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cerebral vasculature

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734812/quantitative-retinal-vascular-changes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Jessica Y Tong, Mojtaba Golzan, Dana Georgevsky, Jonathan P Williamson, Stuart L Graham, Claude S Farah, Clare L Fraser
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between both static and dynamic retinal vascular caliber and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing diagnostic polysomnography studies at a private Australian university teaching hospital were recruited. OSA severity was defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): severe >30, moderate >15-30, mild 5-15, and controls <5...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733907/multiple-intracranial-aneurysms-a-direct-hemodynamic-comparison-between-ruptured-and-unruptured-vessel-malformations
#2
Philipp Berg, Oliver Beuing
PURPOSE: Despite numerous studies addressing the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms that have been published, the assessment thereof still remains challenging. Image-based simulations enable a precise prediction of patient-specific blood flow information. However, those approaches normally consider only small segments of the complete cerebral vasculature. METHODS: To test the validity of the consideration of single aneurysms in one computational setup, domains of the complete anterior and posterior circulations with multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIA) were simulated...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731570/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-and-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-of-the-cerebral-vasculature-using-ferumoxytol
#3
Saifeng Liu, Jean-Christophe Brisset, Jiani Hu, E Mark Haacke, Yulin Ge
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the potential of imaging cerebral arteries and veins with ferumoxytol using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationships between ferumoxytol concentration and the apparent susceptibility at 1.5T, 3T, and 7T were determined using phantom data; the ability of visualizing subvoxel vessels was evaluated using simulations; and the feasibility of using ferumoxytol to enhance the visibility of small vessels was confirmed in three healthy volunteers at 7T(with doses 1 mg/kg to 4 mg/kg)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724595/hypertensive-encephalopathy-mimicking-cerebral-vasculitis-with-pontine-oedema-cerebellar-white-matter-lesions-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions
#4
Daniela Ceccarelli, David Hargroves, Ibrahim Balogun, Thomas Webb
A 47-year-old man with poorly controlled hypertension presented with headaches, right-sided weakness and dysarthria. CT and MRI scans of the brain showed widespread abnormalities including significant pontine oedema, basal ganglia and corona radiata infarctions and cerebellar white matter high signal. Imaging of the intracerebral vasculature also demonstrated wall irregularities. Initially a central nervous system inflammatory disorder was thought to be the most likely diagnosis, possibly acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis or cerebral vasculitis, and the patient was treated with high-dose intravenous steroids...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719062/immersive-virtual-reality-as-a-teaching-tool-for-neuroanatomy
#5
Katelyn Stepan, Joshua Zeiger, Stephanie Hanchuk, Anthony Del Signore, Raj Shrivastava, Satish Govindaraj, Alfred Iloreta
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and interactive virtual reality (VR) simulation are validated teaching techniques used throughout medical disciplines. Little objective data exists supporting its use in teaching clinical anatomy. Learner motivation is thought to limit the rate of utilization of such novel technologies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness, satisfaction, and motivation associated with immersive VR simulation in teaching medical students neuroanatomy...
July 18, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709836/rupture-and-release-a-role-for-soluble-erythrocyte-content-in-the-pathology-of-cerebral-malaria
#6
Julio Gallego-Delgado, Ana Rodriguez
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe form of malaria and causes high associated mortality. We propose a multistep process for CM pathology that is initiated by cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to the brain vasculature, followed by rupture and release of contents that complete the disruption of the blood-brain barrier.
July 11, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694612/cerebral-and-coronary-vasculature-in-disease-associations-and-dissociations-in-the-south-indian-population
#7
Krishnan Srinivasan, Srinivasan Ravikumar, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Selva Ganapathy, G S Ravi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute the most common cause of disability all over the world. In India prevalence rate is 545 per 100000 and mortality rate is around 7.5 per thousand. Therefore the authors undertook a study on patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). They were investigated for clinical and/or radiological evidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) with the aim to decide on early neurological intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 210 patients who had undergone CABG were evaluated with neck vessel Doppler using high resolution duplex scanner system and computed tomography (CT) scan as well as MR angiogram (MRA) in addition to assessment of co morbid risk factors...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694213/a-general-protocol-of-ultra-high-resolution-mr-angiography-to-image-the-cerebro-vasculature-in-6-different-rats-strains-at-high-field
#8
Géraldine Pastor, María Jiménez-González, Sandra Plaza-García, Marta Beraza, Daniel Padro, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Torsten Reese
BACKGROUND: Differences in the cerebro-vasculature among strains as well as individual animals might explain variability in animal models and thus, a non-invasive method tailored to image cerebral vessel of interest with high signal to noise ratio is required. NEW METHOD: Experimentally, we describe a new general protocol of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography to visualize non-invasively the cerebral vasculature in 6 different rat strains...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687168/evidence-based-anatomical-review-areas-derived-from-systematic-analysis-of-cases-from-a-radiological-departmental-discrepancy-meeting
#9
S C Chin, J R Weir-McCall, P M Yeap, R D White, M J Budak, G Duncan, T B Oliver, I A Zealley
AIM: To produce short checklists of specific anatomical review sites for different regions of the body based on the frequency of radiological errors reviewed at radiology discrepancy meetings, thereby creating "evidence-based" review areas for radiology reporting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single centre discrepancy database was retrospectively reviewed from a 5-year period. All errors were classified by type, modality, body system, and specific anatomical location...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674166/teaching-neuroimages-abnormal-cervical-and-cerebral-vasculature-in-22q11-deletion-syndrome
#10
Divakar S Mithal, Jonathan E Kurz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671120/neurovascular-specifications-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-alzheimer-like-brain-of-mice-affected-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-implications-for-future-therapies
#11
Dominik Michalski, Sarah Hofmann, Roman Pitsch, Jens Grosche, Wolfgang Härtig
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is a prototypical neurodegenerative disease, but shares with stroke certain common risk factors. Consequently, how vascular pathology may modulate AD pathogenesis has gained scientific attention. Therefore, aside from typical features of AD (e.g., amyloid-β, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cholinergic dysfunction), changes within the 'neurovascular unit' (NVU) are of particular interest. This study focused on cholinergic, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in association with the vasculature to explore the neurovascular complex of the AD brain affected by stroke...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669910/vascular-density-and-distribution-in-neocortex
#12
REVIEW
Franca Schmid, Matthew J P Barrett, Patrick Jenny, Bruno Weber
An amazingly wide range of complex behavior emerges from the cerebral cortex. Much of the information processing that leads to these behaviors is performed in neocortical circuits that span throughout the six layers of the cortex. Maintaining this circuit activity requires substantial quantities of oxygen and energy substrates, which are delivered by the complex yet well-organized and tightly-regulated vascular system. In this review, we provide a detailed characterization of the most relevant anatomical and functional features of the cortical vasculature...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668343/changes-in-arterial-cerebral-blood-volume-during-lower-body-negative-pressure-measured-with-mri
#13
Joseph R Whittaker, Molly G Bright, Ian D Driver, Adele Babic, Sharmila Khot, Kevin Murphy
Cerebral Autoregulation (CA), defined as the ability of the cerebral vasculature to maintain stable levels of blood flow despite changes in systemic blood pressure, is a critical factor in neurophysiological health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for investigating cerebrovascular function, offering high spatial resolution and wide fields of view (FOV), yet it is relatively underutilized as a tool for assessment of CA. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of using MRI to measure changes in cerebrovascular resistance in response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP)...
June 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667120/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-alters-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-pools-leading-to-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-microinfarcts-and-hemorrhages-in-tg-swdi-mice
#14
Natalia Salvadores, James L Searcy, Philip R Holland, Karen Horsburgh
Cerebral hypoperfusion is an early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that influences the progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Understanding the mechanism is of critical importance in the search for new effective therapies. We hypothesised that cerebral hypoperfusion promotes the accumulation of amyloid-β (Ab) and degenerative changes in the brain and is a potential mechanism contributing to development of dementia. To address this we studied the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral carotid artery stenosis on Ab peptide pools in a transgenic mouse model of AD (Tg-SwDI) at an age when fibrillar amyloid burden is minimal...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666915/dr-norman-chater-and-chater-s-point-a-historical-vignette
#15
REVIEW
Lauren E Rotman, Mark R Harrigan
Dr. Norman Chater, a University of California, San Francisco-trained microvascular neurosurgeon, dedicated his career to the development of surgical bypass techniques. His work contributed to advancements in microvascular anatomy and the development of cerebral revascularization techniques. He identified Chater's point, an extracranial landmark that marks the posterior extent of the Sylvian fissure, which upon craniectomy reliably exposes vessels of the angular gyrus, vasculature found to be most appropriate for bypass procedures due to their accessibility and vascular diameter...
June 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634267/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-vasculature
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
Since the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, it has become clear that MR is expressed in extra-renal tissues, including the cardiovascular system, where it is expressed in all cells of the vasculature. Understanding the role of MR in the vasculature has been of particular interest as clinical trials show that MR antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes out of proportion to changes in blood pressure. The last 30 years of research have demonstrated that MR is a functional hormone-activated transcription factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626075/sex-differences-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathophysiology-estrogen-and-androgen-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#17
Austin C Boese, Seong Chul Kim, Ke-Jie Yin, Jean-Pyo Lee, Milton H Hamblin
Sex differences between women and men are often overlooked and underappreciated when studying the cardiovascular system. It has been long assumed that men and women are physiologically similar, and this notion has resulted in females being clinically evaluated and treated for cardiovascular pathophysiological complications as males. Currently, there is increased recognition of fundamental sex differences in cardiovascular function, anatomy, cell signaling, and pathophysiology. NIH has enacted guidelines expressly to gain knowledge about ways the sexes differ in both normal function and diseases at the various research levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system)...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620564/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-child-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-a-tool-for-clinical-decision-making
#18
Jonathan Mayl, Hanisha Patel, Tushar Chandra
Moyamoya syndrome is a rare cerebrovasculopathy of unknown etiology which is associated with multiple risk factors. Moyamoya was first discovered in Japan and is reported to have an increased prevalence in the Japanese population. The term "Moyamoya" translates into "puff of smoke" and is named after the finding of the collateral cerebral vasculature that develops secondary to occlusion of an internal carotid artery at the entrance into the circle of Willis. This collateral vasculature characterizes the disease...
May 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616625/heterozygous-enos-deficient-mice-as-a-model-to-examine-the-effects-of-enos-haploinsufficiency-on-the-cerebral-circulation
#19
Sean P Didion
Nitric oxide derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been shown to be a major mediator of endothelium-dependent responses in cerebral blood vessels. Loss of a single eNOS gene is not associated with any apparent negative consequences on endothelial function in most blood vessels. In contrast, we have recently demonstrated that heterozygous eNOS gene deficiency in combination with a high fat diet is associated with marked impairment of endothelial function. These findings provide an important example of eNOS haploinsufficiency and one that directly impacts the cerebral vasculature...
2017: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599908/fluorescein-angiography-in-intracranial-aneurysm-surgery-a-helpful-method-to-evaluate-the-security-of-clipping-and-to-observe-blood-flow
#20
Cristian Kakucs, Ioan-Alexandru Florian, Gheorghe Ungureanu, Ioan-Stefan Florian
OBJECTIVE: In cerebral aneurysm surgery, a number of tools are employed to evaluate blood flow, such as Doppler ultrasonography, conventional cerebral angiography, and electrophysiological monitoring. Fluorescein and indocyanine green are widely used in vascular and central nervous system tumor neurosurgery. Nevertheless, their routine utilization in aneurysmal surgery is uncommon, despite the fact that they allow direct visualization of blood flow after an aneurysmal sac occlusion, enabling the observation of vessel permeability and the effectiveness of aneurysmal obliteration...
June 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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