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cerebral vasculature

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920514/foe-or-friend-janus-faces-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-the-formation-of-brain-metastases
#1
Imola Wilhelm, Csilla Fazakas, Kinga Molnár, Attila G Végh, János Haskó, István A Krizbai
Despite the potential obstacle represented by the blood-brain barrier for extravasating malignant cells, metastases are more frequent than primary tumors in the central nervous system. Not only tightly interconnected endothelial cells can hinder metastasis formation, other cells of the brain microenvironment (like astrocytes and microglia) can also be very hostile, destroying the large majority of metastatic cells. However, malignant cells that are able to overcome these harmful mechanisms may benefit from the shielding and even support provided by cerebral endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia, rendering the brain a sanctuary site against anti-tumor strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916665/integrin-%C3%AE-4-overexpression-on-rat-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhances-transmigration-and-reduces-cerebral-embolism-after-intracarotid-injection
#2
Li-Li Cui, Franziska Nitzsche, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Marina Tibeykina, Laura Tolppanen, Jussi Rytkönen, Tuulia Huhtala, Jing-Wei Mu, Leonard Khiroug, Johannes Boltze, Jukka Jolkkonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very late antigen-4 (integrin α4β1)/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mediates leukocyte trafficking and transendothelial migration after stroke. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) typically express integrin β1 but insufficient ITGA4 (integrin α4), which limits their homing after intravascular transplantation. We tested whether ITGA4 overexpression on MSCs increases cerebral homing after intracarotid transplantation and reduces MSC-borne cerebral embolism. METHODS: Rat MSCs were lentivirally transduced to overexpress ITGA4...
September 15, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916637/effect-of-increases-in-cardiac-contractility-on-cerebral-blood-flow-in-humans
#3
Shigehiko Ogoh, Gilbert Moralez, Takuro Washio, Satyam Sarma, Michinari Hieda, Steven A Romero, Matthew N Cramer, Manabu Shibasaki, Craig G Crandall
The effect of acute increases in cardiac contractility on cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unknown. We hypothesized that the external carotid artery (ECA) downstream vasculature modifies the direct influence of acute increases in heart rate and cardiac function on CBF regulation. Twelve healthy subjects received two infusions of dobutamine (first a low dose; 5 μg/kg/min and then a high dose; 15 μg/kg/min) for 12 min each. Cardiac output, blood flow through the internal carotid artery (ICA) and ECA and echocardiographic measurements were performed during dobutamine infusions...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914129/maternal-high-fat-diet-programs-cerebrovascular-remodeling-in-adult-rat-offspring
#4
ChengCheng Lin, XiaoYun Wu, YuLei Zhou, Bei Shao, XiaoTing Niu, WanLi Zhang, YuanShao Lin
Maternal environmental factors such as diet have consequences on later health of the offspring. We found that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) exposure renders adult offspring brain more susceptible to ischemic injury. The present study was further to investigate whether HFD consumption during rat pregnancy and lactation influences the cerebral vasculature in adult male offspring. Besides the endothelial damage observed in the transmission electron microscopy, the MCAs of offspring from fat-fed dams fed with control diet (HFD/C) also displayed increased wall thickness and media/lumen ratio, suggesting that cerebrovascular hypertrophy or hyperplasia occurs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913611/prospective-intraindividual-comparison-of-gadoterate-and-gadobutrol-for-cervical-and-intracranial-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#5
Philip Hoelter, Stefan Lang, Marina Weibart, Manuel Schmidt, Michael F X Knott, Tobias Engelhorn, Marco Essig, Stephan Kloska, Arnd Doerfler
PURPOSE: Gadobutrol (GB) is reported to provide improved relaxivity and concentration compared to gadoterate (GT). This study was designed to intraindividually compare quantitative and qualitative enhancement characteristics of GB to GT in cervicocranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Patients (n = 54) with CVD underwent two identical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) examinations of the cervical and intracranial vasculature in randomized order, using GB and GT in equimolar dose...
September 14, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893576/isolated-internal-carotid-artery-thrombus-and-cerebral-infarction-in-a-patient-with-necrotizing-pancreatitis-case-report
#6
Daniel R Ludwig, Matthew J Austin, Adam N Wallace, Mudassar Kamran, Akash P Kansagra, Joshua W Osbun, DeWitte T Cross, Christopher J Moran
Isolated internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombus in the absence of underlying atherosclerotic disease is a rare entity. We report a case of a patient presenting with right arm weakness, slurred speech, and altered mental status in the setting of acute on chronic pancreatitis. The patient was found to have scattered left cerebral hemisphere cortical infarctions, and catheter angiography confirmed the presence of intraluminal left ICA thrombus, with no evidence of atherosclerotic disease in the cervical or intracranial vasculature...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888720/aged-chimpanzees-exhibit-pathologic-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Melissa K Edler, Chet C Sherwood, Richard S Meindl, William D Hopkins, John J Ely, Joseph M Erwin, Elliott J Mufson, Patrick R Hof, Mary Ann Raghanti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a uniquely human brain disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) into extracellular plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) made from intracellular, abnormally phosphorylated tau, and selective neuronal loss. We analyzed a large group of aged chimpanzees (n = 20, age 37-62 years) for evidence of Aβ and tau lesions in brain regions affected by AD in humans. Aβ was observed in plaques and blood vessels, and tau lesions were found in the form of pretangles, NFT, and tau-immunoreactive neuritic clusters...
August 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880397/transcranial-doppler-a-stethoscope-for-the-brain-neurocritical-care-use
#8
REVIEW
Chiara Robba, Danilo Cardim, Mypinder Sekhon, Karol Budohoski, Marek Czosnyka
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography is a noninvasive bedside monitoring technique that can evaluate cerebral blood flow hemodynamics in the intracranial arterial vasculature. TCD allows assessment of linear cerebral blood flow velocity, with a high temporal resolution and is inexpensive, reproducible, and portable. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the most commonly used TCD derived signals and measurements used commonly in neurocritical care. We describe both basic (flow velocity, pulsatility index) and advanced concepts, including critical closing pressure, wall tension, autoregulation, noninvasive intracranial pressure, brain compliance, and cerebrovascular time constant; we also describe the clinical applications of TCD to highlight their utility in the diagnosis and monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases as the "stethoscope for the brain...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864867/safety-of-the-solitaire-4%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-40%C3%A2-mm-stent-retriever-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke
#9
Felix Zibold, Pasquale Mordasini, Pascal Mosimann, Eike Piechowiak, Tomas Dobrocky, Urs Fischer, Marcel Arnold, Sebastian Bellwald, Jan Gralla
PURPOSE: Stent retrievers apply mechanical force to the intracranial vasculature. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the long Solitaire 4 × 40 mm stent retriever for large vessel occlusion in stroke patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for acute ischemic large vessel occlusion stroke with the Solitaire 2 FR 4 × 40 device between May and October 2016 at our institution. Patient-specific data at baseline and at discharge were documented...
September 1, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863941/potential-role-of-ferric-hemoglobin-in-ms-pathogenesis-effects-of-oxidative-stress-and-extracellular-methemoglobin-or-its-degradation-products-on-myelin-components
#10
Vladimir V Bamm, Mary E L Henein, Shannon L J Sproul, Danielle K Lanthier, George Harauz
There is a well-documented relationship between cerebral vasculature and multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions: abnormal accumulations of iron have been found in the walls of the dilated veins in cerebral MS plaques. The source of this iron is unknown, but could be related to the recognized phenomenon of capillary and venous hemorrhages leading to blood extravasation. In turn, hemorrhaging leading to hemolysis results in extracellular release of hemoglobin, a reactive molecule that could induce local oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue damage...
August 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860328/vascular-pathology-in-multiple-sclerosis-reframing-pathogenesis-around-the-blood-brain-barrier
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan I Spencer, Jack S Bell, Gabriele C DeLuca
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has long been recognised as an important early feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Traditionally, this has been seen as a by-product of the myelin-specific immune response. Here, we consider whether vascular changes instead play a central role in disease pathogenesis, rather than representing a secondary effect of neuroinflammation or neurodegeneration. Importantly, this is not necessarily mutually exclusive from current hypotheses. Vascular pathology in a genetically predisposed individual, influenced by environmental factors such as pathogens, hypovitaminosis D and smoking, may be a critical initiator of a series of events including hypoxia, protein deposition and immune cell egress that allows the development of a CNS-specific immune response and the classical pathological and clinical hallmarks of disease...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839527/a-new-imaging-tool-for-realtime-measurement-of-flow-velocity-in-intracranial-aneurysms
#12
Athanasios K Petridis, Marius Kaschner, Jan F Cornelius, Marcel A Kamp, Angelo Tortora, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Bernd Turowski
With modern imaging modalities of the brain a significant number of unruptured aneurysms are detected. However, not every aneurysm is prone to rupture. Because treatment morbidity is about 10% it is crucial to identify unstable aneurysms for which treatment should be discussed. Recently, new imaging tools allow analysis of flow dynamics and wall stability have become available. It seems that they might provide additional data for better risk profiling. In this study we present a new imaging tool for analysis of flow dynamics, which calculates fluid velocity in an aneurysm (Phillips Electronics, N...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836059/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-children-with-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Gavrilovici, Ingrith Miron, Luminiţa Voroneanu, Silvia Bădărau, Magdalena Stârcea
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been described as a neurological condition observed in a variety of clinical settings and is characterized by focal neurological deficits, seizures, headaches, altered mental status, and visual impairment, associated with transient typical lesions on neuroimaging, predominantly in the posterior part of the brain. The most common risk factors for PRES are hypertension, renal diseases, and the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The incidence of PRES in children with renal disorders varies between 4 and 9%, according to different reports...
August 23, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831103/a-novel-fluorescent-imaging-technique-for-assessment-of-cerebral-vasospasm-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Diane J Aum, Ananth K Vellimana, Itender Singh, Eric Milner, James W Nelson, Byung Hee Han, Gregory J Zipfel
Various techniques have been developed to study changes in the cerebral vasculature in numerous neuropathological processes including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One of the most widely employed techniques uses India ink-gelatin casting, which presents numerous challenges due to its high viscosity, rapid solidification, and its impact on immunohistochemical analysis. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel technique for assessing cerebral vasospasm using cerebrovascular perfusion with ROX, SE (5-Carboxy-X-Rhodamine, Succinimidyl Ester), a fluorescent labeling dye...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830577/optimization-of-glioblastoma-mouse-orthotopic-xenograft-models-for-translational-research
#15
Susan M Irtenkauf, Susan Sobiechowski, Laura A Hasselbach, Kevin K Nelson, Andrea D Transou, Enoch T Carlton, Tom Mikkelsen, Ana C deCarvalho
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panel of patient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822622/novel-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-techniques-to-image-and-model-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-sickle-cell-disease
#16
Erin M Buckley, Manu O Platt, Wilbur A Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820309/advanced-cone-beam-ct-venous-angiographic-imaging
#17
Visish M Srinivasan, Gouthami Chintalapani, Edward A M Duckworth, Peter Kan
OBJECTIVE The evaluation of the venous neurovasculature, especially the dural venous sinuses, is most often performed using MR or CT venography. For further assessment, diagnostic cerebral angiography may be performed. Three-dimensional rotational angiography (3D-RA) can be applied to the venous system, producing 3D rotational venography (3D-RV) and cross-sectional reconstructions, which function as an adjunct to traditional 2D digital subtraction angiography. METHODS After querying the database of Baylor St...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819361/unilateral-headache-status-after-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-placement
#18
Garret M Weber, Alan L Gass, Shalvi B Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation is a catheter-based treatment for coronary artery disease and decompensated heart failure to increase coronary blood flow and improve cardiac output. IABP is generally well tolerated, and complications are usually related to peripheral vasculature or red blood cell and platelet consumption. The usual insertion site via femoral artery renders the patient bedbound. Recently, axillary artery has been used in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease and documented small arteries or in those awaiting transplant to ensure ambulation and prevent deconditioning...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813763/simultaneous-onset-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-pulmonary-embolism-cerebral-infarction-and-myocardial-infarction-in-a-patient-with-patent-foramen-ovale
#19
Jimmy Yee, Vishesh Kumar, Alex Pham, Kashif Shaikh, Muhammad Omar, Adam Stys, Marian Petrasko
Paradoxical embolism is a known complication with intra-cardiac shunts. It should be considered in the differential as the pathophysiologic mechanism of simultaneous thromboembolism in the venous and systemic vasculature. We present a case of simultaneous deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction in the presence of a confirmed patent foramen ovale on echocardiography. Thrombolytic therapy was administered. Subsequent concerns of intracranial hemorrhage on imaging of the brain complicated the management and added to the challenge of co-managing the clot burden in our patient...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801711/safety-of-onyx-transarterial-embolization-of-skull-base-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-from-meningeal-branches-of-the-external-carotids-also-fed-by-meningeal-branches-of-internal-carotid-or-vertebral-arteries
#20
Thiago G Abud, Emmanuel Houdart, Jean-Pierre Saint-Maurice, Daniel G Abud, Carlos E Baccin, Andrew D Nguyen, Nitamar Abdala
PURPOSE: To analyze the angiographic and clinical results of transarterial embolization with Onyx (Medtronic-Covidien, Irvine, CA) in dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) partially fed by arteries arising from the carotid siphon or the vertebral arteries. METHODS: We isolated 40 DAVFs supplied by either the tentorial artery of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or the posterior meningeal artery of the vertebral artery. These DAVFs were embolized with Onyx through the middle meningeal artery or the occipital artery...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
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