbiologically documented bloodstream infections caused by VGS during the 9-year time period (from January 2006 until December 2014) was carried out. Only patients with severe neutropenia (< 500/μL) were included in the study...
August 3, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768441/retrospective-analysis-of-goal-drug-level-attainment-of-posaconazole-for-invasive-fungal-infection-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-pre-and-post-switch-to-tablet-formulation
#17
Tyler K Liebenstein, Kristin M Widmer, Michael J Fallon
Background Posaconazole is approved for invasive fungal infection prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Posaconazole suspension is plagued by poor oral absorption and dietary requirements that are difficult for patients to meet. The delayed-release tablet formulation of posaconazole may be taken without regards to meals and has significantly better oral absorption than posaconazole suspension. Objectives We sought to determine if a switch to posaconazole tablets improved steady-state drug level attainment for invasive fungal infection prophylaxis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760896/evaluation-of-posaconazole-serum-concentrations-from-delayed-release-tablets-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-fungal-infections
#18
Alan Chin, Steven A Pergam, David N Fredricks, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Kelsey K Baker, Rupali Jain
Purpose: To determine the frequency of patients who achieved a therapeutic drug level after receiving posaconazole (PCZ) delayed release tablets (DRT) for prophylaxis or treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), and to examine the effect of demographic traits and treatment characteristics on PCZ serum levelsMethods: A retrospective single-center study was conducted on high-risk inpatients at the University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC) that obtained PCZ for either treatment or prophylaxis from August 1(st) 2014 and August 31(st), 2015...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743702/progressive-dispersion-of-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-fatal-invasive-aspergillosis-in-a-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-infected-with-an-a-fumigatus-strain-with-a-cyp51a-tr46-y121f-m172i-t289a-allele
#19
Susann Rößler, Oliver Bader, Friedrich Stölzel, Ulrich Sommer, Birgit Spiess, Stephan Geibel, Dieter Buchheidt, Uwe Groß, Gustavo Baretton, Enno Jacobs, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
Patients with hematologic malignancies as well as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Here, we report a culture- and autopsy-proven fatal invasive aspergillosis in an allogeneic HSTC patient which he developed despite posaconazole prophylaxis. The agent was determined to be an azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strain bearing the cyp51A mutation combination TR46 Y121F M172I T289A. At increasing frequency, the azole resistance of A...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734876/t-cell-depletion-as-an-alternative-approach-for-patients-55-years-or-older-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-as-curative-therapy-for-hematologic-malignancies
#20
Ann A Jakubowski, Erica Petrlik, Molly Maloy, Patrick Hilden, Esperanza Papadopoulos, James W Young, Farid Boulad, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Roni Tamari, Parastoo B Dahi, Jenna Goldberg, Guenther Koehne, Miguel-Angel Perales, Craig S Sauter, Richard J O'Reilly, Sergio Giralt
T cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative treatment for hematologic malignancies in adults, shown to reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without increased relapse. We retrospectively reviewed a single-center, 11-year experience of 214 patients aged ≥ 55 years to determine tolerability and efficacy in the older adult. Most patients (70%) had myeloid diseases, and most acute leukemias were in remission. Median age was 61 years, with related and unrelated donors ≥8/10 HLA matched...
October 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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