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Nicholas Lintzeris, Lauren A Monds, Consuelo Rivas, Stefanie Leung, Adrian Dunlop, David Newcombe, Carina Walters, Susanna Galea, Nancy White, Mark Montebello, Apo Demirkol, Nicola Swanson, Robert Ali
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Transfer from methadone to buprenorphine is problematic for many opioid-dependent patients, with limited documented evidence or practical clinical guidance, particularly for the range of methadone doses routinely prescribed for most patients (>50 mg). This study aimed to implement and evaluate recent national Australian guidelines for transferring patients from methadone to buprenorphine. DESIGN AND METHODS: A multisite prospective cohort study...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Takahiro Hongen, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde
Oligo(lactic acid) is an ester-analogue of short oligoalanine sequence and adopts a rigid left-handed helical structure. In this study, oligo(lactic acid) was incorporated into oligoalanine sequences and their conformations were studied by vibrational circular dichroism and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results suggested that oligo(lactic acid) moiety in these sequences maintains a left-handed helix and increases the conformational propensity of the oligoalanine moiety to form a left-handed polyproline type II-like helix...
February 8, 2018: Chirality
Jingwen Zhang, John B Jemmott, Larry D Icard, G Anita Heeren, Zolani Ngwane, Monde Makiwane, Ann O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To develop targeted interventions for high-risk drinkers among South African men, we assessed whether sociodemographic factors and history of childhood sexual abuse predicted binge drinking at six-month follow-up assessment and their psychological pathways according to the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). DESIGN: Survey responses with a sample of 1181 South African men from randomly selected neighbourhoods in Eastern Cape Province were collected at baseline and six-month follow-up...
February 7, 2018: Psychology & Health
Jadranka Mićić, Hamid Reza Moradi, Shigeru Furuichi
In this paper, we study some complementary inequalities to Jensen's inequality for self-adjoint operators, unital positive linear mappings, and real valued twice differentiable functions. New improved complementary inequalities are presented by using an improvement of the Mond-Pečarić method. These results are applied to obtain some inequalities with quasi-arithmetic means.
2018: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
Emma G Johnson, Sarah Skromanis, Raimondo Bruno, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia A Honan
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond...
February 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Ian D Stephen, Daniel Sturman, Richard J Stevenson, Jonathan Mond, Kevin R Brooks
Body size misperception-the belief that one is larger or smaller than reality-affects a large and growing segment of the population. Recently, studies have shown that exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not...
2018: PloS One
Bertram Pitt, David A Bushinsky, Dalane W Kitzman, Frank Ruschitzka, Marco Metra, Gerasimos Filippatos, Patrick Rossignol, Charles Du Mond, Dahlia Garza, Lance Berman, Mitja Lainscak
AIMS: Hyperkalaemia risk precludes optimal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use in patients with heart failure (HF), particularly those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patiromer is a sodium-free, non-absorbed potassium (K+ )-binding polymer approved for the treatment of hyperkalaemia. In PEARL-HF, patiromer 25.2 g (fixed dose) prevented hyperkalaemia in HF patients with or without CKD initiating spironolactone. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a lower starting dose of patiromer (16...
January 25, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Michael J Vinikoor, Zude Zyambo, Monde Muyoyeta, Geetanjali Chander, Michael S Saag, Karen Cropsey
In an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) coinfection cohort in Zambia, we piloted a qualitative point-of-care (POC) test for urine Ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), assessed concordance between uEtG and alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption (AUDIT-C), and identified epidemiological factors associated with underreporting (defined as uEtG-positivity with last reported drink > 7 days prior). Among 211 participants (40.8% women), there were 44 (20.8%) lifetime abstainers, 32 (15.2%) former drinkers, and 135 (64...
January 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Katherine Kent, Karen E Charlton, Simone Lee, Jonathon Mond, Joanna Russell, Paul Mitchell, Victoria M Flood
BACKGROUND: Within- and between-person variation in nutrient intake is well established, but little is known about variability in dietary flavonoid intake, including the effect of seasonality. METHODS: Within- and between-individual variability of flavonoid intake, and intake of flavonoid subclasses was examined in older adults (n = 79; mean age 70.1 y (range: 60y-80y)), using three separate 4-day weighed food records (WFR) collected approximately 4 months apart...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Ngula Monde, Musso Munyeme, Adrian Muwonge, John Bwalya Muma, Sydney Malama
BACKGROUND: The non-tuberculous mycobacteria include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. In Zambia, Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are gaining recognition as pathogens of public health significance. However, there is scanty information on the isolation and speciation of these organisms for better patient management, consequently reducing the burden of these infections...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jose María Ezquiaga, Miguel Zumalacárregui
Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |c_{g}/c-1|≤5×10^{-16}. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Deborah Mitchison, Elizabeth Rieger, Carmel Harrison, Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Jonathan Mond
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relative contributions of binge eating, body image disturbance, and body mass index (BMI) to distress and disability in binge-eating disorder (BED). METHOD: A community sample of 174 women with BED-type symptomatology provided demographic, weight, and height information, and completed measures of overvaluation of weight/shape and binge eating, general psychological distress and impairment in role functioning. Correlation and regression analyses examined the associations between predictors (binge eating, overvaluation, BMI), and outcomes (distress, functional impairment)...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Koji Narita, Hajime Sato, Atsushi Minami, Kosei Kudo, Lei Gao, Chengwei Liu, Taro Ozaki, Motoichiro Kodama, Xiaoguang Lei, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde, Mami Yamazaki, Masanobu Uchiyama, Hideaki Oikawa
Heterologous expression of four clade-A bifunctional terpene synthases (BFTSs), giving di/sesterterpenes with unique polycyclic carbon skeletons such as sesterfisherol, enabled the isolation of the sesterterpenes Bm1, Bm2, Bm3, and Pb1. Their structures suggested that formation of the products occurs via various diastereomeric carbocation intermediates, allowing the proposal that clade-A BFTSs catalyze three-step cyclizations using several stereofacial combinations of allylic cation-olefin pairs in the corresponding intermediates to generate various stereoisomers...
December 15, 2017: Organic Letters
Handuo Shi, Alexandre Colavin, Marty Bigos, Carolina Tropini, Russell D Monds, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Size is a universally defining characteristic of all living cells and tissues and is intrinsically linked with cell genotype, growth, and physiology. Many mutations have been identified to alter cell size, but pleiotropic effects have largely hampered our ability to probe how cell size specifically affects fundamental cellular properties, such as DNA content and intracellular localization. To systematically interrogate the impact of cell morphology on bacterial physiology, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to enrich a library of hundreds of Escherichia coli mutants in the essential cytoskeletal protein MreB for subtle changes in cell shape, cumulatively spanning ∼5-fold variation in average cell volume...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Devin Rand-Giovannetti, David C Cicero, Jonathan M Mond, Janet D Latner
The original, theoretically derived factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) has received limited empirical support and there is no consensus on an appropriate alternative. Moreover, there is a paucity of data on the factor structure of the EDE-Q across sexes. The goals of the current study were to evaluate models of the EDE-Q factor structure and to assess the best-fitting model for differences by sex. Twelve models were compared using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 940 undergraduates...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
Kirsten L Challinor, Jonathan Mond, Ian D Stephen, Deborah Mitchison, Richard J Stevenson, Phillipa Hay, Kevin R Brooks
Although body size and shape misperception (BSSM) is a common feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia, little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Recently, a new approach has emerged, based on the long-established non-invasive technique of perceptual adaptation, which allows for inferences about the structure of the neural apparatus responsible for alterations in visual appearance. Here, we describe several recent experimental examples of BSSM, wherein exposure to "extreme" body stimuli causes visual aftereffects of biased perception...
December 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
Richard L Wasserman, Benjamin N Greener, James Mond
Novel immune globulin (IG) products (RI-002, RI-001) have been designed to provide protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediated respiratory illness while at the same time meeting the manufacturing requirements established by FDA for antibody supplementation in immunocompromised subjects. Areas covered: This review covers the manufacture and development of both RI-001 and RI-002, including the selection of plasma donors for IG preparation with high-titers of anti-RSV antibody, in vitro, and preclinical data in the cotton rat model S...
December 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Antoine Lague, Philippe Voyer, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Vale Rie Boucher, Marianne Giroux, Mathieu Pelletier, E Milie Gouin, Raoul Daoust, Simon Berthelot, Miche le Morin, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Jacques Lee, Audrey-Anne Brousseau, Marie-Jose E Sirois, Marcel E Mond
OBJECTIVES: In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to explore the usefulness of the Bergman-Paris Question (BPQ) to expose potential undetected geriatric syndromes in community-living seniors presenting to the ED. METHODS: This is a planned sub-study of the INDEED multicentre prospective cohort study, including independent or semi-independent seniors (≥65 years old) admitted to hospital after an ED stay ≥8 hours and who were not delirious...
October 16, 2017: CJEM
Oded Rabinovitch
Sébastien Le Clerc (1637-1714) was the most renowned engraver of Louis XIV's France. For the history of scientific publishing, however, Le Clerc represents a telling paradox. Even though he followed a traditional route based on classic artisanal training, he also published extensively on scientific topics such as cosmology and mathematics. While contemporary scholarship usually stresses the importance of artisanal writing as a direct expression of artisanal experience and know-how, Le Clerc's publications, and specifically the work on cosmology in his Système du monde (1706-1708), go far beyond this...
October 11, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
Steven M Brunelli, David M Spiegel, Charles Du Mond, Nina Oestreicher, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Csaba P Kovesdy
Background: A high serum-to-dialysate potassium (K + ) gradient at the start of dialysis leads to rapid lowering of serum K + and may confer a greater risk of adverse events. Here, we examined the near-term association of K + gradient with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective (2010-11) event-based study considered 830 741 patient-intervals, each defined by a pre-dialysis measurement of serum K + made among adult Medicare Parts A and B enrollees who received in-center hemodialysis on a Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule at a large US dialysis organization...
August 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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