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Platelet transfusion, cirrhosis

Thomas Joseph Peterson, Allison Margaret Brown Webb, Benjamin Samuel Vipler
In the presented case, the authors describe an obese middle-aged man that presented to the emergency department for persistent oedema, scleral icterus and fatigue. He was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with liver cirrhosis via transjugular liver biopsy. He continued to bleed from the biopsy site for 5 days from accelerated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis (AICF) requiring multiple transfusions of packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. The authors then used thromboelastography (TEG) to further characterise the patient's coagulopathy, which revealed platelet inhibition...
December 14, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Soichiro Murata, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver disease, but no definitive pharmacological treatment is currently available. It has been reported that thrombopoietin (TPO) promotes liver regeneration and improves liver cirrhosis by increasing platelet count. We have shown the direct effect of platelet transfusion on the improvement of liver function in patients with chronic liver disease. However, platelet transfusion often causes adverse events, such as platelet transfusion refractoriness and pruritus. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory clinical trial and administered eltrombopag, an orally bioavailable, small-molecule, non-peptide TPO receptor agonist that has been approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kamran Qureshi, Shyam Patel, Andrew Meillier
Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) undergo a range of invasive procedures during their clinical lifetime. Various hemostatic abnormalities are frequently identified during the periprocedural work-up; including thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia of cirrhosis is multifactorial in origin, and decreased activity of thrombopoietin has been identified to be a major cause. Liver is an important site of thrombopoietin production and its levels are decreased in patients with cirrhosis. Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 60-75,000/µL) is associated with increased risk of bleeding with invasive procedures...
2016: International Journal of Hepatology
Fuat H Saner, Carmen Kirchner
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are assumed to be at high risk of bleeding when undergoing any kind of invasive intervention (any kind of operation, including transplantation or minimally invasive interventions). Both bleeding and thrombosis are associated with a poor outcome. METHODS: A selective literature research was conducted with the following key words: 'cirrhosis', 'coagulation', 'bleeding', 'INR' (international normalized ratio), 'aPTT' (activated partial thromboplastin time), and 'thrombocytopenia'...
August 2016: Visceral Medicine
Robert J Huang, Ryan B Perumpail, Nirav Thosani, Ramsey Cheung, Shai Friedland
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Cirrhotic patients are at a theoretically increased risk of bleeding. The safety of polypectomy in cirrhosis is poorly defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with cirrhosis who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at a tertiary-care hospital. Patient characteristics and polyp data were collected. Development of complications including immediate bleeding, delayed bleeding, hospitalization, blood transfusion, perforation, and death were recorded to 30-day follow-up...
September 2016: Endoscopy International Open
Keisuke Arai, Kaori Kuramitsu, Takumi Fukumoto, Masahiro Kido, Atsushi Takebe, Motofumi Tanaka, Hisoka Kinoshita, Tetsuo Ajiki, Hirochika Toyama, Sadaki Asari, Tadahiro Goto, Yonson Ku
There are few descriptions of severe thrombocytopenia during the early postoperative period after liver transplantation, and these have not been fully documented in the literature. Here, we report a case of drug-induced thrombocytopenia requiring transfusion of blood products after living donor liver transplantation. We determined that this was not caused by the interferon-free anti-viral therapy but by tacrolimus A 61-year-old woman with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft from her son...
June 16, 2016: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
Stuart Cleland, Carlos Corredor, Jia Jia Ye, Coimbatore Srinivas, Stuart A McCluskey
From its inception the success of liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss. Massive transfusion is classically defined as > 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h, but describing transfusion rates over a shorter period of time may reduce the potential for survival bias. Both massive haemorrhage and transfusion are associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity (need for dialysis/surgical site infection) following liver transplantation although causality is difficult to prove due to the observational design of most trials...
June 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Seong Ran Jeon, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Hyun Joo Jang, Soo Jung Park, Jong Pil Im, Eun Ran Kim, Ja Seol Koo, Bong Min Ko, Dong Kyung Chang, Jin-Oh Kim, Su Yeon Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Angioectasias are the most common sources of bleeding in the small bowel. They can be treated using balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE). This study aimed to identify the rebleeding rate and associated factors after BAE in patients with small bowel angioectasia bleeding. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with bleeding due to small bowel vascular lesion in a multicenter enteroscopy database including 1,108 BAEs. Finally, in rebleeding analysis, we analyzed 66 patients with angioectasia on the basis of the Yano-Yamamoto classification...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Takeshi Kurihara, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Shinji Itoh, Norifumi Harimoto, Noboru Harada, Toru Ikegami, Yuki Inagaki, Yukio Oshiro, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi, Hiroaki Okamoto, Yoshihiko Maehara
Although it occurs worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in developed countries is generally foodborne. HEV infection is subclinical in most individuals. Although fulminant liver failure may occur, progression to chronic hepatitis is rare. This study describes a 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria. His liver function was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day (POD) 22...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Mingjun Wang, Ailin Wei, Zhaoda Zhang, Bing Peng
A growing body of evidence has supported the benefits of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) for hypersplenism due to liver cirrhosis. With the increased proportion of elderly persons worldwide, it is necessary to investigate the risks and benefits of LS in elderly liver cirrhotic patients.From September 2003 to March 2012, LS and open splenectomy (OS) were performed for 21 (Group 1) and 19 (Group 3) patients, respectively, all of whom were 65 years of age and older; in addition, 39 patients who were <65 years old were treated with LS and referred to as Group 2...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Yun-Wen Zheng, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Platelets contain not only proteins needed for hemostasis but also many growth factors that are required for organ development, tissue regeneration, and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, is due to various causes, such as decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis and the role of platelets in CLD are poorly understood...
April 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Lise J Estcourt, Michael Desborough, Sally Hopewell, Carolyn Doree, Simon J Stanworth
BACKGROUND: Patients with a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) often require the insertion of central lines (central venous catheters (CVCs)). CVCs have a number of uses; these include: administration of chemotherapy; intensive monitoring and treatment of critically-ill patients; administration of total parenteral nutrition; and long-term intermittent intravenous access for patients requiring repeated treatments. Current practice in many countries is to correct thrombocytopenia with platelet transfusions prior to CVC insertion, in order to mitigate the risk of serious procedure-related bleeding...
December 2, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Seena Patel, Maureen Munnelly Perry, Ann Eshenaur Spolarich
PURPOSE: While most oral surgical procedures can be safely performed in an outpatient setting, certain medical conditions may present a higher chance of postoperative complications. In particular, those predisposing the patient to bleeding abnormalities pose a potential risk when performing such treatments. The authors report a case involving full-mouth extractions in a patient with cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia after obtaining a platelet transfusion. METHODS/CASE: A 62-year-old Caucasian female presented to a university special care dental clinic requiring extractions...
March 2016: Special Care in Dentistry
Abeer Abd El-Rehim El-Henawy, Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Sahar Zakaria, Dina Elhammady, Niveen Saudy, Manar Sobh Azab
OBJECTIVE: To document Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibody status in patients with liver disease, blood samples were taken from 180 hepatic patients and 180 healthy controls. METHODS: Toxoplasma IgG antibody was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological assessment of liver biopsy METAVIR score was applied. RESULTS: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 32.8% of patients and in 22.2% of controls (P = 0...
October 2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Shengxing Zhu, Sheng Chang
The aim of this study is to explore the clinical application value of preoperative selective partial splenic embolization before splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection. 158 cases of liver cirrhosis combined with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage patients were selected, which were randomly divided into splenic embolization group (S, n=77) and the non-splenic embolization group (U, n=81). Group S patients were firstly performed partial splenic embolization (PSE), and then underwent splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection, and the group U patients were directly performed splenectomy plus portal-azygous disconnection...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Lesley De Pietri, Marcello Bianchini, Roberto Montalti, Nicola De Maria, Tommaso Di Maira, Bruno Begliomini, Giorgio Enrico Gerunda, Fabrizio di Benedetto, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Erica Villa
UNLABELLED: Bleeding is a feared complication of invasive procedures in patients with cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy (as defined by routine coagulation tests) and is used to justify preprocedure use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a more comprehensive global coagulation assessment than routine tests (international normalized ratio [INR] and platelet count), and its use may avoid unnecessary blood product transfusion in patients with cirrhosis and significant coagulopathy (defined in this study as INR >1...
February 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Lei Li, Haiqing Wang, Jian Yang, Li Jiang, Jiayin Yang, Wentao Wang, Lvnan Yan, Tianfu Wen, Bo Li, Mingqing Xu
To investigate whether the platelets can improve liver function by mediating liver regeneration. Using a retrospective cohort with 234 consecutive adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation recipients, we have discussed the relationship between immediate postoperative platelet count and outcome. Patients have been stratified into Low Platelet Group (106 patients) with platelet ≤68 × 10/L and High Platelet Group (128 patients) with platelet >68 × 10/L.Low Platelet Group has a higher rate of preoperative thrombocytopenia (90...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
J J Feld, G J Kato, C Koh, T Shields, M Hildesheim, D E Kleiner, J G Taylor, N G Sandler, D Douek, V Haynes-Williams, J S Nichols, J H Hoofnagle, T Jake Liang, M T Gladwin, T Heller
BACKGROUND: Increased life expectancy in sickle cell disease (SCD) has resulted in greater recognition of the consequences of repeated intravascular vaso-occlusion and chronic haemolysis to multiple organ systems. AIM: To report the long-term consequences of liver dysfunction in SCD. METHODS: A cohort of SCD patients was prospectively evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. The association of mortality with liver enzymes, parameters of liver synthetic function and iron overload was evaluated using Cox regression...
October 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Akihiro Hirao, Testu Tomonari, Hironori Tanaka, Kumiko Tanaka, Miwako Kagawa, Takahiro Tanaka, Tatsuya Taniguchi, Rie Harada, Momoko Sato, Naoki Muguruma, Tetsuji Takayama
A renal subcapsular hematoma rarely occurs without a history of trauma. It has been reported as a complication of urological interventions and also reported to occur spontaneously in patients with renal malignancies. However, there are no previous reports of renal subcapsular hematomas occurring in connection with abdominal angiography. We report here a case of a renal subcapsular hematoma that developed and was recognized during abdominal angiography for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An 80-year-old male was referred to our hospital for transarterial embolization for multiple HCCs...
April 2014: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Jennifer M Kolb, Tonya Kaltenbach, Beth Martin, Robert V Rouse, Roy Soetikno
Severe thrombocytopenia is a contraindication for therapeutic endoscopy due to the risk of bleeding. Platelet transfusions can temporarily increase platelet count, but are difficult to administer in the 2 weeks following endoscopic resection, during which the patient is at high risk for delayed bleeding. We present the use of a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, eltrombopag, to sustain platelet levels for the safe and complete endoscopic submucosal dissection of a gastric carcinoid in a patient with severe thrombocytopenia due to cirrhosis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura...
October 2014: ACG Case Reports Journal
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