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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805217/mixed-emulsion-of-liquid-crystal-microresonators-towards-white-laser-systems
#1
Gia Petriashvili, Maria Penelope De Santo, Raul Josue Hernandez, Riccardo Barberi, Gabriella Cipparrone
Microdroplet systems have attracted great interest because of their wide range of applications, easiness in processing and handling, feasibility in developing miniaturized devices with high performances and large flexibility. In this study, a stable emulsion based on different dye-doped chiral liquid crystal droplets has been engineered in order to achieve simultaneous omnidirectional lasing at different wavelengths. To obtain the mixed emulsion of dye doped Bragg onion-type microresonators the twofold action, as a surfactant and a droplet stabilizer, of the polyvinyl alcohol dissolved in water has been exploited...
August 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804926/van-der-waals-epitaxial-growth-of-2d-metallic-vanadium-diselenide-single-crystals-and-their-extra-high-electrical-conductivity
#2
Zhepeng Zhang, Jingjing Niu, Pengfei Yang, Yue Gong, Qingqing Ji, Jianping Shi, Qiyi Fang, Shaolong Jiang, He Li, Xiebo Zhou, Lin Gu, Xiaosong Wu, Yanfeng Zhang
2D metallic transition-metal dichalcogenides (MTMDs) have recently emerged as a new class of materials for the engineering of novel electronic phases, 2D superconductors, magnets, as well as novel electronic applications. However, the mechanical exfoliation route is predominantly used to obtain such metallic 2D flakes, but the batch production remains challenging. Herein, the van der Waals epitaxial growth of monocrystalline, 1T-phase, few-layer metallic VSe2 nanosheets on an atomically flat mica substrate via a "one-step" chemical vapor deposition method is reported...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804866/virally-vectored-vaccine-delivery-medical-needs-mechanisms-advantages-and-challenges
#3
Daniel D Pinschewer
Vaccines represent one of the most successful chapters in the history of medicine. Over the past decades, the advent of recombinant cDNA technology has enabled the biomedical community to genetically engineer viruses for vaccine delivery purposes. As a starting point, this review evaluates the unmet medical needs, which drive scientists and industry to exploit such fundamentally new technology for human vaccination. The author discusses the molecular functioning, production and safety profile of replication-competent and -deficient viral vector systems, representing two fundamentally distinct classes of "genetic vaccines"...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804493/a-comprehensive-biophysical-model-of-ion-and-water-transport-in-plant-roots-i-clarifying-the-roles-of-endodermal-barriers-in-the-salt-stress-response
#4
Kylie J Foster, Stanley J Miklavcic
In this paper, we present a detailed and comprehensive mathematical model of active and passive ion and water transport in plant roots. Two key features are the explicit consideration of the separate, but interconnected, apoplastic, and symplastic transport pathways for ions and water, and the inclusion of both active and passive ion transport mechanisms. The model is used to investigate the respective roles of the endodermal Casparian strip and suberin lamellae in the salt stress response of plant roots. While it is thought that these barriers influence different transport pathways, it has proven difficult to distinguish their separate functions experimentally...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803898/electrospun-fibrous-membranes-featuring-sustained-release-of-ibuprofen-reduce-adhesion-and-improve-neurological-function-following-lumbar-laminectomy
#5
Shen Liu, Guoqing Pan, Guangwang Liu, José das Neves, Sa Song, Shuai Chen, Bangjun Cheng, Zhiyong Sun, Bruno Sarmento, Wenguo Cui, Cunyi Fan
Electrospun fibrous membranes provide suitable physical anti-adhesion barriers for reducing tissue anti-adhesion following surgery. However, often during the biodegradation process, these barriers trigger inflammation and cause a foreign body reaction with subsequent decrease in anti-adhesion efficacy. Here, a facile strategy comprising the incorporation of ibuprofen (IBU) into implantable membranes and its sustained release was proposed in order to improve anti-adhesion effects and neurological outcomes, namely to prevent failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802892/the-spatial-dynamics-of-ecosystem-engineers
#6
Caroline Franco, José F Fontanari
The changes on abiotic features of ecosystems have rarely been taken into account by population dynamics models, which typically focus on trophic and competitive interactions between species. However, understanding the population dynamics of organisms that must modify their habitats in order to survive, the so-called ecosystem engineers, requires the explicit incorporation of abiotic interactions in the models. Here we study a model of ecosystem engineers that is discrete both in space and time, and where the engineers and their habitats are arranged in patches fixed to the sites of regular lattices...
August 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802445/the-dibber-designing-a-standardised-handheld-tool-for-lay-up-tasks
#7
Helene Jones, Anne Roudaut, Anna Chatzimichali, Kevin Potter, Carwyn Ward
We present an application of engineering and ergonomics principles in the design of a standardised tool, The Dibber, which is a tool with multiple geometric features to fit the diversity of lay-up tasks used in the composites industry. The Dibber is the result of a design process, which consists of a series of observations and prototyping to extract geometric requirements for lay-up tasks. To demonstrate that it is possible to design a standardised tool prototypes of the Dibber were distributed and 91 participants gave feedback...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802043/an-engineered-orco-mutation-produces-aberrant-social-behavior-and-defective-neural-development-in-ants
#8
Hua Yan, Comzit Opachaloemphan, Giacomo Mancini, Huan Yang, Matthew Gallitto, Jakub Mlejnek, Alexandra Leibholz, Kevin Haight, Majid Ghaninia, Lucy Huo, Michael Perry, Jesse Slone, Xiaofan Zhou, Maria Traficante, Clint A Penick, Kelly Dolezal, Kaustubh Gokhale, Kelsey Stevens, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Roberto Bonasio, Laurence J Zwiebel, Shelley L Berger, Jürgen Liebig, Danny Reinberg, Claude Desplan
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799674/ultrastructural-characteristics-of-ovine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cultured-with-a-silicon-stabilized-tricalcium-phosphate-bioceramic
#9
Salvatore Desantis, Gianluca Accogli, Janina Burk, Sara Zizza, Maria Mastrodonato, Edda G Francioso, Roberta Rossi, Antonio Crovace, Leonardo Resta
Bioceramics are being used in experimental bone engineering application in association with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a new therapeutic tool, but their effects on the ultrastructure of BM-MSCs are yet unknown. In this study we report the morphological features of ovine (o)BM-MSCs cultured with Skelite, a resorbable bioceramic based on silicon stabilized tricalcium phosphate (SiTCP), able to promote the repair of induced bone defect in sheep model. oBM-MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest, cultured until they reached near-confluence and incubated with SiTCP...
August 11, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799089/searching-for-the-pareto-frontier-in-multi-objective-protein-design
#10
REVIEW
Vikas Nanda, Sandeep V Belure, Ofer M Shir
The goal of protein engineering and design is to identify sequences that adopt three-dimensional structures of desired function. Often, this is treated as a single-objective optimization problem, identifying the sequence-structure solution with the lowest computed free energy of folding. However, many design problems are multi-state, multi-specificity, or otherwise require concurrent optimization of multiple objectives. There may be tradeoffs among objectives, where improving one feature requires compromising another...
August 10, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797971/modified-pamam-dendrimer-with-4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone-surface-groups-its-uptake-efflux-and-location-in-a-cell
#11
Anna Janaszewska, Maciej Studzian, Johannes F Petersen, Mario Ficker, Valentina Paolucci, Jørn B Christensen, Donald A Tomalia, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
Traditional amine terminated PAMAM dendrimers may be readily surface engineered by a facile one-pot conversion with dialkyl itaconate esters into 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone terminated PAMAM (G=0-4) dendrimers. These terminated dendrimers are uniquely characterized by exhibiting blue fluorescence emissions (λexc=370nm, λmaxem=440nm). Thanks to this property they can be directly analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry without additional fluorescence labeling, treatment of dendrimers with chemicals or adjusting pH...
July 29, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796191/smart-carriers-and-nanohealers-a-nanomedical-insight-on-natural-polymers
#12
REVIEW
Sreejith Raveendran, Ankit K Rochani, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar
Biodegradable polymers are popularly being used in an increasing number of fields in the past few decades. The popularity and favorability of these materials are due to their remarkable properties, enabling a wide range of applications and market requirements to be met. Polymer biodegradable systems are a promising arena of research for targeted and site-specific controlled drug delivery, for developing artificial limbs, 3D porous scaffolds for cellular regeneration or tissue engineering and biosensing applications...
August 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795726/a-hollow-fiber-system-for-simple-generation-of-human-brain-organoids
#13
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Fangchao Yin, Yue Yu, Yaqing Wang, Hui Liu, Hui Wang, Ning Sun, Haitao Liu, Jianhua Qin
3D organoids exhibit near-physiological morphogenesis and histology relying on the self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), representing a new class of in vitro model for studying developmental biology and diseases. An engineered approach is highly desirable to generate sufficient organoids in a simple and efficient manner. Herein, we present a new strategy for the simple formation of massive human brain organoids from hiPSCs within a hollow fiber reactor system by combining fiber materials with the developmental biology principle...
August 10, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795725/rational-design-of-artificial-dye-decolorizing-peroxidases-using-myoglobin-by-engineering-tyr-trp-in-the-heme-center
#14
Le-Le Li, Hong Yuan, Fei Liao, Bo He, Shu-Qin Gao, Ge-Bo Wen, Xiangshi Tan, Ying-Wu Lin
The rational design of metalloenzymes provides advantages not only for illustrating the structure and function relationship of native enzymes, but also for creating functional artificial enzymes comparable to native enzymes. Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) are a new family of heme peroxidases and have received much attention recently. Inspired by the structural features of native DyPs with multiple Tyr and Trp residues, we herein aimed to design functional artificial DyPs using myoglobin (Mb), an O2 carrier as a protein scaffold, by further introduction of Tyr/Trp into the secondary sphere of the heme center in the F43Y Mb mutant...
August 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793227/the-design-space-of-the-embryonic-cell-cycle-oscillator
#15
Henry H Mattingly, Moshe Sheintuch, Stanislav Y Shvartsman
One of the main tasks in the analysis of models of biomolecular networks is to characterize the domain of the parameter space that corresponds to a specific behavior. Given the large number of parameters in most models, this is no trivial task. We use a model of the embryonic cell cycle to illustrate the approaches that can be used to characterize the domain of parameter space corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, a regime that coordinates periodic entry into and exit from mitosis. Our approach relies on geometric construction of bifurcation sets, numerical continuation, and random sampling of parameters...
August 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792720/performance-of-clinical-features-acute-phase-reactants-and-group-a-streptococcus-rapid-test-in-evaluation-of-the-etiologic-agents-for-tonsillopharyngitis-in-children
#16
Bahri Elmas, Mehmet Köroğlu, Hüseyin A Terzi, Ferhat G Aslan, Engin Menekşe, Mustafa Kösecik, Mustafa Altindiş
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792090/distinct-activation-mechanisms-trigger-the-trypanocidal-activity-of-dna-damaging-prodrugs
#17
Emma Louise Meredith, Ambika Kumar, Aya Konno, Joanna Szular, Sam Alsford, Karin Seifert, David Horn, Shane R Wilkinson
Quinone-based compounds have been exploited to treat infectious diseases and cancer, with such chemicals often functioning as inhibitors of key metabolic pathways or as prodrugs. Here, we screened an aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone (ABQ) library against the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis, identifying several potent structures that exhibited EC50 values of <100 nM. However, these compounds also displayed significant toxicity towards mammalian cells indicating that they are not suitable therapies for systemic infections...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783161/phase-coexistence-and-electric-field-control-of-toroidal-order-in-oxide-superlattices
#18
A R Damodaran, J D Clarkson, Z Hong, H Liu, A K Yadav, C T Nelson, S-L Hsu, M R McCarter, K-D Park, V Kravtsov, A Farhan, Y Dong, Z Cai, H Zhou, P Aguado-Puente, P García-Fernández, J Íñiguez, J Junquera, A Scholl, M B Raschke, L-Q Chen, D D Fong, R Ramesh, L W Martin
Systems that exhibit phase competition, order parameter coexistence, and emergent order parameter topologies constitute a major part of modern condensed-matter physics. Here, by applying a range of characterization techniques, and simulations, we observe that in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices all of these effects can be found. By exploring superlattice period-, temperature- and field-dependent evolution of these structures, we observe several new features. First, it is possible to engineer phase coexistence mediated by a first-order phase transition between an emergent, low-temperature vortex phase with electric toroidal order and a high-temperature ferroelectric a1/a2 phase...
August 7, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783079/an-ultra-low-power-turning-angle-based-biomedical-signal-compression-engine-with-adaptive-threshold-tuning
#19
Jun Zhou, Chao Wang
Intelligent sensing is drastically changing our everyday life including healthcare by biomedical signal monitoring, collection, and analytics. However, long-term healthcare monitoring generates tremendous data volume and demands significant wireless transmission power, which imposes a big challenge for wearable healthcare sensors usually powered by batteries. Efficient compression engine design to reduce wireless transmission data rate with ultra-low power consumption is essential for wearable miniaturized healthcare sensor systems...
August 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782846/defect-engineering-toward-atomic-co-nx-c-in-hierarchical-graphene-for-rechargeable-flexible-solid-zn-air-batteries
#20
Cheng Tang, Bin Wang, Hao-Fan Wang, Qiang Zhang
Rechargeable flexible solid Zn-air battery, with a high theoretical energy density of 1086 Wh kg(-1) , is among the most attractive energy technologies for future flexible and wearable electronics; nevertheless, the practical application is greatly hindered by the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) kinetics on the air electrode. Precious metal-free functionalized carbon materials are widely demonstrated as the most promising candidates, while it still lacks effective synthetic methodology to controllably synthesize carbocatalysts with targeted active sites...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
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