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cerebral vasculature

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227388/learning-to-distinguish-cerebral-vasculature-data-from-mechanical-chatter-in-india-ink-images-acquired-using-knife-edge-scanning-microscopy
#1
Michael R Nowak, Yoonsuck Choe, Michael R Nowak, Yoonsuck Choe, Michael R Nowak, Yoonsuck Choe
We introduce a simple, yet effective, procedure for accurate classification of connected components embedded in biological images. In our method, a training set is generated from user-delineated features of manually-labeled examples; we subsequently train a classifier using the resultant training set. The overall process is described using imaging data acquired from an India-ink perfused C57BL/6J mouse brain using Knife Edge Scanning Microscopy. We illustrate the procedure through segmentation of cerebral vasculature structures from mechanical noise using trained classifiers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202749/endothelial-cell-oligodendrocyte-interactions-in-small-vessel-disease-and-aging
#2
REVIEW
Rikesh M Rajani, Anna Williams
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a prevalent, neurological disease that significantly increases the risk of stroke and dementia. The main pathological changes are vascular, in the form of lipohyalinosis and arteriosclerosis, and in the white matter (WM), in the form of WM lesions. Despite this, it is unclear to what extent the key cell types involved-the endothelial cells (ECs) of the vasculature and the oligodendrocytes of the WM-interact. Here, we describe the work that has so far been carried out suggesting an interaction between ECs and oligodendrocytes in SVD...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196095/depth-dependent-flow-and-pressure-characteristics-in-cortical-microvascular-networks
#3
Franca Schmid, Philbert S Tsai, David Kleinfeld, Patrick Jenny, Bruno Weber
A better knowledge of the flow and pressure distribution in realistic microvascular networks is needed for improving our understanding of neurovascular coupling mechanisms and the related measurement techniques. Here, numerical simulations with discrete tracking of red blood cells (RBCs) are performed in three realistic microvascular networks from the mouse cerebral cortex. Our analysis is based on trajectories of individual RBCs and focuses on layer-specific flow phenomena until a cortical depth of 1 mm. The individual RBC trajectories reveal that in the capillary bed RBCs preferentially move in plane...
February 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195862/a-case-report-of-onyx-pulmonary-arterial-embolism-contributing-to-hypoxemia-during-awake-craniotomy-for-arteriovenous-malformation-resection
#4
Brian T Tolly, Jenna L Kosky, Antoun Koht, Laura B Hemmer
A healthy 26-year-old man with cerebral arteriovenous malformation underwent staged endovascular embolization with Onyx followed by awake craniotomy for resection. The perioperative course was complicated by tachycardia and severe intraoperative hypoxemia requiring significant oxygen supplementation. Postoperative chest computed tomography (CT) revealed hyperattenuating Onyx embolization material within the pulmonary vasculature, and an electrocardiogram indicated possible right heart strain, supporting clinically significant embolism...
February 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182715/mr-angiography-allows-defining-severity-grades-of-cerebral-vasospasm-in-an-experimental-double-blood-injection-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-model-in-rats
#5
Vesna Malinova, Marios N Psychogios, Ioannis Tsogkas, Birte Koennecke, Kim Bleuel, Bogdan Iliev, Veit Rohde, Dorothee Mielke
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been used for the detection of cerebral vasospasm (VSP) related infarction in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (eSAH) in rats. Conventional angiography is generally used to visualize VSP, which is an invasive technique with a possible increase in morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the validity of MR-angiography (MRA) in detecting VSP and its feasibility to define VSP severity grades after eSAH in rats. METHODS: SAH was induced using the double-hemorrhage model in 12 rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#6
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154097/cerebral-vascular-disease-and-neurovascular-injury-in-ischemic-stroke
#7
Xiaoming Hu, T Michael De Silva, Jun Chen, Frank M Faraci
The consequences of cerebrovascular disease are among the leading health issues worldwide. Large and small cerebral vessel disease can trigger stroke and contribute to the vascular component of other forms of neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Both forms of vascular disease are driven by diverse risk factors, with hypertension as the leading contributor. Despite the importance of neurovascular disease and subsequent injury after ischemic events, fundamental knowledge in these areas lag behind our current understanding of neuroprotection and vascular biology in general...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153772/%C3%AE-1-integrin-signaling-promotes-neuronal-migration-along-vascular-scaffolds-in-the-post-stroke-brain
#8
Teppei Fujioka, Naoko Kaneko, Itsuki Ajioka, Kanako Nakaguchi, Taichi Omata, Honoka Ohba, Reinhard Fässler, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration...
January 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150867/astroglial-glutamate-transporters-in-the-brain-regulating-neurotransmitter-homeostasis-and-synaptic-transmission
#9
REVIEW
Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Julien Dupuis, Laurent Groc, Stéphane H R Oliet
Astrocytes, the major glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), are critical for brain function and have been implicated in various disorders of the central nervous system. These cells are involved in a wide range of cerebral processes including brain metabolism, control of central blood flow, ionic homeostasis, fine-tuning synaptic transmission, and neurotransmitter clearance. Such varied roles can be efficiently carried out due to the intimate interactions astrocytes maintain with neurons, the vasculature, as well as with other glial cells...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143923/cerebral-microbleeds-as-predictors-of-mortality-the-framingham-heart-study
#10
José R Romero, Sarah R Preis, Alexa Beiser, Jayandra J Himali, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Philip A Wolf, Carlos S Kase, Vasan S Ramachandran, Charles DeCarli, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) represent a common magnetic resonance imaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease, increasingly recognized as a subclinical marker of stroke and dementia risk. CMB detection may reflect the cumulative effect of vascular risk burden and be a marker of higher mortality. We investigated the relation of CMB to risk of death in community dwelling participants free of stroke and dementia. METHODS: We evaluated 1963 Framingham Original and Offspring Cohort participants (mean age 67 years; 54% women) with available brain magnetic resonance imaging and mortality data...
January 31, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142208/intravenously-transplanted-human-bone-marrow-endothelial-progenitor-cells-engraft-within-brain-capillaries-preserve-mitochondrial-morphology-and-display-pinocytotic-activity-towards-bbb-repair-in-ischemic-stroke-rats
#11
Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Edward Haller, Roger Lin, Cesario V Borlongan
Stroke is a life threatening disease with limited therapeutic options. Cell therapy has emerged as an experimental stroke treatment. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a key pathological manifestation of ischemic stroke, and barrier repair is an innovative target for neurorestoration in stroke. Here, we evaluated via electron microscopy the ability of transplanted human bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (hBMEPCs) to repair the BBB in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135646/gap-free-segmentation-of-vascular-networks-with-automatic-image-processing-pipeline
#12
Chih-Yang Hsu, Mahsa Ghaffari, Ali Alaraj, Michael Flannery, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Andreas Linninger
Current image processing techniques capture large vessels reliably but often fail to preserve connectivity in bifurcations and small vessels. Imaging artifacts and noise can create gaps and discontinuity of intensity that hinders segmentation of vascular trees. However, topological analysis of vascular trees require proper connectivity without gaps, loops or dangling segments. Proper tree connectivity is also important for high quality rendering of surface meshes for scientific visualization or 3D printing...
January 21, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131184/confined-anterior-cerebral-artery-infarction-manifesting-as-isolated-unilateral-axial-weakness
#13
Asaf Honig, Ruth Eliahou, Eitan Auriel
We describe isolated unilateral axial weakness in three patients eventually diagnosed with anterior cerebral artery infarction (ACAI), a new clinical observation. Files of three ACAI patients (2 females, 1 male, ages 55-80) were retrospectively reviewed. All three presented to the ED with sudden unsteadiness. On initial neurological examination, all three patients manifested unilateral truncal deviation to the side contralateral to the weakness, even while seated. There was significant unilateral hypotonia due to substantial paravertebral weakness...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130053/vascular-protective-effects-of-klf2-on-a%C3%AE-induced-toxicity-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Xuejun Fang, Xiaoli Zhong, Gang Yu, Si Shao, Qidong Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by excessive amounts of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, and cerebrovascular pathologies in AD are attracting increasingly more attention. Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 2, a transcription regulator expressed in the mouse embryonic vasculature and involved in the regulation of vascular gene expression, serves as a protective factor in endothelial cells. However, whether KLF2 is involved in neurodegenerative disease, and especially in AD, remains unknown...
January 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126751/application-of-time-resolved-3d-digital-subtraction-angiography-to-plan-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-radiosurgery
#15
K-K Chen, W-Y Guo, H-C Yang, C-J Lin, C-H F Wu, S Gehrisch, M Kowarschik, Y-T Wu, W-Y Chung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Time-resolved 3D-DSA (4D-DSA) enables viewing vasculature from any desired angle and time frame. We investigated whether these advantages may facilitate treatment planning and the feasibility of using 4D-DSA as a single imaging technique in AVM/dural arteriovenous fistula radiosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients (8 dural arteriovenous fistulas and 12 AVMs; 13 men and 7 women; mean age, 45 years; range, 18-64 years) who were scheduled for gamma knife radiosurgery were recruited (November 2014 to October 2015)...
January 26, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116460/enhanced-vegf-signalling-mediates-cerebral-neovascularisation-via-downregulation-of-guidance-protein-robo4-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetes
#16
Mohammed Abdelsaid, Maha Coucha, Sherif Hafez, Abdul Yasir, Maribeth H Johnson, Adviye Ergul
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes promotes cerebral neovascularisation via increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) angiogenic signalling. Roundabout-4 (ROBO4) protein is an endogenous inhibitor of VEGF signalling that stabilises the vasculature. Yet, how diabetes affects ROBO4 function remains unknown. We hypothesised that increased VEGF signalling in diabetes decreases ROBO4 expression and function via binding of ROBO4 with VEGF-activated β3 integrin and that restoration of ROBO4 expression prevents/repairs cerebral neovascularisation in diabetes...
January 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115138/endocannabinoid-2-arachidonoylglycerol-protects-inflammatory-insults-from-sulfur-dioxide-inhalation-via-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-brain
#17
Ben Li, Minjun Chen, Lin Guo, Yang Yun, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution in the atmospheric environment causes brain inflammatory insult and inflammatory-related microvasculature dysfunction. However, there are currently no effective medications targeting the harmful outcomes from chemical inhalation. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. The 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant eCBs and a full agonist for cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), is also capable of suppressing proinflammatory stimuli and improving microvasculature dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114013/wall-less-flow-phantoms-with-tortuous-vascular-geometries-design-principles-and-a-patient-specific-model-fabrication-example
#18
Chung Kit Ho, Adrian J Y Chee, Billy Y S Yiu, Anderson C O Tsang, Kwok Wing Chow, Alfred C H Yu
Flow phantoms with anatomically realistic geometry and high acoustic compatibility are valuable investigative tools in vascular ultrasound studies. Here, we present a new framework to fabricate ultrasound-compatible flow phantoms to replicate human vasculature that is tortuous, non-planar and branching in nature. This framework is based upon the integration of rapid prototyping and investment casting principles. A pedagogical walkthrough of our engineering protocol is presented in this paper using a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm model as an exemplar demonstration...
December 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104642/evaluation-of-encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis-efficacy-using-probabilistic-independent-component-analysis-applied-to-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri
#19
A N Laiwalla, F Kurth, K Leu, R Liou, J Pamplona, Y C Ooi, N Salamon, B M Ellingson, N R Gonzalez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Indirect cerebral revascularization has been successfully used for treatment in Moyamoya disease and symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. While angiographic neovascularization has been demonstrated after surgery, measurements of local tissue perfusion are scarce and may not reflect the reported successful clinical outcomes. We investigated probabilistic independent component analysis and conventional perfusion parameters from DSC-MR imaging to measure postsurgical changes in tissue perfusion...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100120/hybrid-stage-i-procedure-as-initial-palliation-for-neonate-with-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-and-right-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Draginja Cvetkovic, Joseph Giamelli, Michael Lyew, Markus Erb, Suvro Sett, Youmna DiStefano
During the past decade, a hybrid procedure has emerged and dramatically evolved as an alternative stage I palliation to the conventional Norwood procedure in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). The hybrid approach avoids the need for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) utilizing stenting of the arterial duct and bilateral pulmonary artery banding. Cerebral and coronary perfusion pressure is maintained, and the pulmonary vasculature is protected from higher systemic pressure. Elimination of risks associated with CPB gains vital time to stabilize the patient and correct coexisting noncardiac anomalies and allows growth in preparation for the later stages of the Fontan pathway...
January 1, 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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