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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919230/the-association-of-hyperglycaemia-with-prevalent-tuberculosis-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#1
Sarah Lou Bailey, Helen Ayles, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Monde Muyoyeta, Elizabeth du Toit, John S Yudkin, Sian Floyd
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884856/a-refugee-camp-in-the-centre-of-europe-clinical-characteristics-of-asylum-seekers-arriving-in-brussels
#2
Gerlant van Berlaer, Francisca Bohle Carbonell, Sofie Manantsoa, Xavier de Béthune, Ronald Buyl, Michel Debacker, Ives Hubloue
BACKGROUND: In the summer of 2015, the exodus of Syrian war refugees and saturation of refugee camps in neighbouring countries led to the influx of asylum-seekers in European countries, including Belgium. This study aims to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of asylum seekers who arrived in a huddled refugee camp, in the centre of a well-developed country with all medical facilities. METHODS: Using a descriptive cross-sectional study design, physicians of Médecins du Monde prospectively registered age, gender, origin, medical symptoms and diagnoses of all patients presenting to an erected field hospital in Brussels in September 2015...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876869/discerning-the-location-and-nature-of-coke-deposition-from-surface-to-bulk-of-spent-zeolite-catalysts
#3
Arun Devaraj, Murugesan Vijayakumar, Jie Bao, Mond F Guo, Miroslaw A Derewinski, Zhijie Xu, Michel J Gray, Sebastian Prodinger, Karthikeyan K Ramasamy
The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), (13)C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866170/measurement-invariance-of-a-body-dysmorphic-disorder-symptom-questionnaire-across-sex-the-body-image-questionnaire-child-and-adolescent-version
#4
Sophie C Schneider, Andrew J Baillie, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia M Turner, Jennifer L Hudson
Measures of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms have received little psychometric evaluation in adolescent samples. This study aimed to examine cross-sex measurement invariance in the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version (BIQ-C) to establish whether observed sex differences in total scores may be meaningful or due to differences in measurement properties. A sample of 3,057 Australian high school students completed the initial screening item of the measure (63.2% male, Mage = 14.58 years, SD = 1...
November 19, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844325/childhood-sexual-abuse-and-sociodemographic-factors-prospectively-associated-with-intimate-partner-violence-perpetration-among-south-african-heterosexual-men
#5
Anne M Teitelman, Scarlett L Bellamy, John B Jemmott, Larry Icard, Ann O'Leary, Samira Ali, Zolani Ngwane, Monde Makiwane
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. PURPOSE: History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. METHODS: Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points...
November 14, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811776/oxynoemacheilus-karunensis-a-new-species-from-the-persian-gulf-basin-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#6
Jörg Freyhof
Nemacheilid loaches of the genus Oxynoemacheilus are common fishes all over the Middle East (Freyhof et al. 2011). From Iran, Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. (2015) recognised 12 species from Iran (O. angorae (Steindachner), O. araxensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant), O. bergianus (Derjavin), O. brandtii (Kessler), O. chomanicus (Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant), O. frenatus (Heckel), O. kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant), O. kiabii (Golzarianpour, Abdoli & Freyhof), O. kurdistanicus (Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalban)t, O...
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779841/reinvestigation-of-the-absolute-configurations-of-chiral-%C3%A3-mercaptoalkanones-using-vibrational-circular-dichroism-and-1h-nmr-analysis
#7
Christiane Kiske, Svenja Noerenberg, Miriam Ecker, Xingyue Ma, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Karl-Heinz Engel
The absolute configurations of chiral β-mercaptoalkanones had been previously assigned on the basis of the 1H NMR anisotropy method using (S)-2-methoxy-2-(1-naphthyl)propionic acid ((S)-MαNP) as chiral auxiliary. This study presents a reinvestigation of the configurations of 4-mercapto-2-pentanone, 1, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, 2, and 2-mercapto-4-heptanone, 3. Enantiomers of 1, 2 and 3 were obtained by lipase-catalyzed hydrolyses of the respective acetylthioalkanones. Upon derivatization with (S)-MαNP, the configurations of the reaction products were deduced on the basis of the order of the HPLC-elution of the diastereoisomeric thioesters assuming that the sector rule previously developed for secondary alcohols is also valid for thiols...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740792/universal-modified-newtonian-dynamics-relation-between-the-baryonic-and-dynamical-central-surface-densities-of-disc-galaxies
#8
Mordehai Milgrom
I derive a new modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) relation for pure-disc galaxies: The "dynamical" central surface density, Σ_{D}^{0}, deduced from the measured velocities, is a universal function of only the true, "baryonic'' central surface density, Σ_{B}^{0}: Σ_{D}^{0}=Σ_{M}S(Σ_{B}^{0}/Σ_{M}), where Σ_{M}≡a_{0}/2πG is the MOND surface density constant. This surprising result is shown to hold in both existing, nonrelativistic MOND theories. S(y) is derived: S(y)=∫_{0}^{y}ν(y^{'})dy^{'}, with ν(y) being the interpolating function of the theory...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724943/quality-of-life-as-a-vulnerability-and-recovery-factor-in-eating-disorders-a-community-based-study
#9
Deborah Mitchison, Lisa Dawson, Lucy Hand, Jonathan Mond, Phillipa Hay
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that changes in quality of life (QoL) predicts later changes in eating disorder (ED) symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore individual sufferers' perspectives on the influence of QoL on the onset, maintenance, and/or remission of ED symptoms. METHOD: 19 women from the community with a history of eating disorders (n = 13 currently symptomatic; n = 6 recovered) were interviewed about their observations on the relationship between QoL and ED symptoms over time in their own lives...
October 11, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710207/do-emotional-stimuli-enhance-or-impede-recall-relative-to-neutral-stimuli-an-investigation-of-two-false-memory-tasks
#10
Lauren A Monds, Helen M Paterson, Richard I Kemp
Many eyewitness memory situations involve negative and distressing events; however, many studies investigating "false memory" phenomena use neutral stimuli only. The aim of the present study was to determine how both the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and the Misinformation Effect Paradigm tasks were related to each other using distressing and neutral stimuli. Participants completed the DRM (with negative and neutral word lists) and viewed a distressing or neutral film. Misinformation for the film was introduced and memory was assessed...
October 6, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698223/authors-reply
#11
Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Jonathan M Mond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695684/chronic-respiratory-disease-in-adults-treated-for-tuberculosis-in-khartoum-sudan
#12
R K Osman, K Mortimer, G Bjune, A I El Sony
Background: Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the global CRD epidemic collides with the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in many low- and middle-income country settings, the risk of TB-associated CRD is not well described in countries with a high burden of TB. Methods: We recruited 136 patients with a history of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) from the TB clinic at Omdurman Teaching Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan, and 136 age- and sex-matched community controls, between 28 July 2013 and 30 December 2013...
September 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679970/loss-of-control-over-eating-scale-loces-validation-in-undergraduate-men-and-women-with-and-without-eating-disorder-symptoms
#13
Emily C Stefano, Allison F Wagner, Jonathan M Mond, David C Cicero, Janet D Latner
The present study aimed to further validate the Loss of Control Over Eating Scale (LOCES) for use with undergraduate men and women with and without eating disorder (ED) symptoms. A total of 261 participants completed the LOCES and the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and were identified as non-clinical or having probable ED symptomatology based on previously used EDE-Q cutoff scores. Results indicated that the LOCES and its subscales were significantly associated with and a significant predictor of global ED pathology and binge episode frequency...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679518/effect-of-patiromer-on-urinary-ion-excretion-in-healthy-adults
#14
David A Bushinsky, David M Spiegel, Coleman Gross, Wade W Benton, Jeanene Fogli, Kathleen M Hill Gallant, Charles Du Mond, Geoffrey A Block, Matthew R Weir, Bertram Pitt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patiromer is a nonabsorbed potassium-binding polymer that uses calcium as the counterexchange ion. The calcium released with potassium binding has the potential to be absorbed or bind phosphate. Because binding is not specific for potassium, patiromer can bind other cations. Here, we evaluate the effect of patiromer on urine ion excretion in healthy adults, which reflects gastrointestinal ion absorption. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed the effect of patiromer on urine potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate in two studies...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631564/emotion-regulation-difficulties-in-binge-eating-disorder-with-and-without-the-overvaluation-of-weight-and-shape
#15
Carmel Harrison, Deborah Mitchison, Elizabeth Rieger, Bryan Rodgers, Jonathan Mond
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between overvaluation of weight/shape ('overvaluation') and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties among women with binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms. Four groups of women were recruited from a community-based sample and compared on ER difficulties: individuals with probable BED with (n=102) and without (n=72) overvaluation, and non-binge eating obese (n=40) and healthy-weight (n=40) control participants. Data for patients with a formal diagnosis of BED receiving treatment from a previous study were included for numerical comparative purposes...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601216/asymmetric-diels-alder-reaction-of-%C3%AE-substituted-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-disubstituted-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-enals-via-diarylprolinol-silyl-ether-for-the-construction-of-all-carbon-quaternary-stereocenters
#16
Yujiro Hayashi, Bojan P Bondzic, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Yogesh Gupta, Shin Ogasawara, Tohru Taniguchi, Kenji Monde
The asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction of α-substituted acrolein proceeds in the presence of the trifluoroacetic acid salt of trifluoromethyl-substituted diarylprolinol silyl ether to afford the exo-isomer with both excellent diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity. In the Diels-Alder reaction of a β,β-disubstituted α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, good exo-selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity was obtained when the perchloric acid salt of the bulky triisopropyl silyl ether of trifluoromethyl substituted diarylprolinol was employed as an organocatalyst in the presence of water...
September 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597835/no-effect-of-featural-attention-on-body-size-aftereffects
#17
Ian D Stephen, Chloe Bickersteth, Jonathan Mond, Richard J Stevenson, Kevin R Brooks
Prolonged exposure to images of narrow bodies has been shown to induce a perceptual aftereffect, such that observers' point of subjective normality (PSN) for bodies shifts toward narrower bodies. The converse effect is shown for adaptation to wide bodies. In low-level stimuli, object attention (attention directed to the object) and spatial attention (attention directed to the location of the object) have been shown to increase the magnitude of visual aftereffects, while object-based attention enhances the adaptation effect in faces...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585880/prevalence-and-correlates-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-in-a-community-sample-of-adolescents
#18
Sophie C Schneider, Cynthia M Turner, Jonathan Mond, Jennifer L Hudson
OBJECTIVE: Body dysmorphic disorder typically begins in adolescence, yet little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the disorder in this age group. The current study aimed to explore the presenting features of adolescents meeting probable criteria for body dysmorphic disorder in a large community sample, and compare levels of comorbid psychopathology, quality of life and mental health service use between adolescents with probable body dysmorphic disorder and those without...
August 31, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563947/satellite-test-of-the-equivalence-principle-as-a-probe-of-modified-newtonian-dynamics
#19
Jonas P Pereira, James M Overduin, Alexander J Poyneer
The proposed satellite test of the equivalence principle (STEP) will detect possible violations of the weak equivalence principle by measuring relative accelerations between test masses of different composition with a precision of one part in 10^{18}. A serendipitous by-product of the experimental design is that the absolute or common-mode acceleration of the test masses is also measured to high precision as they oscillate along a common axis under the influence of restoring forces produced by the position sensor currents, which in drag-free mode lead to Newtonian accelerations as small as 10^{-14}  g...
August 12, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539911/disentangling-body-image-the-relative-associations-of-overvaluation-dissatisfaction-and-preoccupation-with-psychological-distress-and-eating-disorder-behaviors-in-male-and-female-adolescents
#20
Deborah Mitchison, Phillipa Hay, Scott Griffiths, Stuart B Murray, Caroline Bentley, Kassandra Gratwick-Sarll, Carmel Harrison, Jonathan Mond
OBJECTIVE: The distinctiveness and relative clinical significance of overvaluation, dissatisfaction, and preoccupation with body weight/shape remains inconclusive. This study sought to add to the evidence by testing associations between these three body image constructs and indicators of clinical significance. METHOD: Male and female secondary students (N = 1,666) aged 12-18 years completed a survey that included measures of dissatisfaction with, overvaluation of, and preoccupation with weight/shape, psychological distress, eating disorder behaviors, and basic demographic information...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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