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Feature engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641261/robust-web-image-annotation-via-exploring-multi-facet-and-structural-knowledge
#1
Mengqiu Hu, Yang Yang, Fumin Shen, Luming Zhang, Heng Tao Shen, Xuelong Li
Driven by the rapid development of Internet and digital technologies, we have witnessed the explosive growth of Web images in recent years. Seeing that labels can reflect the semantic contents of the images, automatic image annotation, which can further facilitate the procedure of image semantic indexing, retrieval and other image management tasks, has become one of the most crucial research directions in multimedia. Most of the existing annotation methods heavily rely on well-labeled training data (expensive to collect) and/or single view of visual features (insufficient representative power)...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641187/multi-criteria-decision-support-system-dss-for-optimal-locations-of-soil-aquifer-treatment-sat-facilities
#2
P Tsangaratos, A Kallioras, Th Pizpikis, E Vasileiou, I Ilia, F Pliakas
Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636482/impact-of-freeway-weaving-segment-design-on-light-duty-vehicle-exhaust-emissions
#3
Qing Li, Fengxiang Qiao, Lei Yu, Shuyan Chen, Tiezhu Li
In United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector, which meanwhile accompanies with enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as CO, NOx, and HC, approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emission for a petrol and diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636203/directional-matrix-nanotopography-with-varied-sizes-for-engineering-wound-healing
#4
Jangho Kim, Won-Gyu Bae, Yeon Ju Kim, Hoon Seonwoo, Han-Wool Choung, Kyoung-Je Jang, Sunho Park, Bog Hee Kim, Hong-Nam Kim, Kyoung Soon Choi, Myung-Sun Kim, Pill-Hoon Choung, Yun-Hoon Choung, Jong Hoon Chung
Topographic features play a crucial role in the regulation of physiologically relevant cell and tissue functions. Here, an analysis of feature-size-dependent cell-nanoarchitecture interactions is reported using an array of scaffolds in the form of uniformly spaced ridge/groove structures for engineering wound healing. The ridge and groove widths of nanopatterns are varied from 300 to 800 nm and the nanotopography features are classified into three size ranges: dense (300-400 nm), intermediate (500-600 nm), and sparse (700-800 nm)...
June 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634931/3d-cell-culture-an-introduction
#5
Zuzana Koledova
3D cell culture is an invaluable tool in developmental, cell, and cancer biology. By mimicking crucial features of in vivo environment, including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, 3D cell culture enables proper structural architecture and differentiated function of normal tissues or tumors in vitro. Thereby 3D cell culture realistically models in vivo tissue conditions and processes, and provides in vivo like responses. Since its early days in the 1970s, 3D cell culture has revealed important insights into mechanisms of tissue homeostasis and cancer, and accelerated translational research in cancer biology and tissue engineering...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633550/right-fronto-temporal-eeg-can-differentiate-the-affective-responses-to-award-winning-advertisements
#6
Regina W Y Wang, Shy-Peih Huarng, Shang-Wen Chuang
Affective engineering aims to improve service/product design by translating the customer's psychological feelings. Award-winning advertisements (AAs) were selected on the basis of the professional standards that consider creativity as a prerequisite. However, it is unknown if AA is related to satisfactory advertising performance among customers or only to the experts' viewpoints towards the advertisements. This issue in the field of affective engineering and design merits in-depth evaluation. We recruited 30 subjects and performed an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment while watching AAs and non-AAs (NAAs)...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630750/tips-and-tricks-for-using-the-internet-for-professional-purposes
#7
Hasan Huseyin Ceylan, Nurdan Güngören, Fatih Küçükdurmaz
Online resources provide access to large amounts of information which is expanding every day. Using search engines for reaching the relevant, updated and complete literature that is indexed in various bibliographical databases has already become part of the medical professionals' everyday life.However, most researchers often fail to conduct a efficient literature search on the internet. The right techniques in literature search save time and improve the quality of the retrieved data.Efficient literature search is not a talent but a learnable skill, which should be a formal part of medical education...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629894/enhanced-nutrient-transport-improves-the-depth-dependent-properties-of-tri-layered-engineered-cartilage-constructs-with-zonal-co-culture-of-chondrocytes-and-mscs
#8
Minwook Kim, Megan J Farrell, David R Steinberg, Jason A Burdick, Robert L Mauck
Biomimetic design in cartilage tissue engineering is a challenge given the complexity of the native tissue. While numerous studies have generated constructs with near-native bulk properties, recapitulating the depth-dependent features of native tissue remains a challenge. Furthermore, limitations in nutrient transport and matrix accumulation in engineered constructs hinders maturation within the central core of large constructs. To overcome these limitations, we fabricated tri-layered constructs that recapitulate the depth-dependent cellular organization and functional properties of native tissue using zonally derived chondrocytes co-cultured with MSCs...
June 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628872/ag-nanowire-zno-nanobush-hybrid-structures-for-improved-photocatalytic-activity
#9
Qui Thanh Hoai Ta, Sungho Park, Jin-Seo Noh
Reverse-engineered Ag nanowire/ZnO nanobush hybrid structures have been synthesized for the first time by a combination of polyol method and low-temperature solution method. Through the elaborate control of Ag-to-ZnO weight ratio, vertically aligned ZnO nanobushes grew on the surface of well-faceted Ag nanowires. The Ag/ZnO hybrid nanostructures showed the crystal features of both Ag nanowires and wurtzite ZnO nanostructures. They exhibited strong UV absorption, whereas their photoluminescence spectra were much weaker than pure ZnO nanostructures due to the inhibited carrier recombination...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625504/mutations-in-armc9-which-encodes-a-basal-body-protein-cause-joubert-syndrome-in-humans-and-ciliopathy-phenotypes-in-zebrafish
#10
Julie C Van De Weghe, Tamara D S Rusterholz, Brooke Latour, Megan E Grout, Kimberly A Aldinger, Ranad Shaheen, Jennifer C Dempsey, Sateesh Maddirevula, Yong-Han H Cheng, Ian G Phelps, Matthias Gesemann, Himanshu Goel, Ohad S Birk, Talal Alanzi, Rifaat Rawashdeh, Arif O Khan, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Stephan C F Neuhauss, William B Dobyns, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Ronald Roepman, Ruxandra Bachmann-Gagescu, Dan Doherty
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, abnormal eye movements, and variable cognitive impairment. It is defined by a distinctive brain malformation known as the "molar tooth sign" on axial MRI. Subsets of affected individuals have malformations such as coloboma, polydactyly, and encephalocele, as well as progressive retinal dystrophy, fibrocystic kidney disease, and liver fibrosis. More than 35 genes have been associated with JS, but in a subset of families the genetic cause remains unknown...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624199/engineering-next-generation-bet-independent-mlv-vectors-for-safer-gene-therapy
#11
Sara El Ashkar, Dominique Van Looveren, Franziska Schenk, Lenard S Vranckx, Jonas Demeulemeester, Jan De Rijck, Zeger Debyser, Ute Modlich, Rik Gijsbers
Retroviral vectors have shown their curative potential in clinical trials correcting monogenetic disorders. However, therapeutic benefits were compromised due to vector-induced dysregulation of cellular genes and leukemia development in a subset of patients. Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins act as cellular cofactors that tether the murine leukemia virus (MLV) pre-integration complex to host chromatin via interaction with the MLV integrase (IN) and thereby define the typical gammaretroviral integration distribution...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623326/sialic-acid-linkage-differentiation-of-glycopeptides-using-capillary-electrophoresis-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#12
Guinevere S M Kammeijer, Bas C Jansen, Isabelle Kohler, Anthonius A M Heemskerk, Oleg A Mayboroda, Paul J Hensbergen, Julie Schappler, Manfred Wuhrer
Sialylation is a glycosylation feature that occurs in different linkages at the non-reducing end of a glycan moiety, the linkage isomers are often differentially associated with various biological processes. Due to very similar physico-chemical properties, the separation of isomeric sialylated glycopeptides remains challenging but of utmost importance in the biomedicine and biotechnology, including biomarker discovery, glyco-engineering and biopharmaceutical characterization. This study presents the implementation of a high-resolution separation platform based on capillary electrophoresis - mass spectrometry (CE-MS) allowing for the selective analysis of α2,3- and α2,6-sialylated glycopeptides...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622636/crispr-based-engineering-of-next-generation-lactic-acid-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Sarah O'Flaherty, Rodolphe Barrangou
The advent of CRISPR-based technologies has opened new avenues for the development of next-generation food microorganisms and probiotics with enhanced functionalities. Building off two decades of functional genomics studies unraveling the genetic basis for food fermentations and host-probiotic interactions, CRISPR technologies offer a wide range of opportunities to engineer commercially-relevant Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems can be repurposed to enhance gene expression or provide new features to improve host colonization and promote human health...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620813/an-in-silico-insight-into-the-substrate-binding-characteristics-of-the-active-site-of-amorpha-4-11-diene-synthase-a-key-enzyme-in-artemisinin-biosynthesis
#14
Habib Eslami, Seyed Kaveh Mohtashami, Maryam Taghavi Basmanj, Maryam Rahati, Hamzeh Rahimi
The enzyme amorphadiene synthase (ADS) conducts the first committed step in the biosynthetic conversion of the substrate farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to artemisinin, which is a highly effective natural product against multidrug-resistant strains of malaria. Due to the either low abundance or low turn-over rate of the enzyme, obtaining artemisinin from both natural and synthetic sources is costly and laborious. In this in silico study, we strived to elucidate the substrate binding site specificities of the ADS, with the rational that unraveling enzyme features paves the way for enzyme engineering to increase synthesis rate...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620447/photoelectrochemistry-by-design-tailoring-the-nanoscale-structure-of-pt-nio-composites-leads-to-enhanced-photoelectrochemical-hydrogen-evolution-performance
#15
András Sápi, András Varga, Gergely F Samu, Dorina Dobó, Koppány L Juhász, Bettina Takács, Erika Varga, Ákos Kukovecz, Zoltán Kónya, Csaba Janáky
Photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution is a promising avenue to store the energy of sunlight in the form of chemical bonds. The recent rapid development of new synthetic approaches enables the nanoscale engineering of semiconductor photoelectrodes, thus tailoring their physicochemical properties toward efficient H2 formation. In this work, we carried out the parallel optimization of the morphological features of the semiconductor light absorber (NiO) and the cocatalyst (Pt). While nanoporous NiO films were obtained by electrochemical anodization, the monodisperse Pt nanoparticles were synthesized using wet chemical methods...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619003/hydroxyapatite-as-a-nanomaterial-for-advanced-tissue-engineering-and-drug-therapy
#16
Juha Tuukkanen, Miho Nakamura
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a complicated ceramic material that varies between the way it appears in biological systems and how it is synthesized as various calcium phosphates. HAp varies in chemical composition of substituting atoms, crystallinity, grain size and electrical polarization. HAp can form solid to macro-, micro- and nanoporous structures. Also, particulate HAp can have highly porous structure. HAp can be used as coatings for metal implants in thicknesses from hundreds of microns down to hundreds of nanometers...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618977/sacrificial-template-method-for-the-synthesis-of-three-dimensional-nanofibrous-58s-bioglass-scaffold-and-its-in%C3%A2-vitro-bioactivity-and-cell-responses
#17
Honglin Luo, Yang Zhang, Gen Li, Junpin Tu, Zhiwei Yang, Guangyao Xiong, Zheren Wang, Yuan Huang, Yizao Wan
Three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds that morphologically mimic natural extracellular matrices hold great promises in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their increased cell attachment and differentiation compared with block structure. In this work, for the first time, three-dimensional porous nanofibrous 58S bioglass scaffolds have been fabricated using a sacrificial template method. During the process, a natural three-dimensional nanofibrous bacterial cellulose was used as the sacrificial template on which precursor 58S glass was deposited via a sol-gel route...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618575/hydrodynamics-of-viscous-inhalant-flows
#18
Aaron C True, John P Crimaldi
Inhalant flows draw fluid into an orifice from a reservoir and are ubiquitous in engineering and biology. Surprisingly, there is a lack of quantitative information on viscous inhalant flows. We consider here laminar flows (Reynolds number Re≤100) developing after impulsive inhalation begins. We implement finite element simulations of flows with varying Re and extraction height h (orifice height above a bottom bed). Numerical results are experimentally validated using particle image velocimetry measurements in a physical model for a representative flow case in the middle of the Re-h parameter space...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617579/programming-feature-size-in-thermal-wrinkling-of-metal-polymer-bilayer-by-modulating-substrate-visco-elasticity
#19
Anuja Das, Aditya Banerji, Rabibrata Mukherjee
We report a novel strategy to create stress induced self-organized wrinkles in a metal polymer bilayer with programmable periodicity (λS) varying over a wide range, from ≈ 20 m down to ≈ 800 nm by modulating the viscoelasticity of the bottom polymer layer. Substrates with different visco-elasticity are prepared by pre-curing thin films of a thermo-curable poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer (Sylgard 184) for different durations (tP) prior to deposition of the top aluminum layer by thermal evaporation...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616951/direct-characterization-of-the-native-structure-and-mechanics-of-cyanobacterial-carboxysomes
#20
Matthew Faulkner, Jorge Rodriguez-Ramos, Gregory F Dykes, Siân V Owen, Selene Casella, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Lu-Ning Liu
Carboxysomes are proteinaceous organelles that play essential roles in enhancing carbon fixation in cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria. These self-assembling organelles encapsulate Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase using a protein shell structurally resembling an icosahedral viral capsid. The protein shell serves as a physical barrier to protect enzymes from the cytosol and a selectively permeable membrane to mediate transport of enzyme substrates and products...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
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