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D A Gkika, L Magafas, P Cool, J Braet
Over the past 30 years, there have been significant advancements in the field of nanomaterials. The possibility to use them in applications such as cancer treatment is extremely promising; however, the toxicity of many nanomaterials as well as the high costs associated with their use is still a concern. This paper aims to study the connection between nanomaterial toxicity and cost. This synergy may be interpreted as a different version of the classic "Prisoner's Dilemma" game, which in this case attempts to explain the possible outcomes of cooperation versus conflict between science advocating for the use of high-risk, possibly toxic materials due to their high returns, and society that might be dubious about the use of high-risk materials...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
Sijie Lin, Monika Mortimer, Ran Chen, Aleksandr Kakinen, Jim E Riviere, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
The first phase of environmental health and safety of nanomaterials (nanoEHS) studies has been mainly focused on evidence-based investigations that probe the impact of nanoparticles, nanomaterials and nano-enabled products on biological and ecological systems. The integration of multiple disciplines, including colloidal science, nanomaterial science, chemistry, toxicology/immunology and environmental science, is necessary to understand the implications of nanotechnology for both human health and the environment...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
Yi Hu, Xiangjie Chen, Kun Yang, Daohui Lin
Toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been studied in various culture media. However, these media notably differ from the natural aquatic system, thus the conclusions may be inapplicable for real environment condition. The toxicity and its underlying mechanism of AgNPs in surface waters warrant more investigations. This study investigated the acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, bioaccumulation, and alga-daphnia food chain transfer of citrate-coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs) and Ag(+) (from AgNO3) to D. magna in a culture medium (M4) and a surface water sample...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
André Jochums, Elsa Friehs, Franziska Sambale, Antonina Lavrentieva, Detlef Bahnemann, Thomas Scheper
The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs). Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549) and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs...
July 19, 2017: Toxics
Michael González-Durruthy, Adriano V Werhli, Vinicius Seus, Karina S Machado, Alejandro Pazos, Cristian R Munteanu, Humberto González-Díaz, José M Monserrat
The current molecular docking study provided the Free Energy of Binding (FEB) for the interaction (nanotoxicity) between VDAC mitochondrial channels of three species (VDAC1-Mus musculus, VDAC1-Homo sapiens, VDAC2-Danio rerio) with SWCNT-H, SWCNT-OH, SWCNT-COOH carbon nanotubes. The general results showed that the FEB values were statistically more negative (p < 0.05) in the following order: (SWCNT-VDAC2-Danio rerio) > (SWCNT-VDAC1-Mus musculus) > (SWCNT-VDAC1-Homo sapiens) > (ATP-VDAC)...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaojie Li, Jiajing Zhou, Chaoran Liu, Qirong Xiong, Hongwei Duan, Peter C K Cheung
Naturally occurring β-glucans have been widely regarded as a natural source for functional foods and pharmaceuticals due to their immunomodulatory property and antitumor activity. However, physicochemically stable and biocompatible β-glucans are rarely explored as a carrier for nanomaterials to overcome the problems of aggregation and nanotoxicity. Here, we developed highly stable and biocompatible mushroom β-glucan coated gold nanorods (AuNR-Glu) for cancer photothermal therapy by integrating Pleurotus tuber-regium sclerotial β-glucan (Glu) and plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs) possessing photothermal property in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mo-Han Zhang, Jia-Qing Chen, Hui-Min Guo, Rui-Ting Li, Yi-Qiao Gao, Yuan Tian, Zun-Jian Zhang, Yin Huang
Realgar nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents for their enhanced anti-proliferation effect and cytotoxicity on cancer cells. However, the alteration of particle size may enhance biological reactivity as well as toxicity. A LC/MS and GC/MS based metabolomics approach was employed to explore the mechanism of realgar NPs-induced hepatotoxicity and identify potential biomarkers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated intragastrically with realgar or realgar NPs at a dose of 1.0 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) for 28 days and toxic effects of realgar NPs on liver tissues were examined by biochemical indicator analysis and histopathologic examination...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Junzhuo Liu, Jun Tang, Juanjuan Wan, Chenxi Wu, Bruce Graham, Philip G Kerr, Yonghong Wu
Responses of microbial communities to nanotoxicity in aquatic ecosystems are largely unknown, particularly with respect to relationship between community dynamics and functions. Here, periphytic biofilms were selected as a model of species-rich microbial communities to elucidate their responses when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs). Especially, the relationships between the functions (e.g. organic matter and Cu(2+) removal) and community dynamics after long-term exposure to TiO2-NPs were assessed systematically...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
C S Martinez, D E Igartúa, M N Calienni, D A Feas, M Siri, J Montanari, N S Chiaramoni, S Del V Alonso, M J Prieto
In recent years, the use of commercial nanoparticles in different industry and health fields has increased exponentially. However, the uncontrolled application of nanoparticles might present a potential risk to the environment and health. Toxicity of these nanoparticles is usually evaluated by a fast screening assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of this vertebrate animal model has grown due to its small size, great adaptability, high fertilization rate and fast external development of transparent embryos...
October 2017: Biophysical Reviews
Guangchao Chen, Martina G Vijver, Yinlong Xiao, Willie J G M Peijnenburg
Gathering required information in a fast and inexpensive way is essential for assessing the risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The extension of conventional (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) approach to nanotoxicology, i.e., nano-(Q)SARs, is a possible solution. The preliminary attempts of correlating ENMs' characteristics to the biological effects elicited by ENMs highlighted the potential applicability of (Q)SARs in the nanotoxicity field. This review discusses the current knowledge on the development of nano-(Q)SARs for metallic ENMs, on the aspects of data sources, reported nano-(Q)SARs, and mechanistic interpretation...
August 31, 2017: Materials
Madhavi Sonane, Nida Moin, Aruna Satish
The exponential increase in the usage of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has raised global concerns due to their potential toxicity and environmental impacts. Nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO have been extensively used in various applications. Thus, there is a need for determining the toxic potentials of ENPs as well as, to develop the possible attenuation method for ENPs toxicity. Both in the in vitro and in vivo systems, exposure to the majority of ENPs have shown Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, which leads to oxidative stress mediated inflammation, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity...
August 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Ilkka Paatero, Eudald Casals, Rasmus Niemi, Ezgi Özliseli, Jessica M Rosenholm, Cecilia Sahlgren
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are extensively explored as drug delivery systems, but in depth understanding of design-toxicity relationships is still scarce. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to study toxicity profiles of differently surface functionalized MSNs. Embryos with the chorion membrane intact, or dechoroniated embryos, were incubated or microinjected with amino (NH2-MSNs), polyethyleneimine (PEI-MSNs), succinic acid (SUCC-MSNs) or polyethyleneglycol (PEG-MSNs) functionalized MSNs. Toxicity was assessed by viability and cardiovascular function...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jun Tang, Ningyuan Zhu, Yan Zhu, Junzhuo Liu, Chenxi Wu, Philip Kerr, Yonghong Wu, Paul K S Lam
The toxic effects of nanoparticles on individual organisms have been widely investigated, while few studies have investigated the effects of nanoparticles on ubiquitous multicommunity microbial aggregates. Here, periphyton as a model of microbial aggregates, was employed to investigate the responses of microbial aggregates exposed continuously to Fe2O3 nanoparticles (5.0 mg L(-1)) for 30 days. The exposure to Fe2O3 nanoparticles results in the chlorophyll (a, b, and c) contents of periphyton increasing and the total antioxidant capacity decreasing...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tianshu Wu, Meng Tang
Nanotechnology had matured significantly during the last two decades as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Even though the issue of safety of nanotechnology has been raised nearly one decade ago, the rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials has not yet been matched by toxicological investigations. Many recent studies have simply outlined the toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs), but few have systematically addressed their potentially adverse biological effects on target organs...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Elena Zanni, Erika Bruni, Chandrakanth Reddy Chandraiahgari, Giovanni De Bellis, Maria Grazia Santangelo, Maurizio Leone, Agnese Bregnocchi, Patrizia Mancini, Maria Sabrina Sarto, Daniela Uccelletti
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnologies are currently revolutionizing the world around us, improving the quality of our lives thanks to a multitude of applications in several areas including the environmental preservation, with the biodeterioration phenomenon representing one of the major concerns. RESULTS: In this study, an innovative nanomaterial consisting of graphene nanoplatelets decorated by zinc oxide nanorods (ZNGs) was tested for the ability to inhibit two different pathogens belonging to bacterial genera frequently associated with nosocomial infections as well as biodeterioration phenomenon: the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Maria Chiara Sportelli, Rosaria Anna Picca, Federica Paladini, Annarosa Mangone, Lorena Carla Giannossa, Cinzia Di Franco, Anna Lucia Gallo, Antonio Valentini, Alessandro Sannino, Mauro Pollini, Nicola Cioffi
The development of antibacterial coatings is of great interest from both industry and the consumer's point of view. In this study, we characterized tanned leather and polyurethane leatherette, typically employed in the automotive and footwear industries, which were modified by photo-deposition of antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Material surface chemical composition was investigated in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The material's antibacterial capability was checked against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, as representative microorganisms in cross transmissions...
July 29, 2017: Nanomaterials
Luong T H Nguyen, Aristo Muktabar, Jinkai Tang, Vinayak P Dravid, C Shad Thaxton, Subbu Venkatraman, Kee Woei Ng
Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of designing nanoparticles that can translocate through tissues and home in to atherosclerotic plaques to achieve desired diagnostic, therapeutic, theranostic or 'theralivery' outcomes. Although nanomedicine approaches have demonstrated exciting possibilities, clinical reality is still distant and challenges are aplenty, such as specificity of targeting and nanotoxicity. Nevertheless, developments in formulations, delivery strategies and experimental models over the coming years will generate new knowledge to define the true potential of this field...
September 2017: Drug Discovery Today
Tony O'Hara, Brian Seddon, Andrew O'Connor, Siobhán McClean, Baljit Singh, Emmanuel Iwuoha, Xolile Fuku, Eithne Dempsey
Recent studies have suggested that certain nanomaterials can interfere with optically based cytotoxicity assays resulting in underestimations of nanomaterial toxicity. As a result there has been growing interest in the use of whole cell electrochemical biosensors for nanotoxicity applications. Herein we report application of an electrochemical cytotoxicity assay developed in house (TOXOR) in the evaluation of toxic effects of mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MSA capped CdTe QDs), toward mammalian cells...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
Ying-Fei Yang, Yi-Jun Lin, Chung-Min Liao
Elucidating the relationships between the toxicity-based-toxicokinetic (TBTK)/toxicodynamic (TD) properties of engineered nanomaterials and their nanotoxicity is crucial for human health-risk analysis. Zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most prominent NPs applied in remediating contaminated soils and groundwater. However, there are concerns that Fe(0)NP application contributes to long-term environmental and human health impacts. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a surrogate in vivo model that has been successfully applied to assess the potential nanotoxicity of these nanomaterials...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Guangchao Chen, Willie Peijnenburg, Yinlong Xiao, Martina G Vijver
As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. Assessing the hazards of ENMs solely based on laboratory tests is time-consuming, resource intensive, and constrained by ethical considerations. The adoption of computational toxicology into this task has recently become a priority...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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