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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205506/prospective-surveillance-of-antiviral-resistance-in-hospitalized-infants-less-than-12-months-of-age-with-a-h3n2-influenza-infection-and-treated-with-oseltamivir
#1
Barbara Rath, Xi Chen, Vera Spies, Susann Muehlhans, Patrick Obermeier, Franziska Tief, Lea Seeber, Katharina Karsch, Jeanette Milde, Heino Skopnik, Brunhilde Schweiger, Susanne C Duwe
BACKGROUND: Infants exhibit elevated influenza virus loads and prolonged viral shedding, which may increase the risk for resistance development, especially in cases of suboptimal exposure to antiviral therapy. METHODS: We performed a prospective surveillance of hospitalized infants undergoing oseltamivir therapy during the 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons at two paediatric hospitals in Germany. A total of 37 infants less than one year of age with laboratory confirmed influenza A(H3N2) infection received oseltamivir as per physician's order for 5 days (2008-2009 season: 2mg/kg BID; 2011-2012 season: 2...
February 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176362/interdisciplinary-pharmacometrics-linking-oseltamivir-pharmacology-influenza-epidemiology-and-health-economics-to-inform-antiviral-use-in-pandemics
#2
M A Kamal, P F Smith, N Chaiyakunapruk, D B C Wu, C Pratoomsoot, K K C Lee, H Y Chong, R E Nelson, K Nieforth, G Dall, S Toovey, D C M Kong, A Kamauu, C M Kirkpatrick, C R Rayner
AIM: A modular interdisciplinary platform was developed to investigate the economic impact of oseltamivir treatment by dosage regimen under simulated influenza pandemic scenarios. METHODS: The pharmacology module consisted of a pharmacokinetic distribution of oseltamivir carboxylate AUC0-24h at steady state (simulated for 75 mg and 150 mg BID regimens for 5 days) and a pharmacodynamic distribution of viral shedding duration (Tshed ) obtained from phase II influenza inoculation data...
February 8, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159370/development-and-application-of-an-in-cell-cleanup-pressurized-liquid-extraction-with-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-to-detect-prohibited-antiviral-agents-sensitively-in-livestock-and-poultry-feces
#3
Huizhen Wu, Jianmei Wang, Hua Yang, Guoqin Li, Yinhuan Zeng, Wei Xia, Zuguang Li, Mingrong Qian
An in-cell cleanup pressurized liquid extraction was developed to analyze prohibited antiviral agents in livestock and poultry feces. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into one step. The extraction was performed using methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 0.5% glacial acetic acid at 90°C, and 0.75g of PSA was used as the adsorbent during the extraction procedure. Under optimal conditions, the average recoveries for 11 antiviral drugs were 71.5-112.5% at three spiked levels (20, 40, and 100μgkg(-1)). The detection limits and detection quantitations of the analysis method for the eleven antiviral drugs were 0...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115874/optic-neuritis-and-acute-anterior-uveitis-associated-with-influenza-a-infection-a-case-report
#4
Hayate Nakagawa, Hidetaka Noma, Osamu Kotake, Ryosuke Motohashi, Kanako Yasuda, Masahiko Shimura
BACKGROUND: A few reports have described ocular complications of influenza A infection, such as impaired ocular movement, parasympathetic ocular nerve, keratitis, macular lesion, and frosted branch angiitis. We encountered a rare case of acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis associated with influenza A infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid diagnostic test showed a positive result for influenza A...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094141/intravenous-zanamivir-or-oral-oseltamivir-for-hospitalised-patients-with-influenza-an-international-randomised-double-blind-double-dummy-phase-3-trial
#5
Francisco M Marty, Joan Vidal-Puigserver, Carol Clark, Sandeep K Gupta, Esperanza Merino, Denis Garot, Marianne J Chapman, Frédérique Jacobs, Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega, Petr Husa, Denise Shortino, Helen A Watson, Phillip J Yates, Amanda F Peppercorn
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. However, there is an unmet need for intravenous treatment for patients admitted to hospital with severe influenza. We studied whether intravenous zanamivir was a suitable treatment in this setting. METHODS: In this international, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 16 years or older with severe influenza admitted to 97 hospitals from 26 countries...
February 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067324/the-in-vivo-efficacy-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-cannot-be-determined-from-the-decay-rates-of-influenza-viral-titers-observed-in-treated-patients
#6
John Palmer, Hana M Dobrovolny, Catherine A A Beauchemin
Antiviral therapy is a first line of defence against new influenza strains. Current pandemic preparations involve stock- piling oseltamivir, an oral neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI), so rapidly determining the effectiveness of NAIs against new viral strains is vital for deciding how to use the stockpile. Previous studies have shown that it is possible to extract the drug efficacy of antivirals from the viral decay rate of chronic infections. In the present work, we use a nonlinear mathematical model representing the course of an influenza infection to explore the possibility of extracting NAI drug efficacy using only the observed viral titer decay rates seen in patients...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924780/activity-of-ergoferon-against-lethal-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-infection-in-mice
#7
Maria A Skarnovich, Alexandra G Emelyanova, Nataliia V Petrova, Alena A Borshcheva, Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Oleg Yu Mazurkov, Maksim O Skarnovich, Sergey A Tarasov, Larisa N Shishkina, Oleg I Epstein
BACKGROUND: The Influenza A virus accounts for serious annual viral upper respiratory tract infections. It is constantly able to modify its antigenic structure, thus evading host defence mechanisms. Moreover, currently available anti-influenza agents have a rather limited application, emphasising the further need for new effective treatments. One of them is Ergoferon, a drug, containing combined polyclonal antibodies - anti-interferon gamma, anti-CD4 receptor, and anti-histamine - in released-active form...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899226/virospot-microneutralization-assay-for-antigenic-characterization-of-human-influenza-viruses
#8
Carel A van Baalen, Rienk E Jeeninga, Germaine H W M Penders, Brenda van Gent, Ruud van Beek, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay has been used for the antigenic characterization of influenza viruses for decades. However, the majority of recent seasonal influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype has lost the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes of various species. The hemagglutination (HA) activity of other A(H3N2) strains is generally sensitive to the action of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, which indicates that the neuraminidase and not the hemagglutinin is responsible for the HA activity...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866108/clinical-characteristics-of-critically-ill-patients-with-suspected-influenza-during-the-2009-10-and-2013-14-outbreaks
#9
Miguel J Franquiz, Paul G Saleeb, Carl B Shanholtz, Jeffrey P Gonzales
PURPOSE: Pandemic influenza A pdm09 (pH1N1) virus was the predominant isolate identified during the 2009-10 and 2013-14 influenza outbreaks, causing significant morbidity and mortality. We describe clinical characteristics of critically ill patients during 2 pH1N1 outbreaks. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit receiving oseltamivir for suspected influenza during 2 outbreak periods. Demographics and comorbidities were collected from the medical record...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771390/activities-of-jnj63623872-and-oseltamivir-against-influenza-a-h1n1pdm-and-h3n2-virus-infections-in-mice
#10
Donald F Smee, Dale L Barnard, Steven M Jones
JNJ63623872 (formerly known as VX-787) is an inhibitor of influenza A virus polymerases through interaction with the viral PB2 subunit. This interaction blocks the cap-snatching activity of the virus that is essential for virus replication. Previously published work has documented antiviral activity of JNJ63623872 in cell culture and mouse infection studies. In this report, we extend the in vivo observations by comparing the efficacies of JNJ63623872 and oseltamivir in mice infected with influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm) and A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) viruses...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759342/a-study-of-outbreak-of-swine-flu-h1n1-in-north-west-zone-of-rajasthan-current-status-2015
#11
Surendra Kumar
BACKROUND: The outbreak of H1N1 virus had previously reported in India during 2009 flu pandemic. In 2015, the outbreak became widespread throughout India. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan are severely elected. We studied an outbreak of H1N1 Virus in north-west zone of Rajasthan 2015. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the current epidemiological scenario of swine flu (H1N1) in north-west zone of Rajasthan with different demographic factors. METHODS: We screened total 6390 patients...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618892/screening-for-neuraminidase-inhibitory-activity-in-traditional-chinese-medicines-used-to-treat-influenza
#12
Xian-Ying Yang, Ai-Lin Liu, Shu-Jing Liu, Xiao-Wei Xu, Lin-Fang Huang
To screen for influenza virus neuraminidase inhibition and to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of influenza using traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In this study, 421 crude extracts (solubilized with petroleum ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous solvents) were obtained from 113 TCM. The medicine extracts were then reacted with oseltamivir, using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA) as the substrate, to determine influenza virus neuraminidase activity using a standard fluorimetric assay...
August 27, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608845/sialylation-transmogrifies-human-breast-and-pancreatic-cancer-cells-into-3d-multicellular-tumor-spheroids-using-cyclic-rgd-peptide-induced-self-assembly
#13
Roman Akasov, Sabah Haq, Fiona Haxho, Vanessa Samuel, Sergey V Burov, Elena Markvicheva, Ronald J Neufeld, Myron R Szewczuk
Multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) have been at the forefront of cancer research, designed to mimic tumor-like developmental patterns in vitro. Tumor growth in vivo is highly influenced by aberrant cell surface-specific sialoglycan structures on glycoproteins. Aberrant sialoglycan patterns that facilitate MTS formation are not well defined. Matrix-free spheroids from breast MCF-7 and pancreatic PANC1 cancer cell lines and their respective tamoxifen (TMX) and gemcitabine (Gem) resistant variants were generated using the RGD platform of cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys peptide modified with 4-carboxybutyl-triphenylphosphonium bromide (cyclo-RGDfK (TPP))...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596232/pharmacokinetics-of-oseltamivir-in-infants-under-the-age-of-1-year
#14
Rashmi Dixit, Slade Matthews, Gulam Khandaker, Karen Walker, Marino Festa, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: Oseltamivir is the only antiviral treatment recommended for influenza in young children over the age of 1 year. There is scant data on oseltamivir pharmacokinetics (PK) in infants <1 year. We set out to perform PK measurements in infants who received oseltamivir. METHODS: This study was a prospective, uncontrolled, open label evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir metabolism, safety of oseltamivir, viral clearance in infants <12 months diagnosed with influenza by nasopharyngeal influenza nucleic acid antigen test (NAAT)...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578993/peramivir-injection-in-the-treatment-of-acute-influenza-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Ashley Wester, Avinash K Shetty
Influenza virus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults globally. Seasonal epidemics are common due to the rapid virus evolution, whereas the frequent emergence of antigenic variants can result in pandemics and sporadic/endemic avian influenza virus infections. Although annual vaccination is the mainstay for influenza prevention and control, the use of antiviral agents must be considered for treatment and prophylaxis against influenza. Currently available antiviral drugs include neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), adamantanes, and a novel polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir)...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558428/reduction-of-neuraminidase-activity-exacerbates-disease-in-2009-pandemic-influenza-virus-infected-mice
#16
Charlene Ranadheera, Mable W Hagan, Anders Leung, Brad Collignon, Todd Cutts, Steven Theriault, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Darwyn Kobasa
: During the first wave of the 2009 pandemic, caused by a H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) of swine origin, antivirals were the only form of therapeutic available to control the proliferation of disease until the conventional strain-matched vaccine was produced. Oseltamivir is an antiviral that inhibits the sialidase activity of the viral neuraminidase (NA) protein and was shown to be effective against pH1N1 viruses in ferrets. Furthermore, it was used in humans to treat infections during the pandemic and is still used for current infections without reported complication or exacerbation of illness...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479194/comparative-study-on-the-antioxidant-capacities-of-synthetic-influenza-inhibitors-and-ellagic-acid-in-model-systems
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Elitsa L Pavlova, Nikolay N Zografov, Lora S Simeonova
This study compares the antioxidant capacities in vitro of several synthetic and natural compounds applied and researched for influenza treatment - oseltamivir, isoprinosine, ellagic acid, vitamin E and vitamin C. Three chemical systems are utilized for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at pH 7.4 and pH 8.5: (1) Fenton's (Fe(2+)+H2O2) for OH and -OH species (2) H2O2 (3) NADH-phenazinemethosulfat, for superoxide radicals (O2(-)). The kinetics was evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430528/contact-transmission-of-influenza-virus-between-ferrets-imposes-a-looser-bottleneck-than-respiratory-droplet-transmission-allowing-propagation-of-antiviral-resistance
#18
Rebecca Frise, Konrad Bradley, Neeltje van Doremalen, Monica Galiano, Ruth A Elderfield, Peter Stilwell, Jonathan W Ashcroft, Mirian Fernandez-Alonso, Shahjahan Miah, Angie Lackenby, Kim L Roberts, Christl A Donnelly, Wendy S Barclay
Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. It is important to elucidate the stringency of bottlenecks during transmission to shed light on mechanisms that underlie the evolution and propagation of antigenic drift, host range switching or drug resistance. The virus spreads between people by different routes, including through the air in droplets and aerosols, and by direct contact. By housing ferrets under different conditions, it is possible to mimic various routes of transmission...
July 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426925/transplacental-transfer-of-oseltamivir-phosphate-and-its-metabolite-oseltamivir-carboxylate-using-the-ex-vivo-human-placenta-perfusion-model-in-chinese-hans-population
#19
Hua Huang, Jingjing Wang, Qian Li, Jiang Duan, Qin Yao, Qiaoling Zheng, Jing Wang, Di Wu, Qiong Zhou, Yuqin Tian, Jun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determinetransplacental of oseltamivir phosphate and its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate using the ex vivo human placental perfusion model in Chinese Hans population. STUDY DESIGN: Perfusion studies were performed on twenty placentas from healthy term pregnancies. Concentrations typical for an 75mg, twice-daily oral dose were tested(oseltamivir phosphate 65.2 ng/ml and oseltamivir carboxylate 348 ng/ml), along with the positive control antipyrine 0...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379214/oseltamivir-pk-pd-modeling-and-simulation-to-evaluate-treatment-strategies-against-influenza-pneumococcus-coinfection
#20
Alessandro Boianelli, Niharika Sharma-Chawla, Dunja Bruder, Esteban A Hernandez-Vargas
Influenza pandemics and seasonal outbreaks have shown the potential of Influenza A virus (IAV) to enhance susceptibility to a secondary infection with the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp). The high morbidity and mortality rate revealed the poor efficacy of antiviral drugs and vaccines to fight IAV infections. Currently, the most effective treatment for IAV is by antiviral neuraminidase inhibitors. Among them, the most frequently stockpiled is Oseltamivir which reduces viral release and transmission...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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