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Hua Deng, Ying Zhang, Hongtao Yu
Nanoparticles are used widely in our lives, but the understanding of their impacts on human and environmental health is still limited, at least due in part to the fact that nanoparticles are mixtures. This review describes that "nanotoxicity" is actually a test of the overall effect of a nanoparticle mixture: starting materials for nanoparticle preparation, surface coating agents, surface reaction-generated species, and transformed byproducts of the nanoparticle in biological and environmental media, as well as variations of the intrinsic nanoparticle structures...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Tae Hwan Shin, Da Yeon Lee, Hyeon-Seong Lee, Hyung Jin Park, Moon Suk Jin, Man-Jeong Paik, Balachandran Manavalan, Jung-Soon Mo, Gwang Lee
Biomedical research involving nanoparticles has produced useful products with medical applications. However, the potential toxicity of nanoparticles in biofluids, cells, tissues, and organisms is a major challenge. The '-omics' analyses provide molecular profiles of multifactorial biological systems instead of focusing on a single molecule. The 'omics' approaches are necessary to evaluate nanotoxicity because classical methods for the detection of nanotoxicity have limited ability in detecting miniscule variations within a cell and do not accurately reflect the actual levels of nanotoxicity...
January 5, 2018: BMB Reports
Xiaojia He, Peter Fu, Winfred G Aker, Huey-Min Hwang
Engineered nanomaterials may adversely impact human health and environmental safety by nano-bio-eco interactions not fully understood. Their interaction with biotic and abiotic environments are varied and complicated, ranging from individual species to entire ecosystems. Their behavior, transport, fate, and toxicological profiles in these interactions, addressed in a pioneering study, are subsequently seldom reported. Biological, chemical, and physical dimension properties, the so-called multidimensional characterization, determine interactions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Natalia B Abramenko, Tatiana B Demidova, Еvgeny V Abkhalimov, Boris G Ershov, Eugene Yu Krysanov, Leonid M Kustov
As the worldwide application of silver nanomaterials in commercial products increases every year, and concern about the environmental risks of such nanoparticles also grows. A clear understanding of how different characteristics of nanoparticles contribute in their toxic behavior to organisms are imperative for predicting and control nanotoxicity. Within our research, we investigated the toxic effect of two types of silver nanoparticles (spherical and flat Ag nanoparticles) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sheenah L Bryant, Josh E Eixenberger, Steven Rossland, Holly Apsley, Connor Hoffmann, Nisha Shrestha, Michael McHugh, Alex Punnoose, Daniel Fologea
BACKGROUND: The insufficient understanding of unintended biological impacts from nanomaterials (NMs) represents a serious impediment to their use for scientific, technological, and medical applications. While previous studies have focused on understanding nanotoxicity effects mostly resulting from cellular internalization, recent work indicates that NMs may interfere with transmembrane transport mechanisms, hence enabling contributions to nanotoxicity by affecting key biological activities dependent on transmembrane transport...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Xiaobo Li, Hongbao Yang, Shenshen Wu, Qingtao Meng, Hao Sun, Runze Lu, Jian Cui, Yuxin Zheng, Wen Chen, Rong Zhang, Michael Aschner, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nanoparticles can deposit in the deep lung where they interact with pulmonary cells. Despite numerous studies on pulmonary nanotoxicity, detailed molecular mechanisms of specific nanomaterial-induced lung injury have yet to be identified. RESULTS: Using whole-body dynamic inhalation model, we studied the interactions between aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) and the pulmonary system in vivo. We found that seven-day-exposure to Al2O3 NPs resulted in emphysema and small airway remodeling in murine lungs, accompanied by enhanced inflammation and apoptosis...
December 12, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Prateek Mathur, Swati Jha, Suman Ramteke, N K Jain
Silver nanoparticles are particles in the size ranging between 1 and 100 nm. The two major methods used for synthesis of silver nanoparticle are the physical and chemical methods with the disadvantage that they are expensive and can also have toxicity. Biological method is being used as an expedient alternative, as this approach is environment-friendly and less toxic and it includes plant extracts, microorganism, fungi, etc. The major applications of silver nanoparticles in the medical field include diagnostic applications and therapeutic applications, apart from its antimicrobial activity...
December 12, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Bo Wang, Emily H Pilkington, Yunxiang Sun, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Feng Ding
Direct exposure or intake of nanopaticles (NPs) to the human body can invoke a series of biological responses, some of which are deleterious, and as such the role of NPs in vivo requires thorough examination. Over the past decade, it has been established that biomolecules such as proteins can bind NPs to form a 'corona', where the structures and dynamics of NP-associated proteins can assign new functionality, systemic distribution and toxicity. However, the behavior and fate of NPs in biological systems are still far from being fully understood...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
Fengshan Shen, Je-Kyun Park
To accurately assess potential nanotoxicity on the basis of cellular iron content, the precise separation of cells into subpopulations according to their magnetic nanoparticle loading is of crucial importance. In this study, we developed a microfluidic magnetophoresis device consisting of a trapezoidal channel containing five side outlet branches and a narrow rectangular channel with three outlet branches. This unique structure enabled the sequential separation of cells loaded with tiny amounts of iron oxide and cells heavily labeled with iron oxide, in a single device...
December 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Younes Bouallegui, Ridha Ben Younes, Houda Bellamine, Ridha Oueslati
BACKGROUND: Histopathological assessments approaches in bivalves have become an important tool in environmental toxicology. This study seeks to develop a quantitative histopathological index (Ih) and inflammation score as biomarkers in the aim to assess the health status of nanoparticles exposed mussels. METHODS: Digestive gland Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from Mytilus galloprovincialis were assessed after in vivo exposure (for 3, 6 and 12h) to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs < 50nm and Ag-NPs < 100nm) prior and after manipulating the potential uptake pathways (clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis) using amantadine and nystatin as blockers...
November 23, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Eleonore Fröhlich
Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology of the twenty-first century. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology it is also known that engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may cause adverse health effects in humans. Reports on toxic effects of NPs relay mainly on conventional (phenotypic) testing but studies of changes in epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome induced by NPs have also been performed. NPs most relevant for human exposure in consumer, health and food products are metal, metal oxide and carbon-based NPs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Liming Wang, Liang Yan, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of nanomaterials (NMs) or nanomedicines (NMs), are fundamental biological processes that dominate their nanomedical functions or nanotoxicities. Mostly, NMs exist in biological systems as a form of nanoparticles (NPs). However, to determine the composition, spatial distribution, and states of existence of NMs/NPs in vivo, upon entry into the body, as well as to monitor the dynamic changes of these information over time remain a challenge for the current analytical methodology due to their limited efficiently in characterizing interactions between these complex(nano)-complex(bio) systems...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
D A Gkika, L Magafas, P Cool, J Braet
Over the past 30 years, there have been significant advancements in the field of nanomaterials. The possibility to use them in applications such as cancer treatment is extremely promising; however, the toxicity of many nanomaterials as well as the high costs associated with their use is still a concern. This paper aims to study the connection between nanomaterial toxicity and cost. This synergy may be interpreted as a different version of the classic "Prisoner's Dilemma" game, which in this case attempts to explain the possible outcomes of cooperation versus conflict between science advocating for the use of high-risk, possibly toxic materials due to their high returns, and society that might be dubious about the use of high-risk materials...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
Sijie Lin, Monika Mortimer, Ran Chen, Aleksandr Kakinen, Jim E Riviere, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
The first phase of environmental health and safety of nanomaterials (nanoEHS) studies has been mainly focused on evidence-based investigations that probe the impact of nanoparticles, nanomaterials and nano-enabled products on biological and ecological systems. The integration of multiple disciplines, including colloidal science, nanomaterial science, chemistry, toxicology/immunology and environmental science, is necessary to understand the implications of nanotechnology for both human health and the environment...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
Yi Hu, Xiangjie Chen, Kun Yang, Daohui Lin
Toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been studied in various culture media. However, these media notably differ from the natural aquatic system, thus the conclusions may be inapplicable for real environment condition. The toxicity and its underlying mechanism of AgNPs in surface waters warrant more investigations. This study investigated the acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, bioaccumulation, and alga-daphnia food chain transfer of citrate-coated AgNPs (C-AgNPs) and Ag(+) (from AgNO3) to D. magna in a culture medium (M4) and a surface water sample...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
André Jochums, Elsa Friehs, Franziska Sambale, Antonina Lavrentieva, Detlef Bahnemann, Thomas Scheper
The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs). Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549) and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs...
July 19, 2017: Toxics
Michael González-Durruthy, Adriano V Werhli, Vinicius Seus, Karina S Machado, Alejandro Pazos, Cristian R Munteanu, Humberto González-Díaz, José M Monserrat
The current molecular docking study provided the Free Energy of Binding (FEB) for the interaction (nanotoxicity) between VDAC mitochondrial channels of three species (VDAC1-Mus musculus, VDAC1-Homo sapiens, VDAC2-Danio rerio) with SWCNT-H, SWCNT-OH, SWCNT-COOH carbon nanotubes. The general results showed that the FEB values were statistically more negative (p < 0.05) in the following order: (SWCNT-VDAC2-Danio rerio) > (SWCNT-VDAC1-Mus musculus) > (SWCNT-VDAC1-Homo sapiens) > (ATP-VDAC)...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaojie Li, Jiajing Zhou, Chaoran Liu, Qirong Xiong, Hongwei Duan, Peter C K Cheung
Naturally occurring β-glucans have been widely regarded as a natural source for functional foods and pharmaceuticals due to their immunomodulatory property and antitumor activity. However, physicochemically stable and biocompatible β-glucans are rarely explored as a carrier for nanomaterials to overcome the problems of aggregation and nanotoxicity. Here, we developed highly stable and biocompatible mushroom β-glucan coated gold nanorods (AuNR-Glu) for cancer photothermal therapy by integrating Pleurotus tuber-regium sclerotial β-glucan (Glu) and plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs) possessing photothermal property in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mo-Han Zhang, Jia-Qing Chen, Hui-Min Guo, Rui-Ting Li, Yi-Qiao Gao, Yuan Tian, Zun-Jian Zhang, Yin Huang
Realgar nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents for their enhanced anti-proliferation effect and cytotoxicity on cancer cells. However, the alteration of particle size may enhance biological reactivity as well as toxicity. A LC/MS and GC/MS based metabolomics approach was employed to explore the mechanism of realgar NPs-induced hepatotoxicity and identify potential biomarkers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated intragastrically with realgar or realgar NPs at a dose of 1.0 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) for 28 days and toxic effects of realgar NPs on liver tissues were examined by biochemical indicator analysis and histopathologic examination...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Junzhuo Liu, Jun Tang, Juanjuan Wan, Chenxi Wu, Bruce Graham, Philip G Kerr, Yonghong Wu
Responses of microbial communities to nanotoxicity in aquatic ecosystems are largely unknown, particularly with respect to relationship between community dynamics and functions. Here, periphytic biofilms were selected as a model of species-rich microbial communities to elucidate their responses when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs). Especially, the relationships between the functions (e.g. organic matter and Cu(2+) removal) and community dynamics after long-term exposure to TiO2-NPs were assessed systematically...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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