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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345977/targeted-and-nontargeted-%C3%AE-particle-therapies
#1
Michael R McDevitt, George Sgouros, Stavroula Sofou
α-Particle irradiation of cancerous tissue is increasingly recognized as a potent therapeutic option. We briefly review the physics, radiobiology, and dosimetry of α-particle emitters, as well as the distinguishing features that make them unique for radiopharmaceutical therapy. We also review the emerging clinical role of α-particle therapy in managing cancer and recent studies on in vitro and preclinical α-particle therapy delivered by antibodies, other small molecules, and nanometer-sized particles. In addition to their unique radiopharmaceutical characteristics, the increased availability and improved radiochemistry of α-particle radionuclides have contributed to the growing recent interest in α-particle radiotherapy...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344086/correlation-of-structure-function-and-protein-dynamics-in-gh7-cellobiohydrolases-from-trichoderma-atroviride-t-reesei-and-t-harzianum
#2
Anna S Borisova, Elena V Eneyskaya, Suvamay Jana, Silke F Badino, Jeppe Kari, Antonella Amore, Magnus Karlsson, Henrik Hansson, Mats Sandgren, Michael E Himmel, Peter Westh, Christina M Payne, Anna A Kulminskaya, Jerry Ståhlberg
Background: The ascomycete fungus Trichoderma reesei is the predominant source of enzymes for industrial conversion of lignocellulose. Its glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (GH7 CBH) TreCel7A constitutes nearly half of the enzyme cocktail by weight and is the major workhorse in the cellulose hydrolysis process. The orthologs from Trichoderma atroviride (TatCel7A) and Trichoderma harzianum (ThaCel7A) show high sequence identity with TreCel7A, ~ 80%, and represent naturally evolved combinations of cellulose-binding tunnel-enclosing loop motifs, which have been suggested to influence intrinsic cellobiohydrolase properties, such as endo-initiation, processivity, and off-rate...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341658/floquet-symmetry-protected-topological-phases-in-cold-atom-systems
#3
I-D Potirniche, A C Potter, M Schleier-Smith, A Vishwanath, N Y Yao
We propose and analyze two distinct routes toward realizing interacting symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases via periodic driving. First, we demonstrate that a driven transverse-field Ising model can be used to engineer complex interactions which enable the emulation of an equilibrium SPT phase. This phase remains stable only within a parametric time scale controlled by the driving frequency, beyond which its topological features break down. To overcome this issue, we consider an alternate route based upon realizing an intrinsically Floquet SPT phase that does not have any equilibrium analog...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340096/crispr-cas9-mediated-reversibly-immortalized-mouse-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-bmscs-retain-multipotent-features-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs
#4
Xue Hu, Li Li, Xinyi Yu, Ruyi Zhang, Shujuan Yan, Zongyue Zeng, Yi Shu, Chen Zhao, Xingye Wu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Chao Yang, Ke Wu, Ying Wu, Liping An, Shifeng Huang, Xiaojuan Ji, Cheng Gong, Chengfu Yuan, Linghuan Zhang, Wei Liu, Bo Huang, Yixiao Feng, Bo Zhang, Rex C Haydon, Hue H Luu, Russell R Reid, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Zebo Yu, Tong-Chuan He
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and differentiate into multi-lineages. Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) represent one of the most commonly-used MSCs. In order to overcome the technical challenge of maintaining primary BMSCs in long-term culture, here we seek to establish reversibly immortalized mouse BMSCs (imBMSCs). By exploiting CRISPR/Cas9-based homology-directed-repair (HDR) mechanism, we target SV40T to mouse Rosa26 locus and efficiently immortalize mouse BMSCs (i...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339095/patterning-the-gastrointestinal-epithelium-to-confer-regional-specific-functions
#5
REVIEW
Cayla A Thompson, Ann DeLaForest, Michele A Battle
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in simplest terms, can be described as an epithelial-lined muscular tube extending along the cephalocaudal axis from the oral cavity to the anus. Although the general architecture of the GI tract organs is conserved from end to end, the presence of different epithelial tissue structures and unique epithelial cell types within each organ enables each to perform the distinct digestive functions required for efficient nutrient assimilation. Spatiotemporal regulation of signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors controls GI epithelial morphogenesis during development to confer essential regional-specific epithelial structures and functions...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338248/catalytic-oligopeptide-synthesis
#6
Zijian Liu, Hidetoshi Noda, Masakatsu Shibasaki, Naoya Kumagai
Waste-free catalytic assembly of α-amino acids is fueled by a multiboron catalyst that features a characteristic B3NO2 heterocycle, providing a versatile catalytic protocol wherein functionalized natural α-amino acid units are accommodated and commonly used protecting groups are tolerated. The facile dehydrative conditions eliminate the use of engineered peptide coupling reagents, exemplifying a greener catalytic alternative for peptide coupling. The catalysis is sufficiently robust to enable pentapeptide synthesis, constructing all four amide bond linkages in a catalytic fashion...
January 17, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337695/automated-fabrication-of-photopatterned-gelatin-hydrogels-for-organ-on-chips-applications
#7
Janna C Nawroth, Lisa L Scudder, Ryan T Halvorson, Jason Tresback, John P Ferrier, Sean P Sheehy, Alex Cho, Suraj Kannan, Ilona Sunyovszki, Josue A Goss, Patrick H Campbell, Kevin Kit Parker
Organ-on-chip platforms aim to improve preclinical models for organ-level responses to novel drug compounds. Heart-on-a-chip assays in particular require tissue engineering techniques that rely on labor-intensive photolithographic fabrication or resolution-limited 3D printing of micropatterned substrates, which limits turnover and flexibility of prototyping. We present a rapid and automated method for large scale on-demand micropatterning of gelatin hydrogels for organ-on-chip applications using a novel biocompatible laser-etching approach...
January 16, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336231/a-new-and-universal-classification-system-of-skin-substitutes-inspired-by-factorial-design
#8
Evan Davison-Kotler, Vaibhav Sharma, Norbert Kang, Elena García-Gareta
The complexity of the dermal layer of skin means that damage to this section can result in permanent impairment of function. Partial or total dermal loss is a feature of deep burns and chronic wounds such as pressure sores or diabetic ulcers. The issues posed by traditional skin grafts have led to substantial research being carried out in the fields of tissue engineering and biomaterials science to develop a vast array of alternative skin substitutes. Given the large number of different materials, manufacturing methods, and techniques for implementation described for artificial skin substitutes, many classification systems have been created to simplify their categorization...
January 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333491/multifunctional-bioreactor-system-for-human-intestine-tissues
#9
Wenda Zhou, Ying Chen, Terrence Roh, Yinan Lin, Shengjie Ling, Siwei Zhao, James D Lin, Noor Khalil, Dana M Cairns, Eleana Manousiouthakis, Megan Tse, David L Kaplan
The three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of intestinal cells and tissues in dynamic bioreactor systems to represent in vivo intestinal microenvironments is essential for developing regenerative medicine treatments for intestinal diseases. We have previously developed in vitro human intestinal tissue systems using a 3D porous silk scaffold system with intestinal architectures and topographical features for the adhesion, growth, and differentiation of intestinal cells under static culture conditions. In this study, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional bioreactor system that incorporates pre-epithelialized 3D silk scaffolds in a dynamic culture environment for in vitro engineering of human intestine tissues...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332841/improved-neuron-culture-using-scaffolds-made-of-three-dimensional-pdms-micro-lattices
#10
Sisi Li, Francesco Paolo Ulloa Severino, Jelena Ban, Li Wang, Giulietta Pinato, Vincent Torre, Yong Chen
Tissue engineering strives to create functional components of organs with different cell types in vitro. One of the challenges is to fabricate scaffolds for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture under physiological conditions. Of particular interesting is to investigate the morphology and function of the central nervous system (CNS) cultured using such scaffolds. Here, we used an elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), to produce lattice-type scaffolds from a photolithography defined template. The photomask with antidot arrays was spin-coated by a thick layer of resist and downward mounted on a rotating stage at angle of 45°...
January 15, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332574/biomacromolecular-based-fibers-in-nanomedicine-a-combination-of-drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering
#11
Elham Arkan, Abbas Hemati Azandaryani, Pouran Moradipour, Leila Behbood
BACKGROUND: Biopolymers based materials (polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) are one of the basic resources in bio-engineering sciences because of desirable features. Moreover, nanobiotechnology innovates nanomaterial and associated technique in nano medicine (drug delivery and tissue engineering). METHODS: In the nano-medicine, fibers are introduced as a successful biomimetic extracellular matrix scaffolds and drug carrier systems. Electrospinning as a simple and cost-effective technique is used to design nanofibers...
January 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331361/uterine-artery-embolization-an-analysis-of-online-patient-information-quality-and-readability-with-historical-comparison
#12
Timothy E Murray, Tayyaub Mansoor, Dermot J Bowden, Damien C O'Neill, Michael J Lee
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Investigators aimed to assess online information describing uterine artery embolization (UAE) to examine the quality and readability of websites patients are accessing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A list of applicable, commonly used searchable terms was generated, including "Uterine Artery Embolization," "Fibroid Embolization," "Uterine Fibroid Embolization," and "Uterine Artery Embolisation." Each possible term was assessed across the five most-used English language search engines to determine the most commonly used term...
January 10, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330023/unraveling-the-differential-structural-stability-and-dynamics-features-of-t7-endolysin-partially-folded-conformations
#13
Meenakshi Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: Characterization of partially collapsed protein conformations at atomic level is a daunting task due to their inherent flexibility and conformational heterogeneity. T7 bacteriophage endolysin (T7L) is a single-domain amidase that facilitates the lysis of Gram-negative bacteria. T7L exhibits a pH-dependent structural transition from native state to partially folded (PF) conformation. In the pH range 5-3, T7L PF states display differential ANS binding characteristics. METHODS: CD, fluorescence, NMR spectroscopy and lysis assays were used to investigate the structure-stability- dynamics relationships of T7L PF conformations...
January 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328672/three-dimensional-printing-hollow-polymer-template-mediated-graphene-lattices-with-tailorable-architectures-and-multifunctional-properties
#14
Qiangqiang Zhang, Feng Zhang, Xiang Xu, Chi Zhou, Dong Lin
It is a significant challenge to concurrently achieve scalable fabrication of graphene aerogels with three-dimensional (3D) tailorable architectures (e.g., lattice structure) and controllable manipulation of microstructures on the multiscale. Herein, we highlight 3D graphene lattices (GLs) with complex engineering architectures that were delicately designed and manufactured via 3D stereolithography printed hollow polymer template-mediated hydrothermal process coupled with freeze-drying strategies. The resulting GLs with overhang beams and columns show a 3D geometric configuration with hollow-carved features at the macroscale, while the construction elements of graphene cellular on the microscale exhibit a well-ordered and honeycomb-like microstructure with high porosity...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328338/binding-affinity-prediction-of-nanobody-protein-complexes-by-scoring-of-molecular-dynamics-trajectories
#15
Miguel A Soler, Sara Fortuna, Ario de Marco, Alessandro Laio
Nanobodies offer a viable alternative to antibodies for engineering high affinity binders. Their small size has an additional advantage: it allows exploiting computational protocols for optimizing their biophysical features, such as the binding affinity. The efficient prediction of this quantity is still considered a daunting task especially for modelled complexes. We show how molecular dynamics can successfully assist in the binding affinity prediction of modelled nanobody-protein complexes. The approximate initial configurations obtained by in silico design must undergo large rearrangements before achieving a stable conformation, in which the binding affinity can be meaningfully estimated...
January 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325791/the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-an-update-from-the-national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-report
#16
REVIEW
Donald I Abrams
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325211/uptake-and-intracellular-fate-of-engineered-nanoparticles-in-mammalian-cells-capabilities-and-limitations-of-transmission-electron-microscopy-polymer-based-nanoparticles
#17
REVIEW
Martin Reifarth, Stephanie Hoeppener, Ulrich S Schubert
In order to elucidate mechanisms of nanoparticle (NP)-cell interactions, a detailed knowledge about membrane-particle interactions, intracellular distributions, and nucleus penetration capabilities, etc. becomes indispensable. The utilization of NPs as additives in many consumer products, as well as the increasing interest of tailor-made nanoobjects as novel therapeutic and diagnostic platforms, makes it essential to gain deeper insights about their biological effects. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) represents an outstanding method to study the uptake and intracellular fate of NPs, since this technique provides a resolution far better than the particle size...
January 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323240/engineered-3d-printed-artificial-axons
#18
Daniela Espinosa-Hoyos, Anna Jagielska, Kimberly A Homan, Huifeng Du, Travis Busbee, Daniel G Anderson, Nicholas X Fang, Jennifer A Lewis, Krystyn J Van Vliet
Myelination is critical for transduction of neuronal signals, neuron survival and normal function of the nervous system. Myelin disorders account for many debilitating neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies. The lack of experimental models and tools to observe and manipulate this process in vitro has constrained progress in understanding and promoting myelination, and ultimately developing effective remyelination therapies. To address this problem, we developed synthetic mimics of neuronal axons, representing key geometric, mechanical, and surface chemistry components of biological axons...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322078/received-signal-strength-and-local-terrain-profile-data-for-radio-network-planning-and-optimization-at-gsm-frequency-bands
#19
Segun I Popoola, Aderemi A Atayero, Nasir Faruk
The behaviour of radio wave signals in a wireless channel depends on the local terrain profile of the propagation environments. In view of this, Received Signal Strength (RSS) of transmitted signals are measured at different points in space for radio network planning and optimization. However, these important data are often not publicly available for wireless channel characterization and propagation model development. In this data article, RSS data of a commercial base station operating at 900 and 1800 MHz were measured along three different routes of Lagos-Badagry Highway, Nigeria...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321477/giant-electrocaloric-effect-in-a-wide-temperature-range-in-pbtio3-nanoparticle-with-double-vortex-domain-structure
#20
C Ye, J B Wang, B Li, X L Zhong
Electrocaloric effect (ECE) has the potential applications in solid-state refrigeration with the features of high efficiency and environmentally friendly. Large adiabatic temperature change in a wide temperature range is needed for electrocaloric effect to meet the requirement of commercially application. In this work, giant electrocaloric effect is found in PbTiO3 nanoparticle with double-vortex domain structure in a wide temperature range by using phase field method, which the lowest and highest adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) is 7...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
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