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Shreya Thakkar, Viral Shah, Manju Misra, Kiran Kalia
BACKGROUND: Most of the chemical substances which emerge out as potential drug candidates (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) are either weak acids or weak bases. Poor aqueous solubility of these drug substances is a common concern. Several R&D centers are focused on developing suitable, economic, simpler and more feasible solubility enhancement techniques for increasing the solubility and thereby bioavailability of such drug substances. Nanocrystals is one of the preferred approaches for solubility enhancement in last few decades...
October 14, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Buddolla Viswanath, Sanghyo Kim
Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems...
October 8, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Carina Muoth, Adrian Wichser, Marco Monopoli, Manuel Correia, Nicky Ehrlich, Katrin Loeschner, Audrey Gallud, Melanie Kucki, Liliane Diener, Pius Manser, Wolfram Jochum, Peter Wick, Tina Buerki-Thurnherr
There is increasing evidence that certain nanoparticles (NPs) can overcome the placental barrier, raising concerns on potential adverse effects on the growing fetus. But even in the absence of placental transfer, NPs may pose a risk to proper fetal development if they interfere with the viability and functionality of the placental tissue. The effects of NPs on the human placenta are not well studied or understood, and predictive in vitro placenta models to achieve mechanistic insights on NP-placenta interactions are essentially lacking...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Alexandra Ap Mansur, Herman S Mansur, Sandhra M de Carvalho, Zélia Ip Lobato, Maria Imc Guedes, Maria F Leite
Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS), the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types), and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd(2+) on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Si-Qi Yan, Rui Xing, Yan-Feng Zhou, Kai-Le Li, Yuan-Yuan Su, Jian-Feng Qiu, Yun-Hu Zhang, Ke-Qin Zhang, Yao He, Xiao-Ping Lu, Shi-Qing Xu
Sexual glands are key sites affected by nanotoxicity, but there is no sensitive assay for measuring reproductive toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) on gonads in a model organism, Bombyx mori. After dorsal vein injection of 0.32 nmol of CdTe-QDs per individual, the QDs passed through the outer membranes of gonads via the generation of ROS in the membranes of spermatocysts and ovarioles, as well as internal germ cells, thereby inducing early germ cell death or malformations via complex mechanisms related to apoptosis and autophagy through mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Olga Gladkovskaya, Yuri K Gun'ko, Gerard M O'Connor, Vladimir Gogvadze, Yury Rochev
Rapid growth and expansion of engineered nanomaterials will occur when the technology can be used safely. Quantum dots have excellent prospects in clinical applications, but the issue of toxicity has not yet been resolved. To enable their medical implementation, the effect on, and mechanisms in, live cells should be clearly known and predicted. A massive amount of experimental data dedicated to nanotoxicity has been accumulated to-date, but it lacks a logical structure. The current challenge is to organize existing knowledge into lucid biological and mathematical models...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Kaijun Zhou, Yi Hu, Luqing Zhang, Kun Yang, Daohui Lin
Exopolymeric substances (EPS) have an important role in bioaccumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae, which warrants specific studies. The interaction of EPS with citrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs and P-AgNPs, respectively) and its roles in bioaccumulation and toxicity of the AgNPs to Chlorella pyrenoidosa were investigated. The amino and aromatic carboxylic groups in the EPS were involved in the EPS-AgNP interactions. Compared with Ag(+), C-AgNPs had comparable total bioaccumulation but greater absorption by intact algae with EPS; P-AgNPs had the smallest total bioaccumulation and were mainly adsorbed on algal surfaces...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gamze Kuku, Melike Saricam, Farida Akhatova, Anna Danilushkina, Rawil Fakhrullin, Mustafa Culha
The increasing number of reports about false positive or negative results from conventional cytotoxicity assays of nanomaterials (NMs) suggests that more reliable NM toxicity assessment methods should be developed. Here, we report a novel approach for nanotoxicity evaluation based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three model NMs were tested on two model cell lines and the results were validated by WST-1 cytotoxicity assay and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining as apoptosis-necrosis assay...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jun Deng, Changyou Gao
The unique features of nanomaterials have led to their rapid development in the biomedical field. In particular, functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used in the delivery of drugs and genes, bio-imaging and diagnosis. Hence, the interaction between NPs and cells is one of the most important issues towards understanding the true nature of the NP-mediated biological effects. Moreover, the intracellular safety concern of the NPs as a result of intracellular NP degradation remains to be clarified in detail...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
Chuanfeng Teng, Zhiping Wang, Bing Yan
Worldwide epidemiological studies have shown that exposures to particulate matters (PMs), such as PM2.5 or PM10 , during pregnancy cause birth defects in the newborn. Although mechanistic understanding of such effects are not available, recent research using murine models highlights some key progress: (1) toxicity caused by PMs is a combined effects of particles and the adsorbed toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, bacteria, and virus. Fine particles may hold on to pollutants and, therefore, reduce their toxicity or enhance the toxicity by carrying pollutants crossing the placental barrier; (2) smaller size, certain particle surface chemistry modifications, early developmental stage of placenta, and maternal diseases all aggravate PM-induced birth defects; (3) molecular events involved in such toxicity are begin to emerge: induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage, and alteration of molecular signaling or epigenetic events are some possible causes...
August 31, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Muhammad Umair, Ibrahim Javed, Mubashar Rehman, Asadullah Madni, Aqeel Javeed, Aamir Ghafoor, Muhammad Ashraf
Nanotechnology has opened a new horizon of research in various fields including applied physics, chemistry, electronics, optics, robotics, biotechnology and medicine. In the biomedical field, nanomaterials have shown remarkable potential as theranostic agents. Materials which are considered inert are often used in nanomedicine owning to their nontoxic profile. At nanoscale, these inert materials have shown unique properties that differ from bulk and dissolved counterparts. In the case of metals, this unique behavior not only imparts paramount advantages but also confers toxicity due to their unwanted interaction with different cellular processes...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cheng Lei, Luqing Zhang, Kun Yang, Lizhong Zhu, Daohui Lin
With the increasing environmental application and discharge of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), a comprehensive understanding of their fate and ecotoxicological effect in the aquatic environment is very urgent. In this study, toxicities of 4 zero-valent iron NPs (nZVI) of different sizes, 2 Fe2O3 NPs of different crystal phases, and 1 type of Fe3O4 NPs to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated, with a focus on the effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state, and environmental aging...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
BarbraKatyúscya Sanches Moraes, Simone Machado Vieira, Willian Goulart Salgueiro, Luana Roberta Michels, Letícia Marques Colomé, Daiana Silva Avila, Sandra Elisa Haas
The aim of this work was to develop and characterize clozapine loaded polysorbate-coated polymeric nanocapsules and assess their toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans, an invertebrate animal model. Formulations were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, pH, drug loading, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. All nanocapsules prepared presented diameter around 140 nm, pH slightly acid and negative zeta potential. In vitro studies showed biphasic drug release from nanocapsules with decreasing of the release rate on nanoencapsulation...
February 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Patrizia Di Pietro, Gaetano Strano, Lidia Zuccarello, Cristina Satriano
Noble metal nanomaterials, such as gold or silver nanoparticles, exhibit unique photonic, electronic, catalytic and therapeutic properties. The high versatility in their synthesis, especially size and shape features, as well as in the surface functionalization by, e.g., physisorption, direct chemisorption of thiol derivatives and covalent binding through bifunctional linkers or specific affinity interactions, prompted their widespread and rising use as multifunctional platforms for theranostic purposes. In this paper, the recent developments of gold and silver nanoparticles for application in biosensing, medical imaging, diagnosis and therapy is reviewed from the following five aspects: (1) the gold and silver nanomaterials intrinsic properties of biomedical interest; (2) the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticle by chemical, physical and biological/green processes; (3) the applications of gold and silver nanoparticles in imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic mode; (4) the surface functionalization processes for targeting, controlled drug loading and release, triggered pathways of cellular uptake and tissue distribution; and (5) nanotoxicity...
July 15, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Navid B Saleh, Delia J Milliron, Nirupam Aich, Lynn E Katz, Howard M Liljestrand, Mary Jo Kirisits
Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are considered to have the potency to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), one of the key mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity. However, the nanotoxicology literature demonstrates a lack of consensus on the dominant toxicity mechanism(s) for a particular MONP. Moreover, recent literature has studied the correlation between band structure of pristine MONPs to their ability to introduce ROS and thus has downplayed the ROS-mediated toxicological relevance of a number of such materials...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Zhao, Xuesong Cao, Xiaoyu Liu, Zhenyu Wang, Chenchen Zhang, Jason C White, Baoshan Xing
The potential adverse effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) have increasingly attracted attention. Combining electron microscopic and toxicological investigations, we determined the adhesion, uptake, and toxicity of CuO NPs to eukaryotic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. CuO NPs were toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 72 h EC50 of 45.7 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy showed that CuO NPs were attached onto the surface of the algal cells and interacted with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the organisms...
November 2016: Nanotoxicology
Yue Zhang, Wan-Xi Yang
Since nanoparticles are now widely applied as food additives, in cosmetics and other industries, especially in medical therapy and diagnosis, we ask here whether nanoparticles can cause several adverse effects to human health. In this review, based on research on nanotoxicity, we mainly discuss the negative influence of nanoparticles on blood vessels in several aspects and the potential mechanism for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers of blood vessels, which are the sites of phosphorylation of tight junction proteins (claudins, occludins, and ZO (Zonula occludens)) proteins, oxidative stress and shear stress...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Bin Song, Yanli Zhang, Jia Liu, Xiaoli Feng, Ting Zhou, Longquan Shao
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) possess unique characteristics and are widely used in many fields. Numerous in vivo studies, exposing experimental animals to these NPs through systematic administration, have suggested that TiO2 NPs can accumulate in the brain and induce brain dysfunction. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of TiO2 NPs remain unclear. However, we have concluded from previous studies that these mechanisms mainly consist of oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, inflammatory response, genotoxicity, and direct impairment of cell components...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Stefan Lorscheidt, Alf Lamprecht
INTRODUCTION: Nanoparticles (NPs) are particularly promising tools for drug delivery and targeting, but to date, only a relatively small number of nanoscale drug delivery systems have been officially approved for drug therapy. Therapeutic NPs are designed for human use and consequently have to withstand critical toxicological analysis, which plays a pivotal role in the decision on the future practical realization of the respective drug-delivery concepts. Nanotoxicology is still a maturing discipline that often lacks profound analysis of non-acute, sub-lethal effects...
June 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Zonglin Gu, Zaixing Yang, Seung-Gu Kang, Jerry R Yang, Judong Luo, Ruhong Zhou
MoS2 nanosheet, a new two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides nanomaterial, has attracted significant attentions lately due to many potential promising biomedical applications. Meanwhile, there is also a growing concern on its biocompatibility, with little known on its interactions with various biomolecules such as proteins. In this study, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of a MoS2 nanosheet with Villin Headpiece (HP35), a model protein widely used in protein folding studies...
2016: Scientific Reports
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