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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417421/a-review-of-infectious-complications-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantations
#2
REVIEW
Erden Atilla, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Taner Demirer
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor is a feasible option for patients with hematological diseases who lack a suitable HLA-matched donor, but viral and fungal infections are still the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in haploidentical transplantation setting because of delayed immune reconstitution, increased risk of graft vs host disease (GvHD) or systemic steroid use. Therefore, this review will focus on the infectious complications after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
April 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416559/a-novel-non-antibiotic-nitroglycerin-based-catheter-lock-solution-for-the-prevention-of-intraluminal-central-venous-catheter-infections-in-cancer-patients
#3
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Ariel Szvalb, Mahnaz Taremi, Bruno Granwehr, George Michael Viola, Amin Sapna, Andrew Assaf, Numan Yazan, Pankil Shah, Ketevan Gasitashvili, Elizabeth Natividad, Ying Jiang, Rebecca Slack, Ruth Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Elie Mouhayar, Issam Raad
Background: For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel non-antibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI.Patients and Methods: Between November 2015, and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) to receive the study lock solution...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395546/post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-a-promising-anti-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-where-do-we-stand
#4
Alberto Mussetti, Raffaella Greco, Jacopo Peccatori, Paolo Corradini
Post transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) in association to other immunosuppressive agents or alone has emerged as a promising pharmacological strategy in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT). Its safety profile and effectiveness in reducing GvHD (acute GvHD incidence comprised between 15 and 30%, chronic GvHD 20-30% in the haploidentical setting) contributed to the spreading of this technique all over the world. Areas covered: This review summarizes the use of PT/Cy in the setting of allo-HCT, both for oncological and non-malignant hematological diseases...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381687/bacteremia-due-to-capnocytophaga-species-during-chemotherapy-induced-neutropenia-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#5
Koichi Murakami, Takehiko Mori, Jun Kato, Takayuki Shimizu, Sumiko Kohashi, Masatoshi Sakurai, Kayoko Sugita, Naoki Hasegawa, Mitsuru Murata, Shinichiro Okamoto
The number of reported cases of infections due to Capnocytophaga species (spp.) is limited. We herein describe four cases developing bacteremia due to Capnocytophaga spp. during neutropenia after chemotherapy for hematological malignancies. At the onset of bacteremia, 3 of the 4 patients had oral mucositis, and 2 were co-infected with other bacteria. Two patients developed bacteremia while receiving fluoroquinolone as prophylaxis against bacterial infection. Bacteremia resolved with administration of antimicrobial agents in all patients and no recurrences were observed thereafter...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373870/pathophysiology-of-gvhd-and-other-hsct-related-major-complications
#6
REVIEW
Sakhila Ghimire, Daniela Weber, Emily Mavin, Xiao Nong Wang, Anne Mary Dickinson, Ernst Holler
For over 60 years, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the major curative therapy for several hematological and genetic disorders, but its efficacy is limited by the secondary disease called graft versus host disease (GvHD). Huge advances have been made in successful transplantation in order to improve patient quality of life, and yet, complete success is hard to achieve. This review assimilates recent updates on pathophysiology of GvHD, prophylaxis and treatment of GvHD-related complications, and advances in the potential treatment of GvHD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318212/multiple-myeloma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thomas C Michels, Keith E Petersen
Multiple myeloma accounts for 1.6% of all cancer cases and approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 28,850 new cases of multiple myeloma were diagnosed in the United States, and the disease caused more than 11,000 deaths. Patients older than 65 years account for 85% of those diagnosed with multiple myeloma, and there is a twofold increased incidence in blacks compared with whites. Patients may present with bone pain or with symptoms that are often nonspecific, such as nausea, vomiting, malaise, weakness, recurrent infections, and weight loss...
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303535/hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-coating-does-not-affect-bone-apposition-at-the-implant-surface-in-a-rabbit-model
#8
W Boot, D Gawlitta, P G J Nikkels, B Pouran, M H P van Rijen, W J A Dhert, H Ch Vogely
BACKGROUND: Uncemented orthopaedic implants rely on the bone-implant interface to provide stability, therefore it is essential that a coating does not interfere with the bone-forming processes occurring at the implant interface. In addition, local application of high concentrations of antibiotics for prophylaxis or treatment of infection may be toxic for osteoblasts and could impair bone growth. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this animal study, we investigated the effect of a commercially available hydrogel, either unloaded or loaded with 2% vancomycin...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299183/challenges-in-microbiological-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillus-infections
#9
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been increasingly reported in populations other than the historical hematology patients and there are new questions about the performance of microbiological tools. Microscopy and culture have been completed by biomarkers, either antigens or DNA, and in blood or respiratory specimens or both. First studied in hematology, the antigen galactomannan performance in serum is low in other patient populations where the pathophysiology of the infection can be different and the prevalence of IA is much lower...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255433/adverse-drug-reactions-due-to-cancer-chemotherapy-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#10
Julie Birdie Wahlang, Purnima Devi Laishram, Dhriti Kumar Brahma, Chayna Sarkar, Joonmoni Lahon, Banylla Shisha Nongkynrih
BACKGROUND: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as 'Any response to a drug which is noxious, unintended and occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy'. ADRs associated with cancer chemotherapy warrant analysis on their severity and preventability. The outcome would create awareness among health care providers and prevent their recurrence. We have performed a hospital-based prospective observational study designed to analyze the pattern of ADRs to chemotherapeutic agents in cancer patients of a tertiary care hospital...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241916/the-prevention-of-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#11
Philipp Poxleitner, Monika Engelhardt, Rainer Schmelzeisen, Pit Voss
BACKGROUND: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a preventable complication of antiresorptive treatment. It arises in 1-20% of patients with bone metastases of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies and in 0.1-2% of patients being treated for osteoporosis with bisphosphonates. Depending on the underlying disease and medication dosage, the risk of MRONJ can be elevated even in the first year of antiresorptive treatment. The treatment of MRONJ is difficult and often involves surgery of the jaw...
February 3, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205066/a-single-center-analysis-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-free-relapse-free-survival-after-alternative-donor-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-with-hematological-malignancies
#12
Jiro Inagaki, Reiji Fukano, Maiko Noguchi, Jun Okamura
We assessed the clinical outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from alternative donors for pediatric patients with hematological malignancies, defining graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) as a composite endpoint. We also defined chronic GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (cGRFS) as survival without severe chronic GVHD, relapse, or death. The probabilities of 2-year disease-free survival from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched unrelated donor (n = 57), related donor with HLA-1 antigen mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction (1Ag-GvH-MMRD, n = 28), and unrelated umbilical cord blood (n = 35) were 52...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190612/-long-term-infectious-risks-after-splenectomy-a-retrospective-cohort-study-with-up-to-10-years-follow-up
#13
E Meriglier, M Puyade, M Carretier, F Roblot, P Roblot
INTRODUCTION: Although most infections occur within the first 2 years after splenectomy, the relatively short follow-up reported in many studies may underestimate the frequency of infections. The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of infective outcomes and factors associated with infection after splenectomy by studying a group of patients who underwent splenectomy over a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective and monocentric study of patients who underwent splenectomy between January 1st, 1997 and December 31st, 2004 in a French university hospital...
February 9, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168415/comparison-of-levofloxacin-and-garenoxacin-for-antibacterial-prophylaxis-during-neutropenia
#14
Ryoko Yamasaki, Junya Kanda, Yu Akahoshi, Hirofumi Nakano, Tomotaka Ugai, Hidenori Wada, Koji Kawamura, Yuko Ishihara, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Masahiro Ashizawa, Tomohito Machishima, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Shun-Ichi Kimura, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Rie Yamazaki, Shinichi Kako, Junji Nishida, Yoshinobu Kanda
Levofloxacin (LVFX) is widely used for antibacterial prophylaxis during neutropenia. Garenoxacin (GRNX), which has been investigated in Japan, has stronger antibacterial activity than LVFX against gram-positive bacteria; however, no studies have compared the effectiveness of LVFX and GRNX. We retrospectively analyzed 42 patients with acute leukemia and 32 patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation. Thirty-one patients before September 2009 received GRNX, and subsequent 43 patients received LVFX...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152954/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Jordan J Feld, Ronak Saluja, Judy Truong, Adam E Haynes, Kelvin K Chan
138 Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects over 250 million people worldwide. Most people with chronic HBV (HBsAg positive) have no signs or symptoms of infection. However, when exposed to immunosuppression they are at risk of HBV reactivation which can cause hepatitis, liver failure and death. The risk of HBV reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors, the efficacy of antiviral prophylaxis, and the clinical impact of HBV reactivation in this setting are uncertain. Primary Aim: To estimate the risk of clinical HBV reactivation (increased HBV DNA + transaminitis) among HBsAg-positive patients administered chemotherapy for a solid tumor...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152791/improving-venous-thromboembolism-vte-prophylaxis-for-hospitalized-malignant-hematology-bone-marrow-transplant-heme-bmt-patients
#16
John Dzundza, Archana Ajmera, Ashley Gustafson, Mimi Lo, Richard Fong, Larissa Graff, Bao Dao, Rebecca Young, Lloyd Earl Damon, Thomas G Martin, Rebecca Leah Olin
79 Background: Hospitalized patients on the heme/BMT service at our academic cancer center have historically not received pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis (VTEP) due to concerns regarding thrombocytopenia and bleeding risk. However, a retrospective review of heme/BMT admissions from 2009 to 2013 revealed that 59% of hospital-acquired VTE cases occurred at a platelet count > 50 x 10E9/L, suggesting missed opportunities for VTE prevention. METHODS: To implement VTEP on the heme/BMT service, a multidisciplinary quality improvement team developed a pilot intervention with 5 strategies: 1) identification of heme/BMT-specific contraindications to VTEP, 2) standardized use of VTEP for all heme/BMT patients unless contraindications are present, 3) hold parameter for platelet count < 50 x 10E9/L within the VTEP order, 4) note template to document VTEP plan, and 5) provider, nurse, pharmacist, and patient education...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146188/-vaccination-of-adult-patients-receiving-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-perspective-of-costa-rica
#17
M Del Rosario Espínoza Mora, Gustavo Lazo Páez, M Paz León Bratti, Christian Schauer
In this article the present recommendations for immunization of adult patients who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation -a common procedure in therapy of many types of hematological diseases and serious inborn defects of the immune system- are reviewed and discussed. Patients that undergo this kind of transplantation procedure exhibit, compared to the general population, an elevated susceptibility of immune-preventable infections, due to loss of the humoral and cellular protective immunity. A revaccination strategy for transplanted patients can result in a significant diminution of morbidity and mortality related to the treatment of these diseases...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138378/the-frequency-antifungal-susceptibility-and-enzymatic-profiles-of-candida-species-isolated-from-neutropenic-patients
#18
Maral Gharaghani, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Bijan Keikhaei
BACKGROUND: Neutropenia, as a predisposing factor for invasive candidiasis, is defined as a reduction in neutrophil count to less than 1500/mm(3). It is a common condition in patients with hematological malignancy and cytostatic chemotherapy. Extensive chemotherapy and prophylaxis with antifungals have increased the resistance of Candida isolates to antifungal drugs. Although, Candida albicans is the most common causative agent among neutropenic patients, there is an increasing rate of non-albicans species...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128861/role-of-surface-antibody-in-hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-patients-with-resolved-infection-and-hematologic-malignancy-a-meta-analysis
#19
Sonali Paul, Aaron Dickstein, Akriti Saxena, Norma Terrin, Kathleen Viveiros, Ethan M Balk, John B Wong
Patients with resolved hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who are treated for hematological malignancies remain at risk for HBV reactivation. Because of conflicting studies about whether the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) protects against reactivation in patients with resolved infection (hepatitis B surface antigen negative) receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine if anti-HBs reduces HBV reactivation risk. We sought English language studies through March 1, 2016 in Medline and other sources that examined reactivation in patients with resolved HBV infection receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies...
January 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128714/donor-origin-car-t-cells-graft-versus-malignancy-effect-without-gvhd-a-systematic-review
#20
Faiz Anwer, Al-Aman Shaukat, Umar Zahid, Muhammad Husnain, Ali McBride, Daniel Persky, Melissa Lim, Nida Hasan, Irbaz Bin Riaz
CD19, CD20 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell therapy has shown promising results for the treatment of relapsed or refractory hematological malignancies. Best results have been reported in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with a complete response rate above 80%. Patients who received donor-derived CAR T cells for the relapsed malignancy after stem cell transplantation (allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant) were identified from the published trials. A total of 72 patients from seven studies were treated with donor-derived CAR T cells...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
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