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cerebral vasculature

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303459/multimodal-treatment-approach-in-a-patient-with-multiple-intracranial-myxomatous-aneurysms
#1
David L Penn, Arianna B Lanpher, Jennifer M Klein, Harry P W Kozakewich, Kristopher T Kahle, Edward R Smith, Darren B Orbach
The most common primary cardiac tumor is myxoma, typically originating in the left atrium. Emboli to the central nervous system can cause cerebral infarction or, rarely, seed tumor growth within vessel walls, causing myxomatous aneurysms. Fewer than 60 myxomatous aneurysms have been reported, including 2 cases in children. Here, the authors describe 2 different growing myxomatous aneurysms in a child successfully managed using a combined multidisciplinary approach. A 12-year-old boy developed a sudden headache, diplopia, gait instability, and speech difficulty...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281153/microvascular-perfusion-of-the-placenta-developing-fetal-liver-and-lungs-assessed-with-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-imaging
#2
András Jakab, Ruth L Tuura, Raimund Kottke, Nicole Ochsenbein-Kölble, Giancarlo Natalucci, Thi Dao Nguyen, Christian Kellenberger, Ianina Scheer
BACKGROUND: In utero intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-MRI) provides a novel method for examining microvascular perfusion fraction and diffusion in the developing human fetus. PURPOSE: To characterize gestational changes in the microvascular perfusion fraction of the placenta, fetal liver, and lungs using IVIM-MRI. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Fifty-five datasets from 33 singleton pregnancies were acquired (17-36 gestational weeks)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251523/perivascular-neurotransmitters-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-role-in-primary-headaches
#3
Simona D Frederiksen, Kristian A Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Lars Edvinsson
In order to understand the nature of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and primary headaches, we have conducted a literature review with particular emphasis on the role of perivascular neurotransmitters. Primary headaches are in general considered complex polygenic disorders (genetic and environmental influence) with pathophysiological neurovascular alterations. Identified candidate headache genes are associated with neuro- and gliogenesis, vascular development and diseases, and regulation of vascular tone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231781/dynamic-autoregulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-measured-non-invasively-with-fast-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#4
Ashwin B Parthasarathy, Kimberly P Gannon, Wesley B Baker, Christopher G Favilla, Ramani Balu, Scott E Kasner, Arjun G Yodh, John A Detre, Michael T Mullen
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) maintains cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the presence of systemic blood pressure changes. Brain injury can cause loss of CA and resulting dysregulation of CBF, and the degree of CA impairment is a functional indicator of cerebral tissue health. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to noninvasively estimate cerebral autoregulation in healthy adult volunteers. The approach employs pulsatile CBF measurements obtained using high-speed diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). Rapid thigh-cuff deflation initiates a chain of responses that permits estimation of rates of dynamic autoregulation in the cerebral microvasculature...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210221/heart-rate-sensitive-optical-coherence-angiography-for-measuring-vascular-changes-due-to-posttraumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#5
Jordi L Tremoleda, Karl Alvarez, Abdirahman Aden, Robert Donnan, Adina T Michael-Titus, Peter H Tomlins
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in direct vascular disruption, triggering edema, and reduction in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of brain microcirculation following TBI is important for the development of effective therapies. Optical coherence angiography (OCA) is a promising tool for evaluating TBI in rodent models. We develop an approach to OCA that uses the heart-rate frequency to discriminate between static tissue and vasculature. This method operates on intensity data and is therefore not phase sensitive...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205172/a-data-driven-approach-for-addressing-the-lack-of-flow-waveform-data-in-studies-of-cerebral-arterial-flow-in-older-adults
#6
Michael J Durka, Isaac Hong Wong, David F Kallmes, Dario Pasalic, Fernando Mut, Manoj Jagani, Pablo J Blanco, Juan R Cebral, Anne M Robertson
Blood flow waveforms - essential data for hemodynamic modeling - are often in practice unavailable to researchers. The objectives of this work were to assess the variability among the waveforms for a clinically relevant older population, and develop data-based methods for addressing the missing waveform data for hemodynamic studies. Approach: We analyzed 272 flow waveforms from the internal carotid arteries of older patients (73±13 years) with moderate cardiovascular disease, and used these data to develop approaches to guide new approaches for hemodynamic studies...
December 5, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200907/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-and-plasticity-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-following-permanent-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion
#7
Kyung-Ok Cho, Seul-Ki Kim, Seong Yun Kim
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a group of heterogeneous diseases with the common feature of cerebral hypoperfusion. To identify key factors contributing to VaD pathophysiology, we performed a detailed comparison of Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). Eight-week old male Wistar and SD rats underwent BCCAo, followed by a reference memory test using a five-radial arm maze with tactile cues. Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was performed with a laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) system...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192858/head-up-display-may-facilitate-safe-keyhole-surgery-for-cerebral-aneurysm-clipping
#8
Terushige Toyooka, Naoki Otani, Kojiro Wada, Arata Tomiyama, Satoru Takeuchi, Kazuya Fujii, Kosuke Kumagai, Takashi Fujii, Kentaro Mori
OBJECTIVE The head-up display (HUD) is a modern technology that projects images or numeric information directly into the observer's sight line. Surgeons will no longer need to look away from the surgical view using the HUD system to confirm the preoperative or navigation image. The present study investigated the usefulness of the HUD system for performing cerebral aneurysm clipping surgeries. METHODS Thirty-five patients underwent clipping surgery, including 20 keyhole surgeries for unruptured cerebral aneurysm, using the HUD system...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190776/large-scale-identification-of-human-cerebrovascular-proteins-inter-tissue-and-intracerebral-vascular-protein-diversity
#9
Soo Jung Lee, Soonhyung Kwon, John R Gatti, Ejona Korcari, Ty E Gresser, Princess C Felix, Simon G Keep, Kevin C Pasquale, Tongxu Bai, Sabrina A Blanchett-Anderson, Nancy W Wu, Charissa Obeng-Nyarko, Kossi M Senagbe, Kathy C Young, Snehaa Maripudi, Bharath C Yalavarthi, Dajana Korcari, Andre Y Liu, Benjamin C Schaffler, Richard F Keep, Michael M Wang
The human cerebrovascular system is responsible for regulating demand-dependent perfusion and maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In addition, defects in the human cerebrovasculature lead to stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vascular malformations, and vascular cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to discover new proteins of the human cerebrovascular system using expression data from the Human Protein Atlas, a large-scale project which allows public access to immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166803/oxidative-stress-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-role-of-reactive-species
#10
Cezary Grochowski, Jakub Litak, Piotr Kamieniak, Ryszard Maciejewski
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a wide term describing the condition affecting perforating arterial branches as well as arterioles, venules and capillaries. Cerebral vascular net is one of the main targets of localized oxidative stress processes causing damage to vasculature, changes in the blood flow and blood-brain barrier and, in consequence, promoting neurodegenerative alterations in the brain tissue. Numerous studies report the fact of oxidation to proteins, sugars, lipids and nucleic acids, occurring in most neurodegenerative diseases mainly in the earliest stages and correlations with the development of cognitive and motor disturbances...
November 22, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160735/up-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-is-accompanied-with-vascular-repair-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Mohsen Baghchechi, Mary Hamer, Mark Walsworth, Virginia Donovan, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Andre Obenaus
Recent data suggest that repairing the cerebral vasculature after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may help to improve functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation during vascular development, but its role in vascular repair after TBI remains elusive. In this study, we examined how the cerebral vasculature responds to TBI and the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vascular repair. We induced a moderate controlled cortical impact in adult mice and performed vessel painting to visualize the vascular alterations in the brain...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158223/tgf-%C3%AE-induces-oncofetal-fibronectin-which-in-turn-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#12
Elisa Ventura, Michael Weller, Will Macnair, Katja Eschbach, Christian Beisel, Cinzia Cordazzo, Manfred Claassen, Luciano Zardi, Isabel Burghardt
Gene splicing profiles are frequently altered in cancer, and the splice variants of fibronectin (FN) containing the extra-domains A (EDA) and B (EDB) referred to as EDA+FN and EDB+FN are highly up-regulated in tumor vasculature. TGF-β signaling has been attributed a pivotal role in glioblastoma, with TGF-β promoting angiogenesis and vessel remodeling. By immunohistochemical staining, we observed that the oncofetal FN isoforms EDA+FN and EDB+FN are expressed in glioblastoma vasculature. Ex vivo single cell gene expression profiling of patients' tumors using the markers CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) respectively confirmed the predominant expression of FN, EDA+FN, and EDB+FN in the vascular compartment of glioblastoma...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157263/ldl-receptor-blockade-reduces-mortality-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischaemic-stroke-without-improving-tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-towards-pre-clinical-simulation-of-symptomatic-ich
#13
Be'eri Niego, Brad R S Broughton, Heidi Ho, Christopher G Sobey, Robert L Medcalf
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH...
November 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154893/an-interleaved-sequence-for-simultaneous-magnetic-resonance-angiography-mra-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-swi-and-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-qsm
#14
Yongsheng Chen, Saifeng Liu, Sagar Buch, Jiani Hu, Yan Kang, E Mark Haacke
PURPOSE: To image the entire vasculature of the brain with complete suppression of signal from background tissue using a single 3D excitation interleaved rephased/dephased multi-echo gradient echo sequence. This ensures no loss of signal from fast flow and provides co-registered susceptibility weighted images (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM) from the same scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The suppression of background tissue was accomplished by subtracting the flow-dephased images from the flow-rephased images with the same echo time of 12...
November 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152380/wide-field-three-photon-excitation-in-biological-samples
#15
Christopher J Rowlands, Demian Park, Oliver T Bruns, Kiryl D Piatkevich, Dai Fukumura, Rakesh K Jain, Moungi G Bawendi, Edward S Boyden, Peter Tc So
Three-photon wide-field depth-resolved excitation is used to overcome some of the limitations in conventional point-scanning two- and three-photon microscopy. Excitation of chromophores as diverse as channelrhodopsins and quantum dots is shown, and a penetration depth of more than 700 μm into fixed scattering brain tissue is achieved, approximately twice as deep as that achieved using two-photon wide-field excitation. Compatibility with live animal experiments is confirmed by imaging the cerebral vasculature of an anesthetized mouse; a complete focal stack was obtained without any evidence of photodamage...
May 5, 2017: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151361/magnesium-sulfate-and-ophthalmic-artery-doppler-velocimetry-in-patients-with-severe-preeclampsia-a-case-series
#16
Cristiane Alves Oliveira, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sa, Karina Vieira Zamprogno, Fabio Gutierrez da Matta, Flávia do Vale Araújo
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we used Doppler velocimetry in the ophthalmic artery to evaluate the hemodynamic status of the intracranial vasculature. This is the first time in the literature that indices of ophthalmic artery Doppler sonography of women with preeclampsia were evaluated before and after the use of magnesium sulfate to prevent eclampsia. CASE PRESENTATION: Indices of ophthalmic artery Doppler sonography of six women with severe preeclampsia at 27 to 33 weeks of gestational age were evaluated before and after the use of magnesium sulfate (10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after the magnesium sulfate loading dosage...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150274/neuroprotective-potential-of-high-dose-biotin
#17
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation - 100 mg, three times daily - has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin's essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharmacological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and on Schwann cell production of neurotrophic factors thought to have potential for managing MS...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146434/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-endovascular-reperfusion-therapy-in-a-patient-with-acute-internal-carotid-artery-and-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusions
#18
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Shoji Matsumoto, Mitsushige Ando, Hideo Chihara, Atsushi Tsujimoto, Taketo Hatano
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is known to be a rare but devastating complication of carotid artery revascularization. Because patients with acute ischemic stroke due to acute major cerebral and/or cervical artery occlusion treated with endovascular reperfusion therapy may have impaired autoregulation in the cerebral vasculature, these patients may also develop CHS. Despite the growing number of endovascular reperfusion procedures for acute ischemic stroke, this complication has only rarely been reported...
November 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142240/robust-segmentation-of-the-full-cerebral-vasculature-in-4d-ct-of-suspected-stroke-patients
#19
Midas Meijs, Ajay Patel, Sil C van de Leemput, Mathias Prokop, Ewoud J van Dijk, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Frederick J A Meijer, Bram van Ginneken, Rashindra Manniesing
A robust method is presented for the segmentation of the full cerebral vasculature in 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT). The method consists of candidate vessel selection, feature extraction, random forest classification and postprocessing. Image features include among others the weighted temporal variance image and parameters, including entropy, of an intensity histogram in a local region at different scales. These histogram parameters revealed to be a strong feature in the detection of vessels regardless of shape and size...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133005/correlation-between-contrast-time-density-time-on-digital-subtraction-angiography-and-flow-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Denise Brunozzi, Sophia F Shakur, Rahim Ismail, Andreas Linninger, Chih-Yang Hsu, Fady T Charbel, Ali Alaraj
BACKGROUND: and Purpose Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides an excellent anatomic characterization of cerebral vasculature, but hemodynamic assessment is often qualitative and subjective. Various clinical algorithms have been produced to semi-quantify flow from data obtained from DSA, but few have tested these against reliable flow values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An arched flow model was created and injected with contrast. 17 injections were acquired in anterior-posterior and lateral DSA projections, 4 injections were acquired in oblique projection...
November 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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