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Upper Urinary Tract Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878040/effect-of-contrast-media-on-urinary-cytopathology-specimens
#1
Sebastian Frees, Samir Bidnur, Michael Metcalfe, Peter Raven, Claudia Chavez-Munoz, Igor Moskalev, Ladan Fazli, Alan So
INTRODUCTION: Urological dogma dictates that washings collected from the urinary tract for cytological assessment must be performed without interference from contrast agents that may alter cellular integrity and diagnostic interpretation. In practice, the initial contrast used to outline the upper tracts is commonly discarded with subsequent saline washings sent for cytology. We hypothesize that contrast washings do not affect the morphology of urothelial carcinoma cells or the integrity of cytology interpretation...
August 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870887/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-ki-67-as-predictive-biomarkers-identify-patients-who-will-be-more-sensitive-to-intravesical-instillations-for-the-prevention-of-bladder-cancer-recurrence-after-radical-nephroureterectomy
#2
Xingbo Long, Xiongbing Zu, Yuan Li, Wei He, Xiheng Hu, Shiyu Tong, Zhi Wang, Minfeng Chen, Lin Qi
BACKGROUND: To date, prophylactic intravesical chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy is one of the few available treatments that effectively prevent secondary bladder cancer. However, treating all patients with prophylactic intravesical chemotherapy is excessive for patients who are at a low risk or insensitive to the treatment. Thus, to guide individualized clinical treatment, in addition to identifying patients who are at risk of bladder cancer recurrence, it is equally necessary to identify the patients who will benefit the most from prophylactic, postoperative intravesical instillation therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868098/neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-ureter-a-zebra-among-horses
#3
Akshay Sood, Sean R Williamson, David A Leavitt
Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the upper urinary tract are extremely rare. We report a case of de novo small cell carcinoma of the ureter that presented masquerading as a distal ureteral stone. A 55-year-old lady presented to our clinic with 1 month history of right lower back pain and hematuria. Her history was notable for stage 1B mixed clear cell-endometroid cancer of the uterus status post radical abdominal hysterectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy, 7 years before the current episode. The patient had no evidence of recurrence...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824248/robot-assisted-lymphadenectomy-in-urology-pelvic-retroperitoneal-and-inguinal-a-systematic-review
#4
Giovannalberto Pini, Surena F Matin, Nazareno Suardi, Mihir Desai, Inderbir Gill, James Porter, Robert J Stein, Rene Sotelo, Franco Gaboardi, Francesco Porpiglia
Lymph node dissection represents an essential surgical step in the treatment of the most commonly treated urological cancers. The introduction of robotic surgery has lead to the possibility of treating these diseases with a minimally invasive surgical approach, but the surgical principles of open surgery need to be carefully respected in order to achieve comparable oncological results. Therefore, the robotic approach to urological cancers must include a carefully performed lymph node dissection when indicated...
November 8, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787959/cytologic-persistence-of-malignant-cells-after-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumors-implications-for-concomitant-manipulation-of-the-urinary-tract-at-the-time-of-endoscopic-resection
#5
Liam C Macleod, Khanh N Pham, S Nicholas Agoff, Kathryn L Dahl, Thomas R Pritchett, John M Corman
BACKGROUND: The current study was conducted to determine the feasibility of cytologically clearing the bladder of tumor cells after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and aggressive serial bladder washing. METHODS: A prospective pilot sample of 20 patients with known bladder masses was enrolled before undergoing TURBT. Preoperative cytology and 4 postoperative cytology specimens were assessed for malignant cells between serial bladder washes. Surgeons assessed tumor grade visually at the time of TURBT...
October 27, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785421/lynch-syndrome-and-exposure-to-aristolochic-acid-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-its-clinical-impact
#6
REVIEW
Pierre Colin, Thomas Seisen, Romain Mathieu, Sharohkh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The purpose of the current review was to describe the clinical risk for Lynch syndrome (LS) after exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) in cases of upper urinary-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed using the Medline database (National Library of Medicine, PubMed) using the following keywords: epidemiology, risk factor, AA, Balkan nephropathy (BNe), LS, hereditary cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), mismatch repair genes, urothelial carcinomas, upper urinary tract, renal pelvis, ureter, Amsterdam criteria, genetic counselling, mismatch repair genes, genetic instability, microsatellite, and Bethesda guidelines...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765044/bladder-chondrosarcoma-plus-urothelial-carcinoma-in-recurred-transitional-cell-carcinoma-of-the-upper-urinary-tract-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Min Hyun Cho, Sung Han Kim, Weon Seo Park, Jae Young Joung, Ho Kyung Seo, Jinsoo Chung, Kang Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6 % of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66 years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737963/long-term-single-institute-experience-with-trimodal-bladder-preserving-therapy-with-proton-beam-therapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
Ei-Ichiro Takaoka, Jun Miyazaki, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Koji Kawai, Tomokazu Kimura, Ryutaro Ishitsuka, Takahiro Kojima, Reiko Kanuma, Daichi Takizawa, Toshiyuki Okumura, Hideyuki Sakurai, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively elucidated the oncological outcomes, prognostic factors and toxicities of proton beam therapy in trimodal bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer at our institution. METHODS: From 1990 to 2015, 70 patients with cT2-3N0M0 muscle-invasive bladder cancer underwent trimodal bladder-preserving therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, small pelvis photon irradiation, intra-arterial chemotherapy and proton beam therapy...
October 13, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730305/androgen-receptor-expression-is-associated-with-adverse-pathological-features-in-ureteral-but-not-in-pelvicalyceal-urothelial-carcinomas-of-the-upper-urinary-tract
#9
G J Wirth, A Haitel, M Moschini, F Soria, T Klatte, M R Hassler, K Bensalah, A Briganti, J A Karam, Y Lotan, V Margulis, J D Raman, M Remzi, N Rioux-Leclercq, B D Robinson, M Rouprêt, C G Wood, S F Shariat
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the significance of androgen receptor (AR) expression in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UTUC). METHODS: AR expression was assessed on tissue microarrays containing specimens of 737 patients with UTUC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy with curative intent. AR expression was correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features as well as recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 11, 2016: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725745/prognostic-value-of-pre-operative-renal-insufficiency-in-urothelial-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Jian Cao, Xiaokun Zhao, Zhaohui Zhong, Lei Zhang, Xuan Zhu, Ran Xu
The effect of pre-operative renal insufficiency on urothelial carcinoma (UC) prognosis has been investigated by numerous studies. While the majority report worse UC outcomes in patients with renal insufficiency, the results between the studies differed wildly. To enable us to better estimate the prognostic value of renal insufficiency on UC, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on the published literature. A total of 16 studies which involved 5,232 patients with UC, investigated the relationship between pre-operative renal insufficiency and disease prognosis...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725621/comparison-of-the-fda-and-asco-cap-criteria-for-her2-immunohistochemistry-in-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#11
Gilhyang Kim, Yul Ri Chung, Bohyun Kim, Boram Song, Kyung Chul Moon
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the known oncogenes in urothelial carcinoma. However, the association between HER2 and the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2 expression using the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) criteria and compare their prognostic significance in UUTUC...
November 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720534/systematic-review-on-the-fate-of-the-remnant-urothelium-after-radical-cystectomy
#12
Georgios Gakis, Peter C Black, Bernard H Bochner, Stephen A Boorjian, Arnulf Stenzl, George N Thalmann, Wassim Kassouf
CONTEXT: Urothelial carcinoma is considered a pan-urothelial disease. As such, the remnant urothelium in the upper urinary tract and urethra following radical cystectomy (RC) remains at risk for secondary urothelial tumors (SUTs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of patients with SUTs after RC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed database according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines to identify studies between 1970 and 2016 reporting on malignant diseases of the urothelium after RC for bladder cancer...
October 6, 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670858/impact-of-gender-on-tumor-stage-and-survival-of-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-cancer-a%C3%A2-population-based-study
#13
Badereddin Mohamad Al-Ali, Stephan Madersbacher, Nadine Zielonke, Ingrid Schauer, Thomas Waldhoer, Gerald Haidinger
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of gender on tumor stage, overall and cancer-specific mortality of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in a population-based, nationwide analysis. METHODS: All Austrian patients with UTUC diagnosed between 1983 and 2010 were included in this study. Overall mortality was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cancer-specific (UTUC) mortality was estimated by cumulative incidence with mortality due to other causes as a competing risk...
September 26, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614622/the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-intravesical-recurrence-in-patients-with-upper-urinary-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-treated-with-radical-nephroureterectomy
#14
Nozomu Kishimoto, Tetsuya Takao, Sohei Kuribayashi, Gaku Yamamichi, Kosuke Nakano, Masataka Kawamura, Koichi Tsutahara, Go Tanigawa, Seiji Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation associated with recurrence and poor prognosis in numerous cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the NLR as a biomarker for intravesical recurrence (IVR) in patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) for the first time. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 100 patients with UTUC who had undergone RNU between 1999 and 2015 at our institution...
September 10, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610263/severe-hypotension-hypoxia-and-subcutaneous-erythema-induced-by-indigo-carmine-administration-during-open-prostatectomy
#15
Koichiro Nandate, Bryan B Voelzke
Indigo carmine (also known as 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt or indigotine) is a blue dye that is administered intravenously to examine the urinary tract and usually is biologically safe and inert. Indigo carmine rarely may cause adverse reactions. We treated a 66-year-old man who had general anesthesia and radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. He had a previous history of allergy to bee sting with nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Within 1 minute after injection of indigo carmine for evaluation of the ureters, the patient developed hypotension to 40 mmHg, severe hypoxia (the value of SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) was 75% on 40% inspired oxygen concentration), poor air movement and bilateral diffuse wheezing on auscultation, and marked subcutaneous erythema at the upper extremities...
2016: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590593/drug-eluting-biodegradable-ureteral-stent-new-approach-for-urothelial-tumors-of-upper-urinary-tract-cancer
#16
Alexandre A Barros, Shane Browne, Carlos Oliveira, Estevão Lima, Ana Rita C Duarte, Kevin E Healy, Rui L Reis
Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for 5-10% of urothelial carcinomas and is a disease that has not been widely studied as carcinoma of the bladder. To avoid the problems of conventional therapies, such as the need for frequent drug instillation due to poor drug retention, we developed a biodegradable ureteral stent (BUS) impregnated by supercritical fluid CO2 (scCO2) with the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, namely paclitaxel, epirubicin, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine. The release kinetics of anti-cancer therapeutics from drug-eluting stents was measured in artificial urine solution (AUS)...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561847/infiltrating-bladder-cancer-prognostic-factors-follow-up-and-treatment-of-relapses
#17
C Hernández-Fernández, F Herranz-Amo, M Moralejo-Gárate, D Subirá-Ríos, J Caño-Velasco, G Barbas-Bernardos
CONTEXT: Bladder cancer is the cause of more than 150,000 deaths per year. The overall rate of survival is approximately 45%, with a 10-year recurrence-free rate of 50-59%, with no changes in the last decade. OBJECTIVE: Due to a lack of agreement on the follow-up of cystectomy or on a uniform treatment when faced with the various types of recurrence, we have analysed the most recent literature in an attempt to unify the criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer...
August 22, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555084/aristolochic-acid-in-the-etiology-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Margaret L Hoang, Chung-Hsin Chen, Pau-Chung Chen, Nicholas J Roberts, Kathleen G Dickman, Byeong Hwa Yun, Robert J Turesky, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Bert Vogelstein, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Arthur P Grollman, Kenneth W Kinzler, Thomas A Rosenquist
BACKGROUND: Aristolochia species used in the practice of traditional herbal medicine contains aristolochic acid (AA), an established human carcinogen contributing to urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. AA binds covalently to genomic DNA, forming aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts. Here we investigated whether AA is also an etiologic factor in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the linkage between Aristolochia prescription history, cumulative AA consumption, and ccRCC incidence in Taiwan (5,709 cases and 22,836 matched controls)...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551552/are-we-closer-to-seeing-carcinoma-in-situ-in-the-upper-urinary-tract
#19
REVIEW
Sławomir G Kata, Omar Aboumarzouk
INTRODUCTION: There is observed increase in detection rate of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer worldwide. This is a result of improved imaging as well as implementation of novel technologies of direct visualization of upper urinary tract. Standard techniques still remain insufficient to diagnose flat urothelial lesions. Carcinoma in situ is characterized by flat disordered proliferation of urothelial cells with marked cytologic abnormality, which occur within one cell layer as well as full thickness urothelium and therefore requires a better technology to pick up early and subtle mucosal changes...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533503/lynch-syndrome-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-significance-screening-and-surveillance
#20
Benjamin Pradere, Yair Lotan, Morgan Roupret
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lynch syndrome is a genetic syndrome that integrates a large spectrum of cancers caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Its incidence is underestimated due to a lack of systematic screening in the population. Because upper tract urothelial carcinoma is the third-most common cancer associated with the syndrome, urologists should be aware of the diagnostic pathway. RECENT FINDINGS: Lynch syndrome can be positively diagnosed after the three following distinct steps: meeting the clinical criteria, tissue and genetic testing, and familial genetic counseling...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
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