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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075492/a-thematic-content-analysis-of-cheatmeal-images-on-social-media-characterizing-an-emerging-dietary-trend
#1
Eva Pila, Jonathan M Mond, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B Murray
Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071712/independent-aftereffects-of-fat-and-muscle-implications-for-neural-encoding-body-space-representation-and-body-image-disturbance
#2
Daniel Sturman, Ian D Stephen, Jonathan Mond, Richard J Stevenson, Kevin R Brooks
Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053660/causes-of-and-risk-factors-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-beliefs-of-iraqi-and-afghan-refugees-resettled-in-australia
#3
Shameran Slewa-Younan, Maria Gabriela Uribe Guajardo, Anisa Yaser, Jonathan Mond, Mitchell Smith, Diana Milosevic, Caroline Smith, Sanja Lujic, Anthony Francis Jorm
BACKGROUND: Resettled refugees are a vulnerable group for mental health problems and in particular, trauma-related disorders. Evidence suggests that poor 'mental health literacy' (MHL) is a major factor in low or inappropriate treatment-seeking among individuals with mental health problems. This study sought to determine the beliefs regarding the causes of and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst two resettled refugee groups in Australia. METHODS: Utilising a culturally adapted MHL survey method, 225 Iraqis and 150 Afghans of refugee background were surveyed...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045273/analysis-of-configuration-and-conformation-of-furanose-ring-in-carbohydrate-and-nucleoside-by-vibrational-circular-dichroism
#4
Tohru Taniguchi, Kie Nakano, Ryosuke Baba, Kenji Monde
A reliable and convenient method for determining the configuration and conformation of the furanose ring in carbohydrates and nucleosides by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy is described. Diastereomeric pairs of several furanose monosaccharides and nucleosides were prepared, and their VCD spectra were analyzed. The results revealed that VCD spectroscopy elucidates the equibrated state of the furanose ring puckers, which is often difficult to study by other techniques.
January 3, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045272/%C3%AE-arylation-of-%C3%AE-amino-acid-derivatives-with-arynes-via-memory-of-chirality-asymmetric-synthesis-of-benzocyclobutenones-with-tetrasubstituted-carbon
#5
Koji Kasamatsu, Tomoyuki Yoshimura, Attila Mandi, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde, Takumi Furuta, Takeo Kawabata
A method for asymmetric α-arylation of α-amino acid derivatives via memory of chirality has been developed. Addition of axially chiral enolates, generated from α-amino acid derivatives, to in situ generated arynes, followed by intramolecular C-acylation of the resulting aryl metallic species, gave benzocyclobutenones with a tetrasubstituted carbon with retention of configuration in up to 99% ee.
January 3, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025680/impact-of-surgery-on-quality-of-life-of-women-with-obstetrical-fistula-a-qualitative-study-in-burkina-faso
#6
Julie Désalliers, Marie-Eve Paré, Salam Kouraogo, Jacques Corcos
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Obstetric fistula, caused by traumatic delivery and patient lack of access to obstetric care, is an important public health concern in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. This research focuses on the experience of women living with obstetric fistula in Burkina Faso as well as their reintegration into community after surgery. METHODS: This project was funded by the Mères du Monde en Santé (MMS) Foundation and conducted in collaboration with the Boromo Hospital...
December 26, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989453/the-transition-from-thinness-oriented-to-muscularity-oriented-disordered-eating-in-adolescent-males-a-clinical-observation
#7
Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Jonathan M Mond
PURPOSE: Robust empirical evidence has illustrated a rising prevalence of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among males, noting that both may be oriented more toward muscularity-as opposed to thinness-oriented concerns. While an elevated prevalence of premorbid anorexia nervosa (AN) has been noted among those with muscle dysmorphia, little evidence has examined the process of this transition from thinness-oriented to muscularity-oriented disordered eating. METHODS: This clinical observation presents a case of AN in an adolescent male, whose symptom presentation transitioned during the course of treatment for AN, into more muscularity-oriented disordered eating...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919230/the-association-of-hyperglycaemia-with-prevalent-tuberculosis-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#8
Sarah Lou Bailey, Helen Ayles, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Monde Muyoyeta, Elizabeth du Toit, John S Yudkin, Sian Floyd
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884856/a-refugee-camp-in-the-centre-of-europe-clinical-characteristics-of-asylum-seekers-arriving-in-brussels
#9
Gerlant van Berlaer, Francisca Bohle Carbonell, Sofie Manantsoa, Xavier de Béthune, Ronald Buyl, Michel Debacker, Ives Hubloue
BACKGROUND: In the summer of 2015, the exodus of Syrian war refugees and saturation of refugee camps in neighbouring countries led to the influx of asylum-seekers in European countries, including Belgium. This study aims to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of asylum seekers who arrived in a huddled refugee camp, in the centre of a well-developed country with all medical facilities. METHODS: Using a descriptive cross-sectional study design, physicians of Médecins du Monde prospectively registered age, gender, origin, medical symptoms and diagnoses of all patients presenting to an erected field hospital in Brussels in September 2015...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876869/discerning-the-location-and-nature-of-coke-deposition-from-surface-to-bulk-of-spent-zeolite-catalysts
#10
Arun Devaraj, Murugesan Vijayakumar, Jie Bao, Mond F Guo, Miroslaw A Derewinski, Zhijie Xu, Michel J Gray, Sebastian Prodinger, Karthikeyan K Ramasamy
The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), (13)C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866170/measurement-invariance-of-a-body-dysmorphic-disorder-symptom-questionnaire-across-sex-the-body-image-questionnaire-child-and-adolescent-version
#11
Sophie C Schneider, Andrew J Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia M Turner, Jennifer L Hudson
Measures of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms have received little psychometric evaluation in adolescent samples. This study aimed to examine cross-sex measurement invariance in the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version (BIQ-C) to establish whether observed sex differences in total scores may be meaningful or due to differences in measurement properties. A sample of 3,057 Australian high school students completed the initial screening item of the measure (63.2% male, Mage = 14.58 years, SD = 1...
November 19, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844325/childhood-sexual-abuse-and-sociodemographic-factors-prospectively-associated-with-intimate-partner-violence-perpetration-among-south-african-heterosexual-men
#12
Anne M Teitelman, Scarlett L Bellamy, John B Jemmott, Larry Icard, Ann O'Leary, Samira Ali, Zolani Ngwane, Monde Makiwane
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. PURPOSE: History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. METHODS: Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points...
November 14, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811776/oxynoemacheilus-karunensis-a-new-species-from-the-persian-gulf-basin-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#13
Jörg Freyhof
Nemacheilid loaches of the genus Oxynoemacheilus are common fishes all over the Middle East (Freyhof et al. 2011). From Iran, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. (2015) recognised 12 species from Iran (O. angorae (Steindachner), O. araxensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant), O. bergianus (Derjavin), O. brandtii (Kessler), O. chomanicus (Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant), O. frenatus (Heckel), O. kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant), O. kiabii (Golzarianpour, Abdoli & Freyhof), O. kurdistanicus (Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalban)t, O...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779841/reinvestigation-of-the-absolute-configurations-of-chiral-%C3%AE-mercaptoalkanones-using-vibrational-circular-dichroism-and-1-h-nmr-analysis
#14
Christiane Kiske, Svenja Nörenberg, Miriam Ecker, Xingyue Ma, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Karl-Heinz Engel
The absolute configurations of chiral β-mercaptoalkanones were previously assigned on the basis of the (1)H NMR anisotropy method using (S)-2-methoxy-2-(1-naphthyl)propionic acid ((S)-MαNP) as the chiral auxiliary. This study presents a reinvestigation of the configurations of 4-mercapto-2-pentanone 1, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone 2, and 2-mercapto-4-heptanone 3. Enantiomers of 1, 2, and 3 were obtained by lipase-catalyzed hydrolyses of the respective acetylthioalkanones. Upon derivatization with (S)-MαNP, the configurations of the reaction products were deduced based on the order of the HPLC elution of the diastereoisomeric thioesters, assuming that the sector rule previously developed for secondary alcohols is also valid for thiols...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740792/universal-modified-newtonian-dynamics-relation-between-the-baryonic-and-dynamical-central-surface-densities-of-disc-galaxies
#15
Mordehai Milgrom
I derive a new modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) relation for pure-disc galaxies: The "dynamical" central surface density, Σ_{D}^{0}, deduced from the measured velocities, is a universal function of only the true, "baryonic'' central surface density, Σ_{B}^{0}: Σ_{D}^{0}=Σ_{M}S(Σ_{B}^{0}/Σ_{M}), where Σ_{M}≡a_{0}/2πG is the MOND surface density constant. This surprising result is shown to hold in both existing, nonrelativistic MOND theories. S(y) is derived: S(y)=∫_{0}^{y}ν(y^{'})dy^{'}, with ν(y) being the interpolating function of the theory...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724943/quality-of-life-as-a-vulnerability-and-recovery-factor-in-eating-disorders-a-community-based-study
#16
Deborah Mitchison, Lisa Dawson, Lucy Hand, Jonathan Mond, Phillipa Hay
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that changes in quality of life (QoL) predicts later changes in eating disorder (ED) symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore individual sufferers' perspectives on the influence of QoL on the onset, maintenance, and/or remission of ED symptoms. METHOD: 19 women from the community with a history of eating disorders (n = 13 currently symptomatic; n = 6 recovered) were interviewed about their observations on the relationship between QoL and ED symptoms over time in their own lives...
October 11, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710207/do-emotional-stimuli-enhance-or-impede-recall-relative-to-neutral-stimuli-an-investigation-of-two-false-memory-tasks
#17
Lauren A Monds, Helen M Paterson, Richard I Kemp
Many eyewitness memory situations involve negative and distressing events; however, many studies investigating "false memory" phenomena use neutral stimuli only. The aim of the present study was to determine how both the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and the Misinformation Effect Paradigm tasks were related to each other using distressing and neutral stimuli. Participants completed the DRM (with negative and neutral word lists) and viewed a distressing or neutral film. Misinformation for the film was introduced and memory was assessed...
October 6, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698223/authors-reply
#18
Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Jonathan M Mond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695684/chronic-respiratory-disease-in-adults-treated-for-tuberculosis-in-khartoum-sudan
#19
R K Osman, K Mortimer, G Bjune, A I El Sony
Background: Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the global CRD epidemic collides with the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in many low- and middle-income country settings, the risk of TB-associated CRD is not well described in countries with a high burden of TB. Methods: We recruited 136 patients with a history of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) from the TB clinic at Omdurman Teaching Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan, and 136 age- and sex-matched community controls, between 28 July 2013 and 30 December 2013...
September 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679970/loss-of-control-over-eating-scale-loces-validation-in-undergraduate-men-and-women-with-and-without-eating-disorder-symptoms
#20
Emily C Stefano, Allison F Wagner, Jonathan M Mond, David C Cicero, Janet D Latner
The present study aimed to further validate the Loss of Control Over Eating Scale (LOCES) for use with undergraduate men and women with and without eating disorder (ED) symptoms. A total of 261 participants completed the LOCES and the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and were identified as non-clinical or having probable ED symptomatology based on previously used EDE-Q cutoff scores. Results indicated that the LOCES and its subscales were significantly associated with and a significant predictor of global ED pathology and binge episode frequency...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
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