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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870351/review-of-in-vivo-bone-strain-studies-and-finite-element-models-of-the-zygomatic-complex-in-humans-and-nonhuman-primates-implications-for-clinical-research-and-practice
#1
Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Ana Cláudia Rossi, Justin A Ledogar, Amanda L Smith, Paul C Dechow, David S Strait, Tilman Voigt, Callum F Ross
The craniofacial skeleton is often described in the clinical literature as being comprised of vertical bony pillars, which transmit forces from the toothrow to the neurocranium as axial compressive stresses, reinforced transversely by buttresses. Here, we review the literature on bony microarchitecture, in vivo bone strain, and finite-element modeling of the facial skeleton of humans and nonhuman primates to address questions regarding the structural and functional existence of facial pillars and buttresses...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775026/size-effect-critical-resolved-shear-stress-stacking-fault-energy-and-solid-solution-strengthening-in-the-crmnfeconi-high-entropy-alloy
#2
Norihiko L Okamoto, Shu Fujimoto, Yuki Kambara, Marino Kawamura, Zhenghao M T Chen, Hirotaka Matsunoshita, Katsushi Tanaka, Haruyuki Inui, Easo P George
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) comprise a novel class of scientifically and technologically interesting materials. Among these, equatomic CrMnFeCoNi with the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is noteworthy because its ductility and strength increase with decreasing temperature while maintaining outstanding fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report for the first time by single-crystal micropillar compression that its bulk room temperature critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) is ~33-43 MPa, ~10 times higher than that of pure nickel...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768658/the-military-orthopedic-trauma-registry-the-potential-of-a-specialty-specific-process-improvement-tool
#3
Jessica C Rivera, Renee M Greer, Mary Ann Spott, Anthony E Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Military Orthopaedic Trauma Registry (MOTR) was designed to replicate the Department of Defense Trauma Registry's (DoDTR's) role as pillar for data-driven management of extremity war wounds. The MOTR continuously undergoes quality assurance checks to optimize the registry data for future quality improvement efforts. We conducted a quality assurance survey of MOTR entrants to determine if a simple MOTR data pull could provide robust orthopedic-specific information toward the question of causes for late amputation...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739687/individual-role-of-the-physicochemical-characteristics-of-nanopatterns-on-tribological-surfaces
#4
Prashant Pendyala, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Hong Nam Kim, Il-Joo Cho, Eui-Sung Yoon
Nanoscale patterns have dimensions that are comparable to the length scales affected by intermolecular and surface forces. In this study, we systematically investigated the individual roles of curvature, surface energy, lateral stiffness, material, pattern density on the characteristics of the adhesion and friction of nanopatterns. For this purpose, we used a combination of capillary force lithography and nanodrawing methods to fabricate cylindrical and mushroom-shaped pillars with flat- and round-top morphologies...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614647/free-radical-reaction-characteristics-of-coal-low-temperature-oxidation-and-its-inhibition-method
#5
Zenghua Li, Biao Kong, Aizhu Wei, Yongliang Yang, Yinbo Zhou, Lanzhun Zhang
Study on the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion is significant for controlling fire disasters due to coal spontaneous combustion. The free radical reactions can explain the chemical process of coal at low-temperature oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to measure the change rules of the different sorts and different granularity of coal directly; ESR spectroscopy chart of free radicals following the changes of temperatures was compared by the coal samples applying air and blowing nitrogen, original coal samples, dry coal samples, and demineralized coal samples...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488620/-trauma-of-the-lumbar-spine-and-the-thoracolumbar-junction
#6
W Reith, N Harsch, C Kraus
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Patients who have experienced high energy trauma have a particularly high risk of suffering from fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The detection of spinal injuries and the correct classification of fractures before surgery are not only absolute requirements for the implementation of appropriate surgical treatment but they are also decisive for the choice of surgical procedure. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: By the application of spiral computed tomography (CT) crucial additional information on the morphology of the fracture can be gained in order to estimate the fracture type and possibly the indications for specific surgical treatment options...
August 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477836/combined-with-bone-marrow-derived-cells-and-rhbmp-2-for-osteonecrosis-after-femoral-neck-fractures-in-children-and-adolescents-a-case-series
#7
Fuqiang Gao, Wei Sun, Wanshou Guo, Bailiang Wang, Liming Cheng, Zirong Li
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) following femoral neck fractures is a rare, yet severe, disorder in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of core decompression (CD) combined with implantation of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) and rhBMP-2 for osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) after femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents. This study included 51 patients, aged 11.4-18.1 years, with ARCO stages I-III ONFH after femoral neck fractures between 2004 and 2010. The hips were divided into two groups based on whether the lateral pillar of the femoral head (LPFH) was preserved: LPFH and non-LPFH groups...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331088/load-displacement-and-high-speed-nanoindentation-data-set-at-different-state-of-charge-soc-for-spinel-li-x-mn2o4-cathodes
#8
Muhammad Zeeshan Mughal, Riccardo Moscatelli, Marco Sebastiani
Novel high speed nanoindentation data is reported for 0% and 100% state of charge (SoC) for the spinal Li x Mn2O4 material. The article also includes the load/displacement data for different SoC highlighting the displacement bursts corresponding to the pillar splitting for fracture toughness evaluation. For more details, please see the article; Mughal et al. (2016) [1].
September 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244577/the-military-orthopaedic-trauma-registry-the-potential-of-a-specialty-specific-process-improvement-tool
#9
Jessica C Rivera, Renee M Greer, Mary Ann Spott, Anthony E Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Military Orthopaedic Trauma Registry (MOTR) was designed to replicate the Department of Defense Trauma Registry's (DoDTR) role as pillar for data-driven management of extremity war wounds. MOTR continuously undergoes quality assurance checks to optimize the registry data for future quality improvement efforts. We conducted a quality assurance survey of MOTR entrants to determine if a simple MOTR data pull could provide robust orthopaedic specific information towards the question of causes for late amputation...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015686/facial-pillars-in-dogs-an-anatomical-study
#10
Michal Kyllar, Vaclav Paral, Martin Pyszko, Barbora Doskarova
This study describes the facial pillar system in dolichocephalic and brachycephalic breeds of dogs, and highlights its differences. Knowledge of facial pillar system anatomy is imperative to carry out successful fracture repair. The aim of our study was to describe the pillar system of the facial skeleton in dogs, and compare different shapes of dog skulls using native skulls, radiographs and computed tomography (CT). The heads of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs were investigated following a maceration process using trans-illumination, radiography and CT...
March 25, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953827/reducing-ice-adhesion-on-nonsmooth-metallic-surfaces-wettability-and-topography-effects
#11
Edwin Jee Yang Ling, Victor Uong, Jean-Sébastien Renault-Crispo, Anne-Marie Kietzig, Phillip Servio
The effects of ice formation and accretion on external surfaces range from being mildly annoying to potentially life-threatening. Ice-shedding materials, which lower the adhesion strength of ice to its surface, have recently received renewed research attention as a means to circumvent the problem of icing. In this work, we investigate how surface wettability and surface topography influence the ice adhesion strength on three different surfaces: (i) superhydrophobic laser-inscribed square pillars on copper, (ii) stainless steel 316 Dutch-weave meshes, and (iii) multiwalled carbon nanotube-covered steel meshes...
April 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620642/comminuted-c2-articular-pillar-fracture-in-a-patient-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-recurrent-falls
#12
Josiah D Sault, James M Elliott
The patient was a 60-year-old woman, with long-standing balance deficits due to multiple sclerosis, referred to physical therapy by her primary care physician secondary to increasing fall frequency. Following evaluation, the physical therapist escorted the patient to her primary care physician's office, where a computed tomography scan was immediately performed, revealing a comminuted C2 articular pillar fracture.
December 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514215/intrapelvic-acetabulum-surgery-does-the-positioning-of-the-plate-fixation-play-a-role-in-the-stability-of-the-osteosynthesis
#13
Gergely Sztrinkai, Tamás Bodzay, Benjámin Madarász, Gergely Zoltán, Tamás Gál, Károly Váradi
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether positioning of the plate fixation plays a role in the stability of the osteosynthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used finite element modelling to model an anterior pillar fracture and a T-type fracture of the acetabulum. Fracture fixation was carried out in three different variations: cranially positioned plate, medially positioned plate, and a combination of the two methods. In all cases, 3-3 screws were inserted on both ends of the plate to fix the fracture...
2015: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26502352/trans-endplate-pedicle-pillar-system-in-unstable-spinal-burst-fractures-design-technique-and-mechanical-evaluation
#14
Chunfeng Zhao, Michio Hongo, Brice Ilharreborde, Kristin D Zhao, Bradford L Currier, Kai-Nan An
BACKGROUND: Short-segment pedicle screw instrumentation (SSPI) is used for unstable burst fractures to correct deformity and stabilize the spine for fusion. However, pedicle screw loosening, pullout, or breakage often occurs due to the large moment applied during spine motion, leading to poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of a newly designed device, the Trans-Endplate Pedicle Pillar System (TEPPS), to enhance SSPI rigidity and decrease the screw bending moment with a simple posterior approach...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26488215/orthogonal-control-of-stability-and-tunable-dry-adhesion-by-tailoring-the-shape-of-tapered-nanopillar-arrays
#15
Younghyun Cho, Gyuseok Kim, Yigil Cho, Su Yeon Lee, Helen Minsky, Kevin T Turner, Daniel S Gianola, Shu Yang
Tapered nanopillar structures of different cross-sectional geometries including cone-, pencil-like, and stepwise are prepared from anodized aluminum oxide templates. The shape effect on the adhesion strength is investigated in experiments and simulation. Cone-shaped nanopillars are highly bendable under load and can recover after unloading, thus, warranting high adhesion strength, 34 N cm(-2) . The pencil-like and stepwise nano-pillars are, however, easily fractured and are not recoverable under the same conditions...
December 16, 2015: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478644/analyses-of-geological-and-hydrodynamic-controls-on-methane-emissions-experienced-in-a-lower-kittanning-coal-mine
#16
C Özgen Karacan, Gerrit V R Goodman
This paper presents a study assessing potential factors and migration paths of methane emissions experienced in a room-and-pillar mine in Lower Kittanning coal, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Methane emissions were not excessive at idle mining areas, but significant methane was measured during coal mining and loading. Although methane concentrations in the mine did not exceed 1% limit during operation due to the presence of adequate dilution airflow, the source of methane and its migration into the mine was still a concern...
August 1, 2012: International Journal of Coal Geology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26405951/evaluating-formability-of-lcp-plate-for-sacral-fractures-with-one-step-inverse-forming-finite-element-analysis
#17
Xiaoda Li, Xiangkui Zhang, Ping Hu, Weijie Liu, Guozhe Shen, Xianghui Zhan
The locking compression plate fixation treatment for the unstable sacral fractures is simple and effective, with less trauma and complications. Some locking compression plate parts have been made of high-strength Plate manufactured by hot stamping process since the demand for lightweight biomedical materials. Finite Element (FE) method of One-Step inverse forming based on deformation theory is the tool to evaluate the formability of locking compression plate panel quickly in initial design for reducing costs and development cycle of Plate...
2015: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26399103/-radiographic-analysis-of-the-osseous-fixation-zone-for-the-iliac-crest-external-fixation-with-schanz-screws
#18
Cai Hong-min, You-wen Liu, Hong-jun Li, Xue-jian Wu, Wei-feng Duan, Wu-yin Li
OBJECTIVE: To radiographically analyze the osseous fixation zone for the iliac crest external fixation with Schanz screws and in order to guide their placement. METHODS: Nine adults with 2.0-mm-slice continuous pelvic axial CT scans were selected as research subjects. Each CT scan data was imported into MIMICS 10.0. The osseous fixation zone the upper portion of the anterior column of the acetabulum which is located between the anterior superior iliac spine and the gluteal medius pillar and between the iliac crest and the acetabulum-for the iliac crest external fixation with Schanz screws was reconstructed into true sagittal and true coronal planes by using the software...
July 2015: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322958/mechanical-properties-of-molybdenum-disulfide-and-the-effect-of-doping-an-in-situ-tem-study
#19
Aleksander A Tedstone, David J Lewis, Rui Hao, Shi-Min Mao, Pascal Bellon, Robert S Averback, Christopher P Warrens, Kevin R West, Philip Howard, Sander Gaemers, Shen J Dillon, Paul O'Brien
Direct observations on nanopillars composed of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and chromium-doped MoS2 and their response to compressive stress have been made. Time-resolved transmission electron microscopy (TEM) during compression of the submicrometer diameter pillars of MoS2- and Cr-doped MoS2 (Cr: 0, 10, and 50 at %) allow the deformation process of the material to be observed and can be directly correlated with mechanical response to applied load. The addition of chromium to the MoS2 changed the failure mode from plastic deformation to catastrophic brittle fracture, an effect that was more pronounced as chromium content increased...
September 23, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286076/-proximal-femoral-fractures-in-the-elderly
#20
REVIEW
Carl Neuerburg, M Gosch, W Böcker, M Blauth, C Kammerlander
Proximal femoral fractures represent an increasing major healthcare problem due to the demographic changes in this aging population and are associated with the highest mortality among fractures in elderly patients after suffering insufficiency injuries (so-called fragility fractures). The main aim in the treatment of orthogeriatric patients who suffered from a proximal femoral fracture is the preservation of function and independency. Given the high prevalence of comorbidities in these patients, interdisciplinary and interprofessional approaches are required...
October 2015: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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