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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775413/human-cerebral-collateral-arteriole-function-in-normal-cognition-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-subjects
#1
Raymond Q Migrino, Seth Truran, Nina Karamanova, Geidy Serrano, Calvin Madrigal, Hannah A Davies, Jillian Madine, Peter Reaven, Thomas G Beach
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a link between cardiovascular disease and dementia disorders but the role of collateral brain circulation in cognitive dysfunction remains unknown. We aim to test the hypothesis that leptomeningeal arteriole (LMA) function and response to metabolic stressors differ among dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN) subjects. Following rapid autopsy, LMA were isolated from CN (N=10), MCI (N=12) or dementia subjects (N=42, Alzheimer's disease [AD], vascular dementia [VaD], or Other Dementia) and endothelial and smooth muscle-dependent function were measured at baseline and following exposure to β-amyloid (Aβ42 2 μM), palmitic acid (PA 150 μM) or medin (5μM) and compared...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774181/embolization-with-ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer-onyx-%C3%A2-for-peripheral-hemostatic-and-non-hemostatic-applications-a-feasibility-and-safety-study
#2
Romaric Né, Olivier Chevallier, Nicolas Falvo, Olivier Facy, Pierre-Emmanuel Berthod, Christophe Galland, Sophie Gehin, Marco Midulla, Romaric Loffroy
Background: Onyx® is a liquid embolic agent, which is approved for the treatment of cerebral vascular lesions but still rarely used in peripheral interventional radiology. The goal of this study is to report the feasibility and safety of embolization with Onyx® for peripheral hemostatic and non-hemostatic endovascular procedures. Methods: Retrospective study of all consecutive patients who underwent visceral or peripheral embolization with Onyx® for hemostatic or non-hemostatic purpose in our department between May 2014 and November 2016...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773488/identifying-the-myogenic-and-metabolic-components-of-cerebral-autoregulation
#3
S J Payne
Cerebral autoregulation is the term used to describe a number of mechanisms that act together to maintain a near constant cerebral blood flow in response to changes in arterial blood pressure. These mechanisms are complex and known to be affected in a range of cerebrovascular diseases. However, it can be difficult to assign an alteration in cerebral autoregulation to one of the underlying physiological mechanisms without the use of a complex mathematical model. In this paper, we thus set out a new approach that enables these mechanisms to be related to the autoregulation behaviour and hence inferred from experimental measurements...
May 14, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766452/a-novel-technique-for-visualizing-and-analyzing-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-rodents
#4
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Kara M Wendel, Mary Hamer, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Richard A DeFazio, Zinaida S Vexler, Andre Obenaus
We introduce a novel protocol to stain, visualize, and analyze blood vessels from the rat and mouse cerebrum. This technique utilizes the fluorescent dye, DiI, to label the lumen of the vasculature followed by perfusion fixation. Following brain extraction, the labeled vasculature is then imaged using wide-field fluorescence microscopy for axial and coronal images and can be followed by regional confocal microscopy. Axial and coronal images can be analyzed using classical angiographic methods for vessel density, length, and other features...
May 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765395/progressive-neurological-decline-with-deep-bilateral-imaging-changes-a-protean-presentation-of-dural-arteriovenous-fistulae
#5
Rene A Colorado, Marcelo Matiello, Hyun-Sik Yang, James D Rabinov, Aman Patel, Joshua A Hirsch, Ram Chavali, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) within the deep cerebral vasculature are diagnostically challenging because of their variable clinical presentation and typical bilateral neuroimaging findings mimicking inflammatory, infectious, and metabolic processes. Increasingly, reports have emerged highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges of these lesions and their associated high morbidity and rapid clinical deterioration when untreated. We describe here a case series of 4 patients with deep cerebral DAVF who presented with impaired arousal or memory and behavioral changes...
April 2018: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759062/inhibition-of-2-ag-hydrolysis-differentially-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-after-injury
#6
Justin R Piro, Georgette L Suidan, Jie Quan, YeQing Pi, Sharon M O'Neill, Marissa Ilardi, Nikolay Pozdnyakov, Thomas A Lanz, Hualin Xi, Robert D Bell, Tarek A Samad
BACKGROUND: Acute neurological insults caused by infection, systemic inflammation, ischemia, or traumatic injury are often associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) followed by infiltration of peripheral immune cells, cytotoxic proteins, and water. BBB breakdown and extravasation of these peripheral components into the brain parenchyma result in inflammation, oxidative stress, edema, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. These downstream consequences of BBB dysfunction can drive pathophysiological processes and play a substantial role in the morbidity and mortality of acute and chronic neurological insults, and contribute to long-term sequelae...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739276/corpus-callosum-vasculature-predicts-white-matter-microstructure-abnormalities-following-pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Kara M Wendel, Jeong Bin Lee, Bethann Affeldt, Mary Hamer, Indira S Harahap-Carrillo, Andrea C Pardo, Andre Obenaus
Emerging data suggest that pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with impaired developmental plasticity and poorer neuropsychological outcomes than adults with similar head injuries. Unlike adult mild TBI (mTBI), the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) microstructure and vascular supply are not well-understood in the pediatric population. The cerebral vasculature plays an important role providing necessary nutrients and removing waste. To address this critical element, we examined the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) following pediatric mTBI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated myelin, oligodendrocytes, and vasculature of WM with immunohistochemistry...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732225/cortical-blindness-and-altered-mental-status-following-routine-hemodialysis-a-case-of-iatrogenic-cerebral-air-embolism
#8
Lawrence Lau, Kory London
Cerebral air embolism is a known complication from a myriad of iatrogenic causes. This case describes a 60-year-old female presenting from hemodialysis with altered mental status, bilateral homonymous hemianopia, and repetitive speech. A noncontrast head CT revealed air in the vein of Galen and the deep cerebral veins of the left thalamus and occipital sulcus, a complication from air being introduced into the patient via improper flushing of dialysis tubing. The retrograde flow of air bubbles in the upright patient during dialysis was likely responsible for the air embolus lodging in the cerebral vasculature...
2018: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728120/il-33-st2-plays-a-critical-role-in-endothelial-cell-activation-and-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-modulation
#9
Kelei Cao, Xiang Liao, Jiahui Lu, Shu Yao, Fengjiao Wu, Xingxing Zhu, Dongyan Shi, Shuang Wen, Lixin Liu, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is increasingly being recognized as a key immunomodulatory cytokine in many neurological diseases. METHODS: In the present study, wild-type (WT) and IL-33-/- mice received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce neuroinflammation. Intravital microscopy was employed to examine leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the brain vasculature. The degree of neutrophil infiltration was determined by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726777/surgical-outcomes-after-reoperation-for-recurrent-skull-base-meningiomas
#10
Stephen T Magill, David S Lee, Adam J Yen, Calixto-Hope G Lucas, David R Raleigh, Manish K Aghi, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael W McDermott
OBJECTIVE Skull base meningiomas are surgically challenging tumors due to the intricate skull base anatomy and the proximity of cranial nerves and critical cerebral vasculature. Many studies have reported outcomes after primary resection of skull base meningiomas; however, little is known about outcomes after reoperation for recurrent skull base meningiomas. Since reoperation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent meningioma, the authors sought to define the risk profile for reoperation of skull base meningiomas...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725820/cadasil-brain-vessels-show-a-htra1-loss-of-function-profile
#11
Andreas Zellner, Eva Scharrer, Thomas Arzberger, Chio Oka, Valérie Domenga-Denier, Anne Joutel, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Stephan A Müller, Martin Dichgans, Christof Haffner
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and a phenotypically similar recessive condition (CARASIL) have emerged as important genetic model diseases for studying the molecular pathomechanisms of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). CADASIL, the most frequent and intensely explored monogenic SVD, is characterized by a severe pathology in the cerebral vasculature including the mutation-induced aggregation of the Notch3 extracellular domain (Notch3ECD ) and the formation of protein deposits of insufficiently determined composition in vessel walls...
May 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721358/mirror-image-of-bilateral-daca-aneurysm-with-its-successful-surgical-management
#12
Saraj K Singh, Kapil Jain, Vijendra K Jain, Arun Saroha
Background: Among various locations of intracranial aneurysms reported in the literature, two different aneurysms situated symmetrically opposite on bilateral distal anterior cerebral arteries (DACA) are very rare. Case Description: Here, we report a rare case of mirror image distal anterior cerebral aneurysm in a middle-aged male patient. The patient presented with severe headache and loss of consciousness. Angiography was done which suggested mirror imaging of two aneurysms located over both DACA...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705580/impaired-function-of-cerebral-parenchymal-arterioles-in-experimental-preeclampsia
#13
Abbie C Johnson, Marilyn J Cipolla
Preeclampsia (PE), a dangerous hypertensive complication of pregnancy, is associated with widespread maternal vascular dysfunction. However, the effect of PE on the cerebral vasculature that can lead to stroke and cognitive decline is not well understood. We hypothesized that function of cortical parenchymal arterioles (PAs) would be impaired during PE. Using a high cholesterol diet to induce experimental PE in rats (ePE), we studied the function and structure of isolated and pressurized PAs supplying frontoparietal WM tracts and cortex and compared to normal pregnant (Preg) and nonpregnant (Nonpreg) Sprague Dawley rats (n = 8/group)...
April 26, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691787/the-role-of-circle-of-willis-anatomy-variations-in-cardio-embolic-stroke-a-patient-specific-simulation-based-study
#14
Debanjan Mukherjee, Neel D Jani, Jared Narvid, Shawn C Shadden
We describe a patient-specific simulation based investigation on the role of Circle of Willis anatomy in cardioembolic stroke. Our simulation framework consists of medical image-driven modeling of patient anatomy including the Circle, 3D blood flow simulation through patient vasculature, embolus transport modeling using a discrete particle dynamics technique, and a sampling based approach to incorporate parametric variations. A total of 24 (four patients and six Circle anatomies including the complete Circle) models were considered, with cardiogenic emboli of varying sizes and compositions released virtually and tracked to compute distribution to the brain...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689412/non-invasive-through-skull-brain-vascular-imaging-and-small-tumor-diagnosis-based-on-nir-ii-emissive-lanthanide-nanoprobes-beyond-1500-nm
#15
Zhenluan Xue, Songjun Zeng, Jianhua Hao
Optical bioimaging by using the new short-wavelength infrared window (SWIR, also named as NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is emerged as a next generation imaging technique for disease diagnosis owing to the unprecedented improvements in imaging sensitivity and spatial resolution. However, it is challenging to search new imaging agents with highly biocompatible and bright narrow-band emission located in the 1500-1700 nm (referred as NIR-IIb) region. Here we developed high quality polyacrylic acid (PAA) modified NaYF4 :Gd/Yb/Er nanorods (PAA-NRs) with remarkably enhanced NIR-IIb emission and decent bio-compatibility for in vivo cerebral vascular bioimaging and small tumor visualization...
April 17, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688865/brain-vascular-heterogeneity-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis-and-design-of-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-models
#16
REVIEW
Midrelle E Noumbissi, Bianca Galasso, Monique F Stins
The vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CEC). The BBB acts as a semi-permeable cellular interface that tightly regulates bidirectional molecular transport between blood and the brain parenchyma in order to maintain cerebral homeostasis. The CEC phenotype is regulated by a variety of factors, including cells in its immediate environment and within functional neurovascular units. The cellular composition of the brain parenchyma surrounding the CEC varies between different brain regions; this difference is clearly visible in grey versus white matter...
April 23, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686642/efficacy-of-novel-carbon-nanoparticle-antioxidant-therapy-in-a-severe-model-of-reversible-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke-in-acutely-hyperglycemic-rats
#17
Roderic H Fabian, Paul J Derry, Harriett Charmaine Rea, William V Dalmeida, Lizanne G Nilewski, William K A Sikkema, Pitchaiah Mandava, Ah-Lim Tsai, Kimberly Mendoza, Vladimir Berka, James M Tour, Thomas A Kent
Introduction: While oxidative stress can be measured during transient cerebral ischemia, antioxidant therapies for ischemic stroke have been clinically unsuccessful. Many antioxidants are limited in their range and/or capacity for quenching radicals and can generate toxic intermediates overwhelming depleted endogenous protection. We developed a new antioxidant class, 40 nm × 2 nm carbon nanoparticles, hydrophilic carbon clusters, conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) termed PEG-HCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686555/diagnosing-deep-cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#18
Usaamah Mahmood Khan, Crystal S Janani, Marian P LaMonte
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a relatively rare vascular disorder involving the formation of a thrombus in the venous system of the cerebral vasculature. The nonspecificity of clinical symptoms seen with CVT elicits significant diagnostic challenges with the potential of serious morbidity and mortality associated with delays in therapeutic intervention. We present a case of CVT in a young patient who presented with loss of consciousness with no headache or focal deficits, the usual type of presentation...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681010/impaired-tissue-barriers-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Xin Fang
The blood-brain barrier and the intestinal barrier show signs of disruption in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and animal models of nigrostriatal degeneration, and likewise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) models. A substantial body of evidence shows that defects in epithelial membrane barriers, both in the gut and within the cerebral vasculature, can result in increased vulnerability of tissues to external factors potentially participating in the pathogenesis of PD and ALS. As such, restoration of tissue barriers may prove to be a novel therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disease...
April 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680470/modelling-dynamic-changes-in-blood-flow-and-volume-in-the-cerebral-vasculature
#20
S J Payne, W K El-Bouri
The cerebral microvasculature plays a key role in the transport of blood and the delivery of nutrients to the cells that perform brain function. Although recent advances in experimental imaging techniques mean that its structure and function can be interrogated to very small length scales, allowing individual vessels to be mapped to a fraction of 1 μm, these techniques currently remain confined to animal models. In-vivo human data can only be obtained at a much coarser length scale, of order 1 mm, meaning that mathematical models of the microvasculature play a key role in interpreting flow and metabolism data...
April 19, 2018: NeuroImage
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