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prophylaxis hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542412/low-rates-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infectious-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-high-risk-hematology-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-stream-infection
#1
Jason R Conn, Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Naomi Runnegar, Sally J Mapp, Kate A Markey
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536356/hla-c-kir-ligands-determine-the-impact-of-anti-thymocyte-globulin-atg-on-graft-versus-host-and-graft-versus-leukemia-effects-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Johannes Clausen, Alexandra Böhm, Irene Straßl, Olga Stiefel, Veronika Buxhofer-Ausch, Sigrid Machherndl-Spandl, Josef König, Stefan Schmidt, Hansjörg Steitzer, Martin Danzer, Hedwig Kasparu, Ansgar Weltermann, David Nachbaur
Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins (ATGs) are widely used for the prevention of acute and chronic graft versus host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, most prospective and retrospective studies did not reveal an overall survival (OS) benefit associated with ATG. Homozygosity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C group 1 killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor ligands (KIR-L), i.e. C1/1 KIR-L status, was recently shown to be a risk factor for severe aGVHD...
March 28, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510690/trichosporonosis-in-pediatric-patients-with-a-hematologic-disorder
#3
Catherine E Foster, Morven S Edwards, Julienne Brackett, Deborah A Schady, C Mary Healy, Carol J Baker
Background.: Trichosporonosis is an emerging and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with hematologic malignancy, but data in children are lacking. Methods.: We report here 3 cases of invasive infection caused by Trichosporon asahii in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas. We also conducted a literature review and identified 16 additional reports of pediatric patients with invasive T asahii infection and an underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic disorder...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507111/real-life-assessment-of-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-the-new-tablet-and-intravenous-formulations-of-posaconazole-in-the-prophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-analysis-of-343-courses
#4
Frank P Tverdek, Sang Taek Heo, Samuel L Aitken, Bruno Granwehr, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is the preferred mold-active azole for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients with hematologic malignancy (HM). Delayed release tablet and intravenous formulations of posaconazole have recently become available, but clinical data are limited. We sought to examine the real-world pharmacokinetics and prophylactic effectiveness of the new formulations of posaconazole given as prophylaxis in patients with HM. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of all consecutive adult inpatients with HM who received ≥3 days of posaconazole as tablet or intravenous from 12/1/2013-12/31/2015 for primary IFI prophylaxis at MD Anderson Cancer center...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506782/the-misleading-effect-of-serum-galactomannan-testing-in-high-risk-hematology-patients-receiving-prophylaxis-with-micafungin
#5
A Vena, E Bouza, A Álvarez-Uría, J Gayoso, P Martin-Rabadan, F Cajuste, J Guinea, J Gómez Castellá, R Alonso, P Munoz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of the routine serum galactomannan (sGM) assay in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk hematology patients receiving prophylaxis with micafungin. METHODS: Retrospective study including all hematological patients who received prophylaxis with micafungin during high-risk IA episodes (neutropenic patients after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome; allogeneic HSCT during early neutropenic phase or graft-versus-host disease requiring high prednisone doses)...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505028/cytomegalovirus-disease-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-current-and-future-therapeutic-options
#6
Shigeo Fuji, Hermann Einsele, Markus Kapp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has become one of the standard treatment for hematological diseases. Although the clinical outcome has improved significantly during the last decades, the morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT are still obstacles to cure. Out of major morbidities, opportunistic virus infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are important complications, in particular in patients who received human leukocyte antigen-mismatched HSCT...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498097/the-asplenic-patient-post-insult-immunocompetence-infection-and-vaccination
#7
Brandon Dionne, Walter Dehority, Meghan Brett, Thomas R Howdieshell
BACKGROUND: Splenic injury can occur through multiple mechanisms and may result in various degrees of residual immunocompetence. Functionally or anatomically asplenic patients are at higher risk for infection, particularly with encapsulated bacteria. Vaccination is recommended to prevent infection with these organisms; however, the recommendations are routinely updated, and vaccine selection and timing are complex. METHODS: Review of the pertinent English-language literature, including the recommendations of the U...
May 12, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446325/-current-status-and-future-perspectives-of-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-review
#8
Yan Li, Li Yu
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. Primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is effective for decreasing incidence of IFD, and the patients will be more tolerable to chemotherapy with less cost and better prognosis. Antifungal drugs as fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and micafungin are all recommended for PAP by many consensus and guidelines. The PAP will be more scientific, appropriate and effective with the development of studies about predicting risk-stratification for IFD, new drugs, pharmacokinetics and integrated prophylaxis...
April 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417421/a-review-of-infectious-complications-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantations
#10
REVIEW
Erden Atilla, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Taner Demirer
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor is a feasible option for patients with hematological diseases who lack a suitable HLA-matched donor, but viral and fungal infections are still the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in haploidentical transplantation setting because of delayed immune reconstitution, increased risk of graft vs host disease (GvHD) or systemic steroid use. Therefore, this review will focus on the infectious complications after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
April 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416559/a-novel-non-antibiotic-nitroglycerin-based-catheter-lock-solution-for-the-prevention-of-intraluminal-central-venous-catheter-infections-in-cancer-patients
#11
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Ariel Szvalb, Mahnaz Taremi, Bruno Granwehr, George Michael Viola, Amin Sapna, Andrew Assaf, Numan Yazan, Pankil Shah, Ketevan Gasitashvili, Elizabeth Natividad, Ying Jiang, Rebecca Slack, Ruth Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Elie Mouhayar, Issam Raad
Background: For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel non-antibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI.Patients and Methods: Between November 2015, and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) to receive the study lock solution...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395546/post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-a-promising-anti-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-where-do-we-stand
#12
Alberto Mussetti, Raffaella Greco, Jacopo Peccatori, Paolo Corradini
Post transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) in association to other immunosuppressive agents or alone has emerged as a promising pharmacological strategy in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT). Its safety profile and effectiveness in reducing GvHD (acute GvHD incidence comprised between 15 and 30%, chronic GvHD 20-30% in the haploidentical setting) contributed to the spreading of this technique all over the world. Areas covered: This review summarizes the use of PT/Cy in the setting of allo-HCT, both for oncological and non-malignant hematological diseases...
May 5, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381687/bacteremia-due-to-capnocytophaga-species-during-chemotherapy-induced-neutropenia-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#13
Koichi Murakami, Takehiko Mori, Jun Kato, Takayuki Shimizu, Sumiko Kohashi, Masatoshi Sakurai, Kayoko Sugita, Naoki Hasegawa, Mitsuru Murata, Shinichiro Okamoto
The number of reported cases of infections due to Capnocytophaga species (spp.) is limited. We herein describe four cases developing bacteremia due to Capnocytophaga spp. during neutropenia after chemotherapy for hematological malignancies. At the onset of bacteremia, 3 of the 4 patients had oral mucositis, and 2 were co-infected with other bacteria. Two patients developed bacteremia while receiving fluoroquinolone as prophylaxis against bacterial infection. Bacteremia resolved with administration of antimicrobial agents in all patients and no recurrences were observed thereafter...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373870/pathophysiology-of-gvhd-and-other-hsct-related-major-complications
#14
REVIEW
Sakhila Ghimire, Daniela Weber, Emily Mavin, Xiao Nong Wang, Anne Mary Dickinson, Ernst Holler
For over 60 years, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the major curative therapy for several hematological and genetic disorders, but its efficacy is limited by the secondary disease called graft versus host disease (GvHD). Huge advances have been made in successful transplantation in order to improve patient quality of life, and yet, complete success is hard to achieve. This review assimilates recent updates on pathophysiology of GvHD, prophylaxis and treatment of GvHD-related complications, and advances in the potential treatment of GvHD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318212/multiple-myeloma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thomas C Michels, Keith E Petersen
Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older than 65 years account for 85% of those diagnosed with multiple myeloma, and there is a twofold increased incidence in blacks compared with whites. Patients may present with bone pain or with symptoms that are often nonspecific, such as nausea, vomiting, malaise, weakness, recurrent infections, and weight loss...
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303535/hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-coating-does-not-affect-bone-apposition-at-the-implant-surface-in-a-rabbit-model
#16
W Boot, D Gawlitta, P G J Nikkels, B Pouran, M H P van Rijen, W J A Dhert, H Ch Vogely
BACKGROUND: Uncemented orthopaedic implants rely on the bone-implant interface to provide stability, therefore it is essential that a coating does not interfere with the bone-forming processes occurring at the implant interface. In addition, local application of high concentrations of antibiotics for prophylaxis or treatment of infection may be toxic for osteoblasts and could impair bone growth. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this animal study, we investigated the effect of a commercially available hydrogel, either unloaded or loaded with 2% vancomycin...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299183/challenges-in-microbiological-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillus-infections
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been increasingly reported in populations other than the historical hematology patients and there are new questions about the performance of microbiological tools. Microscopy and culture have been completed by biomarkers, either antigens or DNA, and in blood or respiratory specimens or both. First studied in hematology, the antigen galactomannan performance in serum is low in other patient populations where the pathophysiology of the infection can be different and the prevalence of IA is much lower...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255433/adverse-drug-reactions-due-to-cancer-chemotherapy-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#18
Julie Birdie Wahlang, Purnima Devi Laishram, Dhriti Kumar Brahma, Chayna Sarkar, Joonmoni Lahon, Banylla Shisha Nongkynrih
BACKGROUND: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as 'Any response to a drug which is noxious, unintended and occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy'. ADRs associated with cancer chemotherapy warrant analysis on their severity and preventability. The outcome would create awareness among health care providers and prevent their recurrence. We have performed a hospital-based prospective observational study designed to analyze the pattern of ADRs to chemotherapeutic agents in cancer patients of a tertiary care hospital...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241916/the-prevention-of-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#19
Philipp Poxleitner, Monika Engelhardt, Rainer Schmelzeisen, Pit Voss
BACKGROUND: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a preventable complication of antiresorptive treatment. It arises in 1-20% of patients with bone metastases of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies and in 0.1-2% of patients being treated for osteoporosis with bisphosphonates. Depending on the underlying disease and medication dosage, the risk of MRONJ can be elevated even in the first year of antiresorptive treatment. The treatment of MRONJ is difficult and often involves surgery of the jaw...
February 3, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205066/a-single-center-analysis-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-free-relapse-free-survival-after-alternative-donor-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-with-hematological-malignancies
#20
Jiro Inagaki, Reiji Fukano, Maiko Noguchi, Jun Okamura
We assessed the clinical outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from alternative donors for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies, defining graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) as a composite endpoint. We also defined chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (cGRFS) as survival without severe chronic GVHD, relapse, or death. The probabilities of 2-year disease-free survival from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched unrelated donor (n = 57), related donor with HLA-1 antigen mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction (1Ag-GvH-MMRD, n = 28), and unrelated umbilical cord blood (n = 35) were 52...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
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