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Shouichiro Saito, Takahiko Shiina, Yasutake Shimizu
Neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), discovered in mice brain cell nuclei by Mullen et al. (1992), is used as an excellent marker of post-mitotic neurons in vertebrates. In this study, the expression pattern of NeuN was examined in the Xenopus brain to explore phylogenetic differences in NeuN expression. Anti-NeuN antibody showed selective staining in mouse and Xenopus brain extracts, but the number and molecular weight of the bands differed in Western blotting analysis. In immunostaining, anti-NeuN antibody showed selective staining of neurons, but not glial cells, in the Xenopus brain...
May 13, 2017: Tissue & Cell
S Colnaghi, P Colagiorgio, M Versino, G Koch, E D'Angelo, S Ramat
BACKGROUND: Saccade pulse amplitude adaptation is mediated by the dorsal cerebellar vermis and fastigial nucleus. Long-term depression at the parallel fibre-Purkinjie cell synapses has been suggested to provide a cellular mechanism for the corresponding learning process. The mechanisms and sites of this plasticity, however, are still debated. OBJECTIVE: To test the role of cerebellar plasticity phenomena on adaptive saccade control. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the posterior vermis on saccade amplitude adaptation and spontaneous recovery of the initial response...
July 2017: Brain Stimulation
Amira A Goda, Khayria M Naguib, Magdy M Mohamed, Hassan A Amra, Somaia A Nada, Abdel-Rahman B Abdel-Ghaffar, Chris R Gissendanner, Khalid A El Sayed
Penitrem A (PA) is a food mycotoxin produced by several terrestrial and few marine Penicillium species. PA is a potent tremorgen through selective antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium BK (Maxi-K) channels. Discovery of natural products that can prevent the toxic effects of PA is important for food safety. Astaxanthin (AST) is a marine natural xanthophyll carotenoid with documented antioxidant activity. Unlike other common antioxidants, AST can cross blood brain barriers (BBBs), inducing neuroprotective effects...
November 9, 2016: Marine Drugs
Elizabeth J Gray, Evangelia Petsalaki, D Andrew James, Richard D Bagshaw, Melissa M Stacey, Oliver Rocks, Anne-Claude Gingras, Tony Pawson
SH2D5 is a mammalian-specific, uncharacterized adaptor-like protein that contains an N-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain and a C-terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. We show that SH2D5 is highly enriched in adult mouse brain, particularly in Purkinjie cells in the cerebellum and the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus. Despite harboring two potential phosphotyrosine (Tyr(P)) recognition domains, SH2D5 binds minimally to Tyr(P) ligands, consistent with the absence of a conserved Tyr(P)-binding arginine residue in the SH2 domain...
December 19, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shankar B Das, Rajendra K Sharma
A wealth of knowledge exists regarding calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE1) in normal mammalian tissues. However, much remains to be known about the enzyme in human brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM). PDE1 has not been investigated in GBM relative to normal brain and remains an important area of investigation. In this review, we have summarized the works that have been carried out in our laboratory on the potential role of PDE1 in GBM. In the normal brain, PDE1 is localized in all four principal parts of the brain: cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum...
October 2005: Oncology Reports
Salvatore Carrabino, Emanuela Carminati, Daniela Talarico, Ruggero Pardi, Elisabetta Bianchi
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved multiprotein complex, with an important developmental role in several organisms, ranging from plants to mammalians. The influence of the CSN on several signaling and developmental processes has been ascribed to its ability to regulate degradation of a number of signaling proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The CSN controls the function of the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex through an enzymatic activity that removes the small ubiquitin-like molecule NEDD8 from the cullin component of the SCF and that requires subunit 5 of the CSN (JAB1/CSN5)...
July 2004: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
M R Pranzatelli
Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes, sometimes called remote effects of cancer on the nervous system, are rare but important and often devastating complications of cancer. The immunological theory of causation is supported by many different lines of evidence and reasoning which implicate abnormalities of both humoral and cellular immunity. The targets of immunologically mediated injury, although remote from the tumor, may be hard hit and irreversibly damaged, giving rise to discrete syndromes of motor or cognitive impairment...
May 1998: Drugs of Today
Bing Li, Xiao-Ping Qian, Xue-Wen Pang, Wan-Zhong Zou, Yu-Ping Wang, Hong-Yan Wu, Wei-Feng Chen
The HCA587 gene, identified by serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX) from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient, encodes a new member of cancer-testis antigens. HCA587 mRNA expression in normal tissues and cancers has been previously reported. To estimate its immunogenicity to induce immune response, it is essential to analyze HCA587 expression at the protein level. In this study anti-HCA587 polyclonal antibody, termed "TC-1," was generated, and the expression of HCA587 protein was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in a panel of normal and tumor tissue sections...
August 2003: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Chengyuan Wu, Yuguang Liu, Jiangang Wang, Yang Yang, Yuquan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To study the survival ability of cerebellar cells and genetically modified cells transplanted in the brains of mice and monkeys and whether the transplanted neurons correct and improve the cerebral function disorders. METHODS: Suspension of cerebellar tissue from 13-day-old C57BL/6 mouse embryos was transplanted into the cerebellum of 3-month-old BALB/c mice with Purkinji cell degeneration. Since one week after the transplantation, six mice were killed every week till the 8(th) week to examine the cerebellar tissue by immunohistochemistry...
April 10, 2002: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
A Hogan, L Shepherd, J Chabot, S Quenneville, S M Prescott, M K Topham, S H Gee
Syntrophins are modular adapter proteins that link ion channels and signaling proteins to dystrophin and its homologues. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library using the PDZ domain of gamma 1- syntrophin, a recently identified brain-specific isoform, yielded overlapping clones encoding the C terminus of diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid. In biochemical assays, the C terminus of DGK-zeta, which contains a consensus PDZ-binding motif, was found to be necessary and sufficient for association with gamma 1-syntrophin...
July 13, 2001: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R Horuk, A Martin, J Hesselgesser, T Hadley, Z H Lu, Z X Wang, S C Peiper
The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is expressed in human erythrocytes and on endothelial cells lining postcapillary venules in kidney and spleen. DARC is a promiscuous chemokine receptor and a binding protein for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax. The expression of DARC by subsets of endothelial cells and neurons in discrete anatomic sites in the brain suggests that this enigmatic receptor may have multiple roles in normal and pathological physiology. Conservation of this promiscuous chemokine binding function is evident from the similarity in nucleotide sequence of DARC homologues from multiple species, as well as the high-affinity binding of human chemokines to murine and avian erythrocytes...
January 1996: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
C A Greer, N Halász
Mitral cells of the olfactory bulb typically form reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with anaxonic interneurons, granule cells, within a sublamina of the external plexiform layer. As a result of mitral cell loss in the murine mutant Purkinjie cell degeneration (PCD), subpopulations of these granule cells are denervated. The present report examines the capacity of these denervated interneurons to form new dendrodendritic microcircuits with a second population of olfactory bulb neurons, tufted cells. Quantitative ultrastructural assessments were made of the morphology and distribution of dendrodendritic circuits in the olfactory bulbs of normal heterozygous littermates and affected homozygous recessive PCD mice following mitral cell loss...
February 8, 1987: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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