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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773957/perioperative-predictors-of-delirium-and-incidence-factors-in-adult-patients-post-cardiac-surgery
#1
Stavros Theologou, Konstantinos Giakoumidakis, Christos Charitos
Background: Delirium is a quite common complication in adult patients post-cardiac surgery. The purpose of our study was to identify perioperative characteristics and also focus on incidence factors that could predict delirium in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit (CICU) postoperatively. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 179 consecutive patients, who underwent open-heart surgical operation and were admitted to the CICU of a general tertiary hospital in Athens, Greece...
2018: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720058/nobel-laureates-in-fiction-from-la-fin-du-monde-to-the-big-bang-theory
#2
Alberto Brodesco
The history of the Nobel Prize, since its establishment, interlaces with the history of the public image of science. The aim of this article is to illustrate cinematic scientists, portrayed precisely in their moment of maximum glory. The films and television shows upon which the study is based compose a corpus of 189 media texts. The article identifies three main areas that concern the relation between the Nobel Prize and its audiovisual representations: biopics of real Nobel laureates, the presence of real or fictional Nobel laureates in the film or the show plot, and films and TV series that depict the Nobel ceremony...
May 2018: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668536/recurrent-severe-iron-deficiency-anemia-and-thrombocytopenia-in-an-adolescent-male
#3
Lisa Giordano, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Alexandra Monde, Ivy Mulinge, Dipti Dighe
An adolescent male presented with recurrent episodes over several years of severe iron deficiency anemia and associated severe thrombocytopenia. The anemia was secondary to chronic blood loss due to ulceration at the site of an ileocolonic anastomosis performed during infancy. We were able to demonstrate complete resolution of thrombocytopenia with the administration of iron, and without using steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or platelet transfusions. This is the first reported case of an individual with multiple episodes over several years of thrombocytopenia secondary to recurrent severe iron deficiency anemia, illustrating a predisposition to this complication in a unique patient...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603816/enantio-and-diastereoselective-synthesis-of-latanoprost-using-an-organocatalyst
#4
Yujiro Hayashi, Genki Kawauchi, Shigenobu Umemiya, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde
An enantioselective total synthesis of Latanoprost was achieved. Its chiral cyclopentane core structure was constructed through an organocatalyst-mediated 3+2 cycloaddition reaction, and the chirality in the ω-side chain was generated by a prolinate anion-mediated α-aminoxylation of aldehyde. Highly diastereoselective domino acetalization and oxy-Michael reaction is a key step for the generation of C9 chirality.
March 31, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564958/sex-differences-in-facial-emotion-perception-ability-across-the-lifespan
#5
Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt, Jordi Quoidbach
Perception of emotion in the face is a key component of human social cognition and is considered vital for many domains of life; however, little is known about how this ability differs across the lifespan for men and women. We addressed this question with a large community sample (N = 100,257) of persons ranging from younger than 15 to older than 60 years of age. Participants were viewers of the television show "Tout le Monde Joue", and the task was presented on television, with participants responding via their mobile devices...
March 22, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509558/transferring-patients-from-methadone-to-buprenorphine-the-feasibility-and-evaluation-of-practice-guidelines
#6
Nicholas Lintzeris, Lauren A Monds, Consuelo Rivas, Stefanie Leung, Adrian Dunlop, David Newcombe, Carina Walters, Susanna Galea, Nancy White, Mark Montebello, Apo Demirkol, Nicola Swanson, Robert Ali
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Transfer from methadone to buprenorphine is problematic for many opioid-dependent patients, with limited documented evidence or practical clinical guidance, particularly for the range of methadone doses routinely prescribed for most patients (>50 mg). This study aimed to implement and evaluate recent national Australian guidelines for transferring patients from methadone to buprenorphine. DESIGN AND METHODS: A multisite prospective cohort study...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417636/modifying-oligoalanine-conformation-by-replacement-of-amide-to-ester-linkage
#7
Takahiro Hongen, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde
Oligo(lactic acid) is an ester-analogue of short oligoalanine sequence and adopts a rigid left-handed helical structure. In this study, oligo(lactic acid) was incorporated into oligoalanine sequences and their conformations were studied by vibrational circular dichroism and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results suggested that oligo(lactic acid) moiety in these sequences maintains a left-handed helix and increases the conformational propensity of the oligoalanine moiety to form a left-handed polyproline type II-like helix...
April 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415576/predictors-and-psychological-pathways-for-binge-drinking-among-south-african-men
#8
Jingwen Zhang, John B Jemmott, Larry D Icard, G Anita Heeren, Zolani Ngwane, Monde Makiwane, Ann O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To develop targeted interventions for high-risk drinkers among South African men, we assessed whether sociodemographic factors and history of childhood sexual abuse predicted binge drinking at six-month follow-up assessment and their psychological pathways according to the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). DESIGN: Survey responses with a sample of 1181 South African men from randomly selected neighbourhoods in Eastern Cape Province were collected at baseline and six-month follow-up...
June 2018: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398879/some-complementary-inequalities-to-jensen-s-operator-inequality
#9
Jadranka Mićić, Hamid Reza Moradi, Shigeru Furuichi
In this paper, we study some complementary inequalities to Jensen's inequality for self-adjoint operators, unital positive linear mappings, and real valued twice differentiable functions. New improved complementary inequalities are presented by using an improvement of the Mond-Pečarić method. These results are applied to obtain some inequalities with quasi-arithmetic means.
2018: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392372/inhibiting-automatic-negative-social-responses-in-alcohol-intoxication-interactions-with-theory-of-mind-ability-and-level-of-task-guidance
#10
Emma G Johnson, Sarah Skromanis, Raimondo Bruno, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia A Honan
RATIONALE: Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385137/visual-attention-mediates-the-relationship-between-body-satisfaction-and-susceptibility-to-the-body-size-adaptation-effect
#11
Ian D Stephen, Daniel Sturman, Richard J Stevenson, Jonathan Mond, Kevin R Brooks
Body size misperception-the belief that one is larger or smaller than reality-affects a large and growing segment of the population. Recently, studies have shown that exposure to extreme body stimuli results in a shift in the point of subjective normality, suggesting that visual adaptation may be a mechanism by which body size misperception occurs. Yet, despite being exposed to a similar set of bodies, some individuals within a given geographical area will develop body size misperception and others will not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369537/evaluation-of-an-individualized-dose-titration-regimen-of-patiromer-to-prevent-hyperkalaemia-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Bertram Pitt, David A Bushinsky, Dalane W Kitzman, Frank Ruschitzka, Marco Metra, Gerasimos Filippatos, Patrick Rossignol, Charles Du Mond, Dahlia Garza, Lance Berman, Mitja Lainscak
AIMS: Hyperkalaemia risk precludes optimal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use in patients with heart failure (HF), particularly those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patiromer is a sodium-free, non-absorbed potassium (K+ )-binding polymer approved for the treatment of hyperkalaemia. In PEARL-HF, patiromer 25.2 g (fixed dose) prevented hyperkalaemia in HF patients with or without CKD initiating spironolactone. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a lower starting dose of patiromer (16...
January 25, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336004/point-of-care-urine-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-to-detect-alcohol-use-among-hiv-hepatitis-b-virus-coinfected-adults-in-zambia
#13
Michael J Vinikoor, Zude Zyambo, Monde Muyoyeta, Geetanjali Chander, Michael S Saag, Karen Cropsey
In an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) coinfection cohort in Zambia, we piloted a qualitative point-of-care (POC) test for urine Ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), assessed concordance between uEtG and alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption (AUDIT-C), and identified epidemiological factors associated with underreporting (defined as uEtG-positivity with last reported drink > 7 days prior). Among 211 participants (40.8% women), there were 44 (20.8%) lifetime abstainers, 32 (15.2%) former drinkers, and 135 (64...
January 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329536/dietary-flavonoid-intake-in-older-adults-how-many-days-of-dietary-assessment-are-required-and-what-is-the-impact-of-seasonality
#14
Katherine Kent, Karen E Charlton, Simone Lee, Jonathon Mond, Joanna Russell, Paul Mitchell, Victoria M Flood
BACKGROUND: Within- and between-person variation in nutrient intake is well established, but little is known about variability in dietary flavonoid intake, including the effect of seasonality. METHODS: Within- and between-individual variability of flavonoid intake, and intake of flavonoid subclasses was examined in older adults (n = 79; mean age 70.1 y (range: 60y-80y)), using three separate 4-day weighed food records (WFR) collected approximately 4 months apart...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310592/characterization-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-from-humans-and-water-in-an-agropastoral-area-in-zambia
#15
Ngula Monde, Musso Munyeme, Adrian Muwonge, John Bwalya Muma, Sydney Malama
BACKGROUND: The non-tuberculous mycobacteria include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. In Zambia, Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are gaining recognition as pathogens of public health significance. However, there is scanty information on the isolation and speciation of these organisms for better patient management, consequently reducing the burden of these infections...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303304/dark-energy-after-gw170817-dead-ends-and-the-road-ahead
#16
Jose María Ezquiaga, Miguel Zumalacárregui
Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |c_{g}/c-1|≤5×10^{-16}. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278426/indicators-of-clinical-significance-among-women-in-the-community-with-binge-eating-disorder-symptoms-delineating-the-roles-of-binge-frequency-body-mass-index-and-overvaluation
#17
Deborah Mitchison, Elizabeth Rieger, Carmel Harrison, Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Jonathan Mond
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relative contributions of binge eating, body image disturbance, and body mass index (BMI) to distress and disability in binge-eating disorder (BED). METHOD: A community sample of 174 women with BED-type symptomatology provided demographic, weight, and height information, and completed measures of overvaluation of weight/shape and binge eating, general psychological distress and impairment in role functioning. Correlation and regression analyses examined the associations between predictors (binge eating, overvaluation, BMI), and outcomes (distress, functional impairment)...
February 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185768/focused-genome-mining-of-structurally-related-sesterterpenes-enzymatic-formation-of-enantiomeric-and-diastereomeric-products
#18
Koji Narita, Hajime Sato, Atsushi Minami, Kosei Kudo, Lei Gao, Chengwei Liu, Taro Ozaki, Motoichiro Kodama, Xiaoguang Lei, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde, Mami Yamazaki, Masanobu Uchiyama, Hideaki Oikawa
Heterologous expression of four clade-A bifunctional terpene synthases (BFTSs), giving di/sesterterpenes with unique polycyclic carbon skeletons such as sesterfisherol, enabled the isolation of the sesterterpenes Bm1, Bm2, Bm3, and Pb1. Their structures suggested that formation of the products occurs via various diastereomeric carbocation intermediates, allowing the proposal that clade-A BFTSs catalyze three-step cyclizations using several stereofacial combinations of allylic cation-olefin pairs in the corresponding intermediates to generate various stereoisomers...
December 15, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103935/deep-phenotypic-mapping-of-bacterial-cytoskeletal-mutants-reveals-physiological-robustness-to-cell-size
#19
Handuo Shi, Alexandre Colavin, Marty Bigos, Carolina Tropini, Russell D Monds, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Size is a universally defining characteristic of all living cells and tissues and is intrinsically linked with cell genotype, growth, and physiology. Many mutations have been identified to alter cell size, but pleiotropic effects have largely hampered our ability to probe how cell size specifically affects fundamental cellular properties, such as DNA content and intracellular localization. To systematically interrogate the impact of cell morphology on bacterial physiology, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to enrich a library of hundreds of Escherichia coli mutants in the essential cytoskeletal protein MreB for subtle changes in cell shape, cumulatively spanning ∼5-fold variation in average cell volume...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094603/psychometric-properties-of-the-eating-disorder-examination-questionnaire-ede-q-a-confirmatory-factor-analysis-and-assessment-of-measurement-invariance-by-sex
#20
Devin Rand-Giovannetti, David C Cicero, Jonathan M Mond, Janet D Latner
The original, theoretically derived factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) has received limited empirical support and there is no consensus on an appropriate alternative. Moreover, there is a paucity of data on the factor structure of the EDE-Q across sexes. The goals of the current study were to evaluate models of the EDE-Q factor structure and to assess the best-fitting model for differences by sex. Twelve models were compared using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 940 undergraduates...
November 1, 2017: Assessment
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