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Platelet transfusion, cirrhosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626375/intravenous-bevacizumab-therapy-in-a-patient-with-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-eng-e137k-alcoholic-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension
#1
Luigi F Bertoli, Pauline L Lee, Lauren Lallone, James C Barton
Intravenous bevacizumab decreased mucosal bleeding in some patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). We treated a 47-year-old male who had HHT, severe epistaxis, and gastrointestinal bleeding, alcoholic cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with intravenous bevacizumab 2.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks. We tabulated these measures weekly during weeks 1-33 (no bevacizumab); 34-57 (bevacizumab); and 58-97 (no bevacizumab): hemoglobin (Hb) levels; platelet counts; units of transfused packed erythrocytes (PRBC units); and quantities of iron infused as iron dextran to support erythropoiesis...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566882/platelets-in-liver-disease-cancer-and-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Although viral hepatitis treatments have evolved over the years, the resultant liver cirrhosis still does not completely heal. Platelets contain proteins required for hemostasis, as well as many growth factors required for organ development, tissue regeneration and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, can manifest from decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis, as well as the role of platelets in CLD, is poorly understood...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426586/predictive-modeling-of-massive-transfusion-requirements-during-liver-transplantation-and-its-potential-to-reduce-utilization-of-blood-bank-resources
#3
Aliaksei Pustavoitau, Maggie Lesley, Promise Ariyo, Asad Latif, April J Villamayor, Steven M Frank, Nicole Rizkalla, William Merritt, Andrew Cameron, Nabil Dagher, Benjamin Philosophe, Ahmet Gurakar, Allan Gottschalk
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing liver transplantation frequently but inconsistently require massive blood transfusion. The ability to predict massive transfusion (MT) could reduce the impact on blood bank resources through customization of the blood order schedule. Current predictive models of MT for blood product utilization during liver transplantation are not generally applicable to individual institutions owing to variability in patient population, intraoperative management, and definitions of MT...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293381/thrombocytopenia-in-cirrhosis-impact-of-fibrinogen-on-bleeding-risk
#4
Sonali V Thakrar, Susan V Mallett
AIM: To investigate the relationship between baseline platelet count, clauss fibrinogen, maximum amplitude (MA) on thromboelastography, and blood loss in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of our OLT Database (2006-2015) was performed. Baseline haematological indices and intraoperative blood transfusion requirements, as a combination of cell salvage return and estimation of 300 mls/unit of allogenic blood, was noted as a surrogate for intraoperative bleeding...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288507/anticoagulation-in-cirrhosis-a-new-paradigm
#5
REVIEW
Filippo Leonardi, Nicola De Maria, Erica Villa
The liver plays a crucial role in coagulation cascade. Global hemostatic process is profoundly influenced by the presence of liver disease and its complications. Patients with cirrhosis have impaired synthesis of most of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis process due to a reduced liver function and altered platelet count secondary to portal hypertension. Altered routine tests and thrombocytopenia were considered in the past as associated with increased risk of bleeding. These concepts explain both the routine use of plasma and/or platelets transfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis, especially before invasive procedures, and why these patients were considered "auto-anticoagulated"...
March 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241780/thromboelastometry-versus-standard-coagulation-tests-versus-restrictive-protocol-to-guide-blood-transfusion-prior-to-central-venous-catheterization-in-cirrhosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Leonardo Lima Rocha, Camila Menezes Souza Pessoa, Ary Serpa Neto, Rogerio Ruscitto do Prado, Eliezer Silva, Marcio Dias de Almeida, Thiago Domingos Correa
BACKGROUND: Liver failure patients have traditionally been empirically transfused prior to invasive procedures. Blood transfusion is associated with immunologic and nonimmunologic reactions, increased risk of adverse outcomes and high costs. Scientific evidence supporting empirical transfusion is lacking, and the best approach for blood transfusion prior to invasive procedures in cirrhotic patients has not been established so far. The aim of this study is to compare three transfusion strategies (routine coagulation test-guided - ordinary or restrictive, or thromboelastometry-guided) prior to central venous catheterization in critically ill patients with cirrhosis...
February 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974342/use-of-thromboelastography-in-the-management-of-liver-cirrhosis-and-accelerated-intravascular-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-aicf
#7
Thomas Joseph Peterson, Allison Margaret Brown Webb, Benjamin Samuel Vipler
In the presented case, the authors describe an obese middle-aged man that presented to the emergency department for persistent oedema, scleral icterus and fatigue. He was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with liver cirrhosis via transjugular liver biopsy. He continued to bleed from the biopsy site for 5 days from accelerated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis (AICF) requiring multiple transfusions of packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. The authors then used thromboelastography (TEG) to further characterise the patient's coagulopathy, which revealed platelet inhibition...
December 14, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928110/stable-liver-function-during-long-term-administration-of-eltrombopag-a-thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease
#8
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Soichiro Murata, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver disease, but no definitive pharmacological treatment is currently available. It has been reported that thrombopoietin (TPO) promotes liver regeneration and improves liver cirrhosis by increasing platelet count. We have shown the direct effect of platelet transfusion on the improvement of liver function in patients with chronic liver disease. However, platelet transfusion often causes adverse events, such as platelet transfusion refractoriness and pruritus. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory clinical trial and administered eltrombopag, an orally bioavailable, small-molecule, non-peptide TPO receptor agonist that has been approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800187/the-use-of-thrombopoietin-receptor-agonists-for-correction-of-thrombocytopenia-prior-to-elective-procedures-in-chronic-liver-diseases-review-of-current-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Kamran Qureshi, Shyam Patel, Andrew Meillier
Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) undergo a range of invasive procedures during their clinical lifetime. Various hemostatic abnormalities are frequently identified during the periprocedural work-up; including thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia of cirrhosis is multifactorial in origin, and decreased activity of thrombopoietin has been identified to be a major cause. Liver is an important site of thrombopoietin production and its levels are decreased in patients with cirrhosis. Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 60-75,000/µL) is associated with increased risk of bleeding with invasive procedures...
2016: International Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722160/monitoring-and-treatment-of-coagulation-disorders-in-end-stage-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Fuat H Saner, Carmen Kirchner
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are assumed to be at high risk of bleeding when undergoing any kind of invasive intervention (any kind of operation, including transplantation or minimally invasive interventions). Both bleeding and thrombosis are associated with a poor outcome. METHODS: A selective literature research was conducted with the following key words: 'cirrhosis', 'coagulation', 'bleeding', 'INR' (international normalized ratio), 'aPTT' (activated partial thromboplastin time), and 'thrombocytopenia'...
August 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652299/colonoscopy-with-polypectomy-is-associated-with-a-low-rate-of-complications-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#11
Robert J Huang, Ryan B Perumpail, Nirav Thosani, Ramsey Cheung, Shai Friedland
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Cirrhotic patients are at a theoretically increased risk of bleeding. The safety of polypectomy in cirrhosis is poorly defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with cirrhosis who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at a tertiary-care hospital. Patient characteristics and polyp data were collected. Development of complications including immediate bleeding, delayed bleeding, hospitalization, blood transfusion, perforation, and death were recorded to 30-day follow-up...
September 2016: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492209/a-case-report-of-drug-induced-thrombocytopenia-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#12
Keisuke Arai, Kaori Kuramitsu, Takumi Fukumoto, Masahiro Kido, Atsushi Takebe, Motofumi Tanaka, Hisoka Kinoshita, Tetsuo Ajiki, Hirochika Toyama, Sadaki Asari, Tadahiro Goto, Yonson Ku
There are few descriptions of severe thrombocytopenia during the early postoperative period after liver transplantation, and these have not been fully documented in the literature. Here, we report a case of drug-induced thrombocytopenia requiring transfusion of blood products after living donor liver transplantation. We determined that this was not caused by the interferon-free anti-viral therapy but by tacrolimus A 61-year-old woman with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft from her son...
June 16, 2016: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358774/massive-haemorrhage-in-liver-transplantation-consequences-prediction-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Stuart Cleland, Carlos Corredor, Jia Jia Ye, Coimbatore Srinivas, Stuart A McCluskey
From its inception the success of liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss. Massive transfusion is classically defined as > 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h, but describing transfusion rates over a shorter period of time may reduce the potential for survival bias. Both massive haemorrhage and transfusion are associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity (need for dialysis/surgical site infection) following liver transplantation although causality is difficult to prove due to the observational design of most trials...
June 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356264/clinical-outcome-after-enteroscopy-for-small-bowel-angioectasia-bleeding-a-kasid-multicenter-study
#14
Seong Ran Jeon, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Hyun Joo Jang, Soo Jung Park, Jong Pil Im, Eun Ran Kim, Ja Seol Koo, Bong Min Ko, Dong Kyung Chang, Jin-Oh Kim, Su Yeon Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Angioectasias are the most common sources of bleeding in the small bowel. They can be treated using balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE). This study aimed to identify the rebleeding rate and associated factors after BAE in patients with small bowel angioectasia bleeding. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with bleeding due to small bowel vascular lesion in a multicenter enteroscopy database including 1,108 BAEs. Finally, in rebleeding analysis, we analyzed 66 patients with angioectasia on the basis of the Yano-Yamamoto classification...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059470/chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-via-blood-transfusion-a-case-report
#15
Takeshi Kurihara, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Shinji Itoh, Norifumi Harimoto, Noboru Harada, Toru Ikegami, Yuki Inagaki, Yukio Oshiro, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi, Hiroaki Okamoto, Yoshihiko Maehara
Although it occurs worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in developed countries is generally foodborne. HEV infection is subclinical in most individuals. Although fulminant liver failure may occur, progression to chronic hepatitis is rare. This study describes a 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria. His liver function was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day (POD) 22...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962816/laparoscopic-splenectomy-for-the-elderly-liver-cirrhotic-patients-with-hypersplenism-a-retrospective-comparable-study
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mingjun Wang, Ailin Wei, Zhaoda Zhang, Bing Peng
A growing body of evidence has supported the benefits of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) for hypersplenism due to liver cirrhosis. With the increased proportion of elderly persons worldwide, it is necessary to investigate the risks and benefits of LS in elderly liver cirrhotic patients.From September 2003 to March 2012, LS and open splenectomy (OS) were performed for 21 (Group 1) and 19 (Group 3) patients, respectively, all of whom were 65 years of age and older; in addition, 39 patients who were <65 years old were treated with LS and referred to as Group 2...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26632220/novel-functions-of-platelets-in-the-liver
#17
REVIEW
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Yun-Wen Zheng, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Platelets contain not only proteins needed for hemostasis but also many growth factors that are required for organ development, tissue regeneration, and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, is due to various causes, such as decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis and the role of platelets in CLD are poorly understood...
April 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26627708/comparison-of-different-platelet-transfusion-thresholds-prior-to-insertion-of-central-lines-in-patients-with-thrombocytopenia
#18
REVIEW
Lise J Estcourt, Michael Desborough, Sally Hopewell, Carolyn Doree, Simon J Stanworth
BACKGROUND: Patients with a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) often require the insertion of central lines (central venous catheters (CVCs)). CVCs have a number of uses; these include: administration of chemotherapy; intensive monitoring and treatment of critically-ill patients; administration of total parenteral nutrition; and long-term intermittent intravenous access for patients requiring repeated treatments. Current practice in many countries is to correct thrombocytopenia with platelet transfusions prior to CVC insertion, in order to mitigate the risk of serious procedure-related bleeding...
December 2, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26625941/oral-surgery-in-a-patient-with-cirrhosis-and-thrombocytopenia-a-case-report
#19
Seena Patel, Maureen Munnelly Perry, Ann Eshenaur Spolarich
PURPOSE: While most oral surgical procedures can be safely performed in an outpatient setting, certain medical conditions may present a higher chance of postoperative complications. In particular, those predisposing the patient to bleeding abnormalities pose a potential risk when performing such treatments. The authors report a case involving full-mouth extractions in a patient with cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia after obtaining a platelet transfusion. METHODS/CASE: A 62-year-old Caucasian female presented to a university special care dental clinic requiring extractions...
March 2016: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522292/is-toxoplasmosis-a-potential-risk-factor-for-liver-cirrhosis
#20
Abeer Abd El-Rehim El-Henawy, Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Sahar Zakaria, Dina Elhammady, Niveen Saudy, Manar Sobh Azab
OBJECTIVE: To document Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibody status in patients with liver disease, blood samples were taken from 180 hepatic patients and 180 healthy controls. METHODS: Toxoplasma IgG antibody was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological assessment of liver biopsy METAVIR score was applied. RESULTS: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 32.8% of patients and in 22.2% of controls (P = 0...
October 2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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