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cord compression

Scott Dyck, Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Bradley Lang, Jerry Silver, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in upregulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by reactive glia that impedes repair and regeneration in the spinal cord. Degradation of CSPGs is known to be beneficial in promoting endogenous repair mechanisms including axonal sprouting/regeneration, oligodendrocyte replacement, and remyelination, and is associated with improvements in functional outcomes after SCI. Recent evidence suggests that CSPGs may regulate secondary injury mechanisms by modulating neuroinflammation after SCI...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hiroshi Takahashi, Yasuchika Aoki, Arata Nakajima, Masato Sonobe, Fumiaki Terajima, Masahiko Saito, Takuya Miyamoto, Keita Koyama, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Koichi Nakagawa
PURPOSE: To determine levels of biomarkers reflecting damage to axon, myelin, astrocytes, and neuron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cervical compression myelopathy. METHODS: We collected 69 CSF samples from patients before spinal surgery for acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM, 20), chronic compression myelopathy (CM, 20), and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS 29; control). We measured levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit H (pNF-H), tau (reflecting axonal damage), myelin basic protein (MBP) (reflecting demyelination), S100b (reflecting astrocyte damage), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (reflecting neuronal damage)...
March 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
William Breen, Irina Bancos, William F Young, Keith C Bible, Nadia N Laack, Robert L Foote, Christopher L Hallemeier
Purpose/Objectives: To evaluate the role of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for treatment of malignant paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PCC). Methods and materials: A retrospective review was performed of all patients with malignant PGL/PCC treated with EBRT at our institution between 1973 and 2015. Local control (LC) per treated lesion and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicities were scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (AE), version 4...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Waseem Mehmood Nizamani
Ligamentum flavum cyst is considered as a category of juxtafacet cyst and is recognized to be rare cause of cord compression and radiculopathy. The pathogenesis of these cysts is not yet fully understood, but it has been proposed that continuous stress to this ligament due to minor repetitive trauma, such as in spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease, may lead to the development of cyst. Intraspinal cyst can encroach and displace neural structures that can lead to neurologic symptoms. Although a rare entity, intraspinal cyst should be included in the causative factors of neurogenic claudication or lumbar radiculopathy based on typical magnetic resonance imaging appearance...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Tomoo Inoue, Yukoh Ohara, Tadaaki Niiro, Toshiki Endo, Teiji Tominaga, Jyun-Ichi Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Chondroma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor that originates in chondrocytes and is commonly seen in the long bones; however, it infrequently occurs in the cervical spine. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We report two patients with cervical periosteal chondroma that originated from the C2 vertebral body and C1 lamina as extramedullary tumors. The first patient was a 28-year-old man who presented with right upper extremity weakness and numbness. Cervical radiography revealed a bony tumor with evidence of severe spinal cord compression...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Swaminathan Ganesh, Gandham E Jonathan, Bimal Patel, Krishna Prabhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Yad Ram Yadav, Shailendra Ratre, Vijay Parihar, Amitesh Dubey, Mashoo N Dubey
Symptomatic ventral cervical cord compressions have been treated by anterior discectomy with fusion, anterior corpectomy and fusion, discectomy with an artificial disc, and minimally invasive techniques. There are complications associated with the fusion procedure, especially when a long segment fusion is undertaken. Partial removal of the vertebral body without fusion could help in avoiding fusion and its associated complications. We are describing the detailed surgical technique, indications, limitations, and early results of endoscopic partially corpectomy...
March 2018: Neurology India
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
I S Lvov, A A Grin', M A Nekrasov, A Yu Kordonskiy, A V Sytnik
Compression of the caudal medulla oblongata and ventral portions of the spinal cord is the most dangerous complication of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD). AIM: The study objective was to improve surgical management of patients with ventral compression of the spinal cord in the setting of AAD of various genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed treatment outcomes in 250 patients with C1 and C2 injuries and diseases for the period between 2002 and 2016. Persistent ventral compression of the neural structures in the setting of AAD was detected in 34 (13...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
David C Kieser, P J Cox, S C J Kieser
PURPOSE: Hirayama disease is an initially progressive disease caused by cervical neck flexion compressing the anterior horns of the lower cervical spinal cord. It is primarily seen in young males of Indian or Asian descent. With increasing dispersion of these populations this condition is increasingly being encountered internationally. This grand round reviews this rare but increasingly recognized condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a classic case of a young Indian male with progressive hand and forearm weakness...
March 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
Muhammad Shuja, Ayman A Elghazaly, Asif Iqbal, Reham Mohamed, Amal Marie, Mutahir A Tunio, Moamen M Aly, Ali Balbaid, Mushabbab Asiri
Introduction Bone metastasis (BM) is a major complication of many solid tumors like breast, prostate, lung and renal cancers. BM leads to serious sequelae of pain, fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. Radiotherapy has an established role in relieving pain caused by BM. Worldwide different radiotherapy schedules are being used for BM. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of single fraction palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases. Methods Between April 2014 and April 2017, single fraction radiotherapy was used to treat 73 patients in our institution...
January 8, 2018: Curēus
Maria Oliveira, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas W Maddox, Daniel Sanchez-Masian, Rita Gonçalves
The constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence has been widely used in human neuroimaging. It has been shown to be advantageous in the evaluation of intra-axial and extra-axial cystic abnormalities, arteriovenous and dysraphic malformations and disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in 145 dogs that underwent MRI of the spine for suspected spinal cord disease...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Kivanc Atesok, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Andrew O'Brien, Yohan Robinson, Dachling Pang, Donald Deinlein, Sakthivel Rajaram Manoharan, Jason Pittman, Steven Theiss
"Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality" (SCIWORA) is a term that denotes objective clinical signs of posttraumatic spinal cord injury without evidence of fracture or malalignment on plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the spine. SCIWORA is most commonly seen in children with a predilection for the cervical spinal cord due to the increased mobility of the cervical spine, the inherent ligamentous laxity, and the large head-to-body ratio during childhood. However, SCIWORA can also be seen in adults and, in rare cases, the thoracolumbar spinal cord can be affected too...
2018: Advances in Orthopedics
Costansia Bureta, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Takuya Yamamoto, Takao Setoguchi, Hideki Kawamura, Satoshi Nagano, Ichiro Kawamura, Masahiko Abematsu, Hironori Kakoi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Setsuro Komiya
BACKGROUND: Here we report a rare case of lumbar spine epidural abscess and facet joint septic arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, which had spread to the iliopsoas muscles, leading to urine retention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old woman with low back pain experienced a sudden onset of bilateral lower limb weakness, it was followed 14 days later by urine retention. At consultation, magnetic resonance imaging and identification of serum β-hemolytic streptococci provided a diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection...
March 13, 2018: BMC Surgery
Ming-Sheng Tan, Yan-Lei Wang, Ying-Na Qi, Chun-Ke Dong, Wei Wang, Ping Yi, Feng Yang, Xiang-Sheng Tang, Qing-Ying Hao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect and underlying mechanism of decompression(DE)combined with Governor Vessel(GV)electro-acupuncture(EA) on rats with acute severe upper cervical spinal cord compression injury. METHODS: Thirty SPF rats were randomly divided into 5 groups(control group A, B and experiment group C, D, E), 6 rats in each group. The model of acute severe upper cervical spinal cord compression injury were made by forcing a balloon catheter put in atlas pillow clearance...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Feng Yang, Ming-Sheng Tan, Ping Yi, Xiang-Sheng Tang, Qing-Ying Hao, Ying-Na Qi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effect between spinal card decompression combined with traditional Chinese medicine and simple spinal card decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. METHODS: From June 2012 to June 2015, 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated, including 42 males and 31 females, aged from 29 to 73 years old with a mean of 50.9 years old. The patients were divided into the simple operation group (34 cases) and the operation combined with traditional Chinese medicine group(39 cases) according to the idea of themselves...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Avinash Rao, Hesham Soliman, Mayank Kaushal, Oleysa Motovylak, Aditya Vedantam, Matthew D Budde, Brian Schmit, Marjorie Wang, Shekar N Kurpad
BACKGROUND: Fractional anisotropy (FA) of the high cervical cord correlates with upper limb function in acute cervical cord injury. We investigated the correlation between preoperative FA at the level of maximal compression and functional recovery in a group of patients after decompressive surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of FA as a biomarker for severity of CSM and as a prognostic biomarker for improvement after surgery...
February 23, 2018: Neurosurgery
Nancy E Epstein
Background: Spinal meningiomas are found in patients typically between the ages of 75 and 84: some report the average age to be 50. They occur with an incidence of approximately 1000 patients per year in the US, are mostly single (90%) rather than multiple (10%), and arise from the spinal meninges (arachnoid/dura). Tumors are typically posterior/posterolateral (70%) in location, leaving the remaining 30% in the anterior/anterolateral spinal canal. They produce symptoms and signs of radiculopathy (nerve root) and/or myelopathy (cord compression) depending on their site of origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Spinal tuberculosis [TB] is a common infectious disease prevalent in developing countries and a rising disaster in developed countries. The association of tuberculosis with spondylolisthesis is rarely reported in literature. The aim of our review is to analyse the clinical features and radiologic characteristics of TB spondylolisthesis along with providing a concise update on its surgical management, based on current literature. METHODS: A systematic review is performed after conducting a thorough search in the PubMed database...
March 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kanchan Maji, Sudip Dasgupta, Krishna Pramanik, Akalabya Bissoyi
The primary aim of this study was to fabricate gelatin/chitosan/β-TCP (GCT) composite scaffold to improve its compressive mechanical behaviour and in-vivo biocompatibility with predictable degradation rate. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder was synthesized in size range between 70-100 nm using aqueous precipitation route at a fixed Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5:1 at pH 10 and after subsequent heat treatment of as precipitated powder at 800 °C for 4 hours. The composite scaffolds were fabricated using solid-liquid phase separation of the slurry containing gelatin, chitosan, β-tricalcium phosphate in varying proportion and subsequent lyophilisation of the phase separated mixture...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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