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cerebral vasculature

Parkinson Soubam, Shashwat Mishra, Ashish Suri, Renu Dhingra, Sankat Mochan, Sanjeev Lalwani, T S Roy, Ashok K Mahapatra
A surgeon's understanding of the surgical anatomy can be greatly enhanced by the dissection of preserved cadaveric specimens. A reliable and inexpensive biological model for testing and standardization of dye injection concentrations is proposed utilizing the goat's head as a biological model. The first phase was concerned with standardization of the dye by titrating its concentration and injecting various amounts into cerebral vessels of a goat's head until an optimal concentration had been ascertained. In the second phase, this optimum concentration of the dye was injected into four human cadaveric heads following the same technique standardized using the goat's head...
March 2018: Neurology India
Mahmod Panahi, Naeimeh Yousefi Mesri, Eva-Britt Samuelsson, Kirsten G Coupland, Charlotte Forsell, Caroline Graff, Saara Tikka, Bengt Winblad, Matti Viitanen, Helena Karlström, Erik Sundström, Homira Behbahani
Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial fatal progressive degenerative disorder. One of the pathological hallmarks of CADASIL is a dramatic reduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in cerebral arteries. Using VSMCs from the vasculature of the human umbilical cord, placenta and cerebrum of CADASIL patients, we found that CADASIL VSMCs had a lower proliferation rate compared to control VSMCs. Exposure of control VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) to media derived from CADASIL VSMCs lowered the proliferation rate of all cells examined...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Midas Meijs, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, Rashindra Manniesing, Frederick Jan Anton Meijer
BACKGROUND: In case of carotid artery occlusion, the risk and extent of ischemic cerebral damage is highly dependent on the pathways of collateral flow, including the anatomy of the circle of Willis. In this report, cases are presented to illustrate that 4D-CTA can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to DSA for the evaluation of circle of Willis collateral flow. CASE DESCRIPTION: Five patients with unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion underwent 4D-CTA for the evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Luke Mugge, Tarek R Mansour, Brianna Krafcik, Travis Mazur, Tonya Floyd-Bradstock, Azedine Medhkour
Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and requires rapid and intensive treatment to prevent adverse outcomes. Decompressive hemicraniectomy stands as the gold standard for surgical resolution of the intracranial swelling which accompanies cerebral infarction; however, the benefits of this procedure are not as well achieved in the elderly (age >65 yoa) compared to the younger population. This is a critical review performed on all available literature relating to middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke in the elderly with emphasis on articles examining causality of adverse outcomes in this group over younger populations...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Kelly M DeMars, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Brian D Sanz, Changjun Yang, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot forms in the brain vasculature that starves downstream tissue of oxygen and nutrients resulting in cell death. The tissue immediately downstream of the blockage, the core, dies within minutes, but the surrounding tissue, the penumbra is potentially salvageable. Prostaglandin E2 binds to four different G-protein coupled membrane receptors EP1-EP4 mediating different and sometimes opposing responses. Pharmacological activation of the EP4 receptor has already been established as neuroprotective in stroke, but the mechanism(s) of protection are not well-characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Elshin Mathias, Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
A state-of-the-art integrated model of neurovascular coupling (NVC) [19, 18, 38] and the BOLD response [47, 48] is presented with the ability to simulate the fMRI BOLD responses due to continuous neuronal spiking, bursting and cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with the underlying complex vascular coupling. Simulated BOLD responses are compared to experimental BOLD signals observed in the rat barrel cortex and in the hippocampus under seizure conditions showing good agreement. Bursting phenomena provides relatively clear BOLD signals as long as the time between bursts is not too short...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
C H Harrison, G R Buckland, S E Brooks, D A Johnston, D S Chatelet, A K L Liu, S M Gentleman, D Boche, J A R Nicoll
Current tissue-clearing protocols for imaging in three dimensions (3D) are typically applied to optimally fixed, small-volume rodent brain tissue - which is not representative of the tissue found in diagnostic neuropathology laboratories. We present a method to visualise the cerebral cortical vasculature in 3D in human post-mortem brain tissue which had been preserved in formalin for many years. Tissue blocks of cerebral cortex from two control cases, two Alzheimer's brains and two cases from Alzheimer's patients immunised against Aβ42 were stained with fluorescent Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (Tomato lectin), dehydrated and cleared using an adapted three-dimensional imaging of solvent cleared organs (3DISCO) protocol to visualise the vascular endothelium...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Maxime Gauberti, Antoine P Fournier, Fabian Docagne, Denis Vivien, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo
Endothelial cells of the central nervous system over-express surface proteins during neurological disorders, either as a cause, or a consequence, of the disease. Since the cerebral vasculature is easily accessible by large contrast-carrying particles, it constitutes a target of choice for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we highlight the most recent advances in molecular MRI of brain endothelial activation and focus on the development of micro-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) targeting adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), P-Selectin and E-Selectin...
2018: Theranostics
Jeewaka E Mohotti, Nicole S Carter, Victor Jia Wei Zhang, Leon T Lai, Christopher Xenos, Hamed Asadi, Ronil V Chandra
Intracranial aneurysms in the neonate, presenting in the first 4 weeks of life, are exceedingly rare. They appear to have characteristics, including presentation and location, that vary from those found in adults. The authors present a case of a 28-day-old neonate with a ruptured distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. Initial noninvasive imaging with transfontanelle ultrasound and CT confirmed intraparenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed a 14-mm ruptured fusiform MCA aneurysm that was not identified on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Brandon Kovarovic, Henry H Woo, David Fiorella, Baruch B Lieber, Chander Sadasivan
Cerebral angiography involves the antegrade injection of contrast media through a catheter into the vasculature to visualize the region of interest under X-ray imaging. Depending on the injection and blood flow parameters, the bolus of contrast can propagate in the upstream direction and proximal to the catheter tip, at which point contrast is said to have refluxed. In this in vitro study, we investigate the relationship of fundamental hemodynamic variables to this phenomenon. Contrast injections were carried out under steady and pulsatile flow using various vessel diameters, catheter sizes, working fluid flow rates, and injection rates...
March 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Sushmita Purkayastha, Kaitlyn Maffuid, Xiaojie Zhu, Rong Zhang, Peter B Raven
PURPOSE: This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that the carotid baroreflex (CBR) mediated sympathoexcitation regulates cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during dynamic exercise. METHODS: In seven healthy subjects (26 ± 1 years), oscillatory neck pressure (NP) stimuli of + 40 mmHg were applied to the carotid baroreceptors at a pre-determined frequency of 0.1 Hz at rest, low (10 ± 1W), and heavy (30 ± 3W) exercise workloads (WLs) without (control) and with α - 1 adrenoreceptor blockade (prazosin)...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
David Z Cai, Ryan P Roach, John P Weaver, Gerald T McGillicuddy, Zachary M Mansell, Jonathan P Eskander, Mark S Eskander
This is a case report of a 48-year-old man with multiple transient ischemic attacks and a known hypoplastic right vertebral artery (VA) who presented after a syncopal event while turning his head to the left. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the necessity of proper diagnosis and management of cerebrovascular pathology including imaging and surgical intervention in patients with known anatomical anomalies. This study was conducted at Massachusetts, United States of America. Our patient's history was significant for a hypoplastic right VA and a stenotic segment of the right VA at the C3-C4 junction...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Jonathan R Bumstead, Jasmine J Park, Isaac A Rosen, Andrew W Kraft, Patrick W Wright, Matthew D Reisman, Daniel C Côté, Joseph P Culver
Conventional two-photon microscopy (TPM) is capable of imaging neural dynamics with subcellular resolution, but it is limited to a field-of-view (FOV) diameter [Formula: see text]. Although there has been recent progress in extending the FOV in TPM, a principled design approach for developing large FOV TPM (LF-TPM) with off-the-shelf components has yet to be established. Therefore, we present a design strategy that depends on analyzing the optical invariant of commercially available objectives, relay lenses, mirror scanners, and emission collection systems in isolation...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Kumail Khandwala, Anwar Ahmed, Taha Sheikh
Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a rare multisystem disorder and is the most common maternally inherited mitochondrial disease. This condition has a special predilection for the nervous system and muscles. Typical findings on brain imaging include stroke-like areas, calcification of basal ganglia and brain atrophy. This accounts for the disease being, both clinically and radiologically, mistaken for ischemic stroke. The differentiation features from stroke include comparatively young age of the patients, site of the lesions, and relative overlap between the cerebral vasculature territories...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Wei Zhang, Yi Guo, Bo Li, Qi Zhang, Jian-Hui Liu, Guo-Jun Gu, Jin-Hong Wang, Rui-Kang Bao, Yu-Jie Chen, Jian-Rong Xu
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is present in up to 90% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may interact with classical neuropathology to exacerbate cognitive decline. Since growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) can activate vascular remodeling, we tested its effects on cognitive function and neuroinflammatory changes of AD model mice. We intravenously administered GDF11 or vehicle daily to 12-month-old transgenic mice overexpressing the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP)/PS1). Cognitive function was monitored using the Morris water maze, and after conclusion of the treatment, we assessed the morphology and presence of inflammatory markers in the cerebral vasculature...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kenneth L Monson, Matthew I Converse, Geoffrey T Manley
Traumatic brain injury is a devastating cause of death and disability. Although injury of brain tissue is of primary interest in head trauma, nearly all significant cases include damage of the cerebral blood vessels. Because vessels are critical to the maintenance of the healthy brain, any injury or dysfunction of the vasculature puts neural tissue at risk. It is well known that these vessels commonly tear and bleed as an immediate consequence of traumatic brain injury. It follows that other vessels experience deformations that are significant though not severe enough to produce bleeding...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Dominik Michalski, Anna L Keck, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Wolfgang Härtig
Because stroke therapies are still limited and patients are often concerned by long-term sequelae with significant impairment of daily living, elaborated neuroprotective strategies are needed. During the last decades, research substantially improved the knowledge on cellular pathologies responsible for stroke-related tissue damage. In this context, the neurovascular unit (NVU) concept has been established, summarizing the affections of neurons, associated astrocytes and the vasculature. Although oligodendrocytes were already identified to play a major role in other brain pathologies, their role during stroke evolution and long-lasting tissue damage is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Dinesh K Sivakolundu, Lyndahl M Himes, Joanna L Hutchison, John Hart, Jeffrey Spence, Elliot Frohman, Teresa Frohman, Darin Okuda, Bart Rypma
The hemodynamic response function (HRF), a model of brain blood-flow changes in response to neural activity, reflects communication between neurons and the vasculature that supplies these neurons in part by means of glial cell intermediaries (e.g., astrocytes). Intact neural-vascular communication might play a central role in optimal cognitive performance. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing healthy individuals to those with known white-matter damage and impaired performance, as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Gerald J Riccardello, Abhinav R Changa, Fawaz Al-Mufti, I Paul Singh, Chirag Gandhi, Max Roman, Charles J Prestigiacomo
Objective The natural history intracranial aneurysms (IA) remains poorly understood despite significant morbidity and mortality associated with IA rupture. Hemodynamic impingement resulting in elevations in wall shear stress and wall shear stress gradient (WSSG) has been shown to induce aneurysmal remodeling at arterial bifurcations. We investigate the hemodynamic environment specific to side-wall pre-aneurysmal vasculature. We hypothesize that fluid impingement and secondary flow patterns play a role in side-wall aneurysm initiation...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
Alexandre Vivanti, Augustin Ozanne, Cynthia Grondin, Guillaume Saliou, Loic Quevarec, Helène Maurey, Patrick Aubourg, Alexandra Benachi, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Jelena Martinovic, Marie Victoire Sénat, Marcel Tawk, Judith Melki
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools...
February 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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