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pillar fracture

Ishita Biswas, Ranajay Ghosh, Mohtada Sadrzadeh, Aloke Kumar
We investigated the failure of thick bacterial floc-mediated streamers in a microfluidic device with micropillars. It was found that streamers could fail due to the growth of voids in the biomass that originate near the pillar walls. The quantification of void growth was made possible by the use of 200 nm fluorescent polystyrene beads. The beads get trapped in the extracellular matrix of the streamer biomass and acted as tracers. Void growth time-scales could be characterized into short-time scales and long time-scales and the crack/void propagation showed several instances of fracture-arrest ultimately leading to a catastrophic failure of the entire streamer structure...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
J Bartoníček, M Tuček, J Malík
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to describe the anatomy of fractures of the inferior angle and the adjacent part of the scapular body, based on 3D CT reconstructions. METHOD: In a series of 375 scapular fractures, we identified a total of 20 fractures of the inferior angle of the scapular body (13 men, 7 women), with a mean patient age of 50 years (range 3373). In all fractures, 3D CT reconstructions were obtained, allowing an objective evaluation of the fracture pattern with a focus on the size and shape of the inferior angle fragment, propagation of the fracture line to the lateral and medial borders of the infraspinous part of the scapular body, fragment displacement and any additional fracture of the ipsilateral scapula and the shoulder girdle...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
J Bartonicek, D Klika, M Tucek
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to present, on the basis of 3D CT reconstructions of 187 of scapular body fractures, a clinically oriented classification respecting the biomechanical architecture of the scapula. METHODS: In a series of 375 scapula fractures we identified 187 body fractures in187 patients (157 men, 30 women) with the mean age of 48 years (range; 16100 years). 3D CT reconstructions were obtainedof all fractures, to allow an objective evaluation of the fracture pattern...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Mariana De Carlo Bello, Rafael Pillar, Pauline Mastella Lang, Carina Michelon, Ricardo Abreu da Rosa, Carlos Alexandre Souza Bier
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of dentinal defects and vertical root fractures (VRFs) after endodontic retreatment and mechanical cycling (MC). Methods and Materials: Two hundred mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (control group). The remaining 160 root canals were prepared with ProTaper instruments and filled by using two different techniques [eighty with lateral compaction (LC) and eighty with single-cone (SC)]...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
Saleh Alghamdi, Ting Tan, Christopher Hale-Sills, Floyd Vilmont, Tian Xia, Jie Yang, Dryver Huston, Mandar Dewoolkar
Nacre, a composite made from biogenic aragonite and proteins, exhibits excellent strength and toughness. Here, we show that nacreous sections can exhibit complete brittle fracture along the tablet interfaces at the proportional limit under pure shear stresses of torsion. We quantitatively separate the initial tablet sliding primarily resisted by nanoscale aragonite pillars from the following sliding resisted by various microscale toughening mechanisms. We postulate that the ductility of nacre can be limited by eliminating tablet interactions during crack propagations...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Zeeshan Mughal, Hugues-Yanis Amanieu, Riccardo Moscatelli, Marco Sebastiani
Accurate estimation of fracture behavior of commercial LiMn₂O₄ particles is of great importance to predict the performance and lifetime of a battery. The present study compares two different microscale techniques to quantify the fracture toughness of LiMn₂O₄ particles embedded in an epoxy matrix. The first technique uses focused ion beam (FIB) milled micro pillars that are subsequently tested using the nanoindentation technique. The pillar geometry, critical load at pillar failure, and cohesive FEM simulations are then used to compute the fracture toughness...
April 12, 2017: Materials
Jakob Schwiedrzik, Aidan Taylor, Daniele Casari, Uwe Wolfram, Philippe Zysset, Johann Michler
Bone features a hierarchical architecture combining antagonistic properties like toughness and strength. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to this advantageous combination, its postyield and failure behaviour was analyzed on the length scale of a single lamella. Micropillars were compressed to large strains under hydrated conditions to measure their anisotropic yield and post-yield behaviour. An increase in strength compared to the macroscale by a factor of 1.55 and a strong influence of hydration with a decrease by 60% in yield stress compared to vacuum conditions were observed...
July 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Thomas A Russell, Gerard Insley
This article focuses on the understanding of the biochemistry and surgical application of bone substitute materials (BSMs) and particularly the newer calcium phosphate materials that can form a structural orthobiologic matrix within the metaphyseal components of the periarticular bone. Six characteristics of BSMs are detailed that can be used as a guide for the proper selection and application of the optimal BSM type for periarticular fracture repair. These 6 characteristics of BSMs are divided into 2 pillars...
July 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Kausar Ali, Salvatore C Lettieri
Traumatic panfacial fracture repair is one of the most complex and challenging reconstructive procedures to perform. Several principles permeate throughout literature regarding the repair of panfacial injuries in a stepwise fashion. The primary goal of management in most of these approaches is to restore the occlusal relationship at the beginning of sequential repair so that other structures can fall into alignment. Through proper positioning of the occlusion and the mandibular-maxillary unit with the skull base, the spatial relationships and stability of midface buttresses and pillars can then be re-established...
May 2017: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
ByungDae Son, IlWon Seong, JunKyu Lee, JooHyun Shin, Heon Lee, WooYoung Yoon
A nanopillar-patterned Si substrate was fabricated by photolithography, and its potential as an anode material for Li ion secondary batteries was investigated. The Si nanopillar electrode showed a capacity of ∼3000 mAh g-1 during 100 charging/discharging cycles, with 98.3% capacity retention, and it was revealed that the nanopillars underwent delithiation via a process similar to shape-memory behavior. Despite the tensile stress and structural fractures resulting from repeated lithiation, the nanoscale size and residual crystalline tip of the pillar (influenced by the bulk crystalline Si base) enabled recrystallization and transformation into a single-crystalline phase...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Ana Cláudia Rossi, Justin A Ledogar, Amanda L Smith, Paul C Dechow, David S Strait, Tilman Voigt, Callum F Ross
The craniofacial skeleton is often described in the clinical literature as being comprised of vertical bony pillars, which transmit forces from the toothrow to the neurocranium as axial compressive stresses, reinforced transversely by buttresses. Here, we review the literature on bony microarchitecture, in vivo bone strain, and finite-element modeling of the facial skeleton of humans and nonhuman primates to address questions regarding the structural and functional existence of facial pillars and buttresses...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Norihiko L Okamoto, Shu Fujimoto, Yuki Kambara, Marino Kawamura, Zhenghao M T Chen, Hirotaka Matsunoshita, Katsushi Tanaka, Haruyuki Inui, Easo P George
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) comprise a novel class of scientifically and technologically interesting materials. Among these, equatomic CrMnFeCoNi with the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is noteworthy because its ductility and strength increase with decreasing temperature while maintaining outstanding fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report for the first time by single-crystal micropillar compression that its bulk room temperature critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) is ~33-43 MPa, ~10 times higher than that of pure nickel...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jessica C Rivera, Renee M Greer, Mary Ann Spott, Anthony E Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Military Orthopaedic Trauma Registry (MOTR) was designed to replicate the Department of Defense Trauma Registry's (DoDTR's) role as pillar for data-driven management of extremity war wounds. The MOTR continuously undergoes quality assurance checks to optimize the registry data for future quality improvement efforts. We conducted a quality assurance survey of MOTR entrants to determine if a simple MOTR data pull could provide robust orthopedic-specific information toward the question of causes for late amputation...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Prashant Pendyala, Harpreet S Grewal, Hong Nam Kim, Il-Joo Cho, Eui-Sung Yoon
Nanoscale patterns have dimensions that are comparable to the length scales affected by intermolecular and surface forces. In this study, we systematically investigated the individual roles of curvature, surface energy, lateral stiffness, material, and pattern density in the adhesion and friction of nanopatterns. We fabricated cylindrical and mushroom-shaped polymer pattern geometries containing flat- and round-topped morphologies using capillary force lithography and nanodrawing techniques. We showed that the curvature, surface energy, and density of the patterns predominantly influenced the adhesive interactions, whereas lateral stiffness dominated friction by controlling the geometrical interaction between the indenter and pillar during sliding...
November 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zenghua Li, Biao Kong, Aizhu Wei, Yongliang Yang, Yinbo Zhou, Lanzhun Zhang
Study on the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion is significant for controlling fire disasters due to coal spontaneous combustion. The free radical reactions can explain the chemical process of coal at low-temperature oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to measure the change rules of the different sorts and different granularity of coal directly; ESR spectroscopy chart of free radicals following the changes of temperatures was compared by the coal samples applying air and blowing nitrogen, original coal samples, dry coal samples, and demineralized coal samples...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
W Reith, N Harsch, C Kraus
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Patients who have experienced high energy trauma have a particularly high risk of suffering from fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The detection of spinal injuries and the correct classification of fractures before surgery are not only absolute requirements for the implementation of appropriate surgical treatment but they are also decisive for the choice of surgical procedure. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: By the application of spiral computed tomography (CT) crucial additional information on the morphology of the fracture can be gained in order to estimate the fracture type and possibly the indications for specific surgical treatment options...
August 2016: Der Radiologe
Fuqiang Gao, Wei Sun, Wanshou Guo, Bailiang Wang, Liming Cheng, Zirong Li
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) following femoral neck fractures is a rare, yet severe, disorder in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of core decompression (CD) combined with implantation of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) and rhBMP-2 for osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) after femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents. This study included 51 patients, aged 11.4-18.1 years, with ARCO stages I-III ONFH after femoral neck fractures between 2004 and 2010. The hips were divided into two groups based on whether the lateral pillar of the femoral head (LPFH) was preserved: LPFH and non-LPFH groups...
2016: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Zeeshan Mughal, Riccardo Moscatelli, Marco Sebastiani
Novel high speed nanoindentation data is reported for 0% and 100% state of charge (SoC) for the spinal Li x Mn2O4 material. The article also includes the load/displacement data for different SoC highlighting the displacement bursts corresponding to the pillar splitting for fracture toughness evaluation. For more details, please see the article; Mughal et al. (2016) [1].
September 2016: Data in Brief
Jessica C Rivera, Renee M Greer, Mary Ann Spott, Anthony E Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Military Orthopaedic Trauma Registry (MOTR) was designed to replicate the Department of Defense Trauma Registry's (DoDTR) role as pillar for data-driven management of extremity war wounds. MOTR continuously undergoes quality assurance checks to optimize the registry data for future quality improvement efforts. We conducted a quality assurance survey of MOTR entrants to determine if a simple MOTR data pull could provide robust orthopaedic specific information towards the question of causes for late amputation...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Michal Kyllar, Vaclav Paral, Martin Pyszko, Barbora Doskarova
This study describes the facial pillar system in dolichocephalic and brachycephalic breeds of dogs, and highlights its differences. Knowledge of facial pillar system anatomy is imperative to carry out successful fracture repair. The aim of our study was to describe the pillar system of the facial skeleton in dogs, and compare different shapes of dog skulls using native skulls, radiographs and computed tomography (CT). The heads of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs were investigated following a maceration process using trans-illumination, radiography and CT...
June 2017: Anatomical Science International
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