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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144589/-sphingosine-1-phosphate-immobilized-on-nanotopographical-scaffolds-improve-myogenic-differentiation
#1
Min Suk Lee, Hee Seok Yang
The skeletal muscle consists of highly aligned dense cables of collagen fibers with nanometer feature size to support muscle fibers. The skeletal myocyte can be greatly affected to differentiate by their surrounding topographical structure. To improve myogenic differentiation, we fabricated cell culture platform that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) which regulated myocyte behavior was immobilized on a biomimetic nanopatterned polyurethaneacrylate (PUA) substrate using 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) for providing topographical and biological cues synergistically...
November 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143560/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-from-human-amnion-in-chemically-defined-conditions
#2
Jaroslav Slamecka, Steven McClellan, Anna Wilk, Javier Laurini, Elizabeth Manci, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen
Fetal stem cells are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been suggested to be broadly multipotent with some features of pluripotency. Their clinical potential has been documented but their upgrade to full pluripotency could open up a wide range of cell-based therapies particularly suited for pediatric tissue engineering, longitudinal studies or disease modeling. Here we describe episomal reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells from the human amnion to pluripotency (AM-iPSC) in chemically defined conditions...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143038/optical-nonlinearity-engineering-of-a-bismuth-telluride-saturable-absorber-and-application-of-a-pulsed-solid-state-laser-therein
#3
Yi-Ran Wang, Peng Lee, Bai-Tao Zhang, Yuan-Hua Sang, Jing-Liang He, Hong Liu, Chao-Kuei Lee
Saturable absorbers (SAs) have interesting applications for the realization of pulsed lasers in various wavelengths of fiber and solid-state lasers. Topological insulators (TIs) have been recently discovered to feature saturable absorption due to their unique band structure. In this study, high-purity layers of Bi2Te3 thin film SA have been successfully prepared using the spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA). Compared with the typical method of preparing SAs, the SCCA can be used to prepare topological insulator saturable absorbers (TISAs) with high optical quality, large area consistency, and controllable thickness, which is critical for pulsed lasers...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142321/design-of-cultured-neuron-networks-in-vitro-with-predefined-connectivity-using-asymmetric-microfluidic-channels
#4
Arseniy Gladkov, Yana Pigareva, Daria Kutyina, Vladimir Kolpakov, Anton Bukatin, Irina Mukhina, Victor Kazantsev, Alexey Pimashkin
The architecture of neuron connectivity in brain networks is one of the basic mechanisms by which to organize and sustain a particular function of the brain circuitry. There are areas of the brain composed of well-organized layers of neurons connected by unidirectional synaptic connections (e.g., cortex, hippocampus). Re-engineering of the neural circuits with such a heterogeneous network structure in culture may uncover basic mechanisms of emergent information functions of these circuits. In this study, we present such a model designed with two subpopulations of primary hippocampal neurons (E18) with directed connectivity grown in a microfluidic device with asymmetric channels...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141152/tm-values-and-unfolded-fraction-can-predict-aggregation-rates-for-gcsf-variant-formulations-but-not-under-predominantly-native-conditions
#5
Mathew J Robinson, Paul Matejtschuk, Adrian F Bristow, Paul A Dalby
Protein engineering and formulation optimisation strategies can be taken to minimise protein aggregation in the biopharmaceutical industry. Short-term stability measures such as the mid-point transition temperature (Tm) for global unfolding provide convenient surrogates for longer-term (eg 2-year) degradation kinetics, with which to optimise formulations on practical time-scales. While successful in some cases, their limitations have not been fully evaluated or understood. Tm values are known to correlate with chemical degradation kinetics for wild-type granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) at pH 4-5...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141144/engineering-interface-with-one-dimensional-co3o4-nanostructure-in-catalytic-membrane-electrode-towards-an-advanced-electrocatalyst-for-alcohol-oxidation
#6
Zhen Yin, Yumei Zheng, Hong Wang, Jianxin Li, Qingjun Zhu, Ye Wang, Na Ma, Gang Hu, Benqiao He, Axel Knop-Gericke, Robert Schloegl, Ding Ma
Electrochemical oxidation has attracted vast interests as a promising alternative to traditional chemical processes in fine chemical synthesis owing to its fast and sustainable features. An electrocatalytic membrane reactor (ECMR) with a three-dimensional (3D) electrode has been successfully designed for the selective oxidation of alcohols with high current efficiency to the corresponding acids or ketones. The anode electrode was fabricated by the in-situ loading of one-dimensional (1D) Co3O4 nanowires (NWs) on the conductive porous Ti membrane (Co3O4 NWs/Ti) via the combination of a facile hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent thermal treatment...
November 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139602/cell-yield-chondrogenic-potential-and-regenerated-cartilage-type-of-chondrocytes-derived-from-ear-nasoseptal-and-costal-cartilage
#7
Aijuan He, Huitang Xia, Kaiyan Xiao, Tingting Wang, Yu Liu, Jixin Xue, Dan Li, Shengjian Tang, Fangjun Liu, Xiaoyun Wang, Wenjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Guangdong Zhou
Functional reconstruction of large cartilage defects in subcutaneous sites remains clinically challenging because of limited donor cartilage. Tissue engineering is a promising and widely accepted strategy for cartilage regeneration. To date however, this strategy has not achieved a significant breakthrough in clinical translation owing to a lack of detailed pre-clinical data on cell yield and functionality of clinically applicable chondrocytes. To address this issue, the current study investigated the initial cell yield, proliferative potential, chondrogenic capacity, and regenerated cartilage-type of human chondrocytes derived from auricular (AU), nasoseptal (NS), and costal (CO) cartilage using a scaffold-free cartilage regeneration model (cartilage sheet)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#8
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134798/hierarchical-self-assembly-of-a-copolymer-stabilized-coacervate-protocell
#9
Alexander F Mason, Bastiaan C Buddingh', David S Williams, Jan C M van Hest
Complex coacervate microdroplets are finding increased utility in synthetic cell applications due to their cytomimetic proper-ties. However, their intrinsic membrane-free nature results in instability that limits their application in protocell research. Herein, we present the development of a new protocell model through the spontaneous interfacial self-assembly of copolymer molecules on biopolymer coacervate microdroplets. This hierarchical protocell model not only incorporates the favorable properties of coacervates (such as spontaneous assembly and macromolecular condensation) but also assimilates the essential features of a semi-permeable copolymeric membrane (such as discretization and stabilization)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134198/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-direct-differentiation-of-the-membrane-phenotype-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-potentiate-osteogenesis
#10
Kandice R Levental, Michal A Surma, Allison D Skinkle, Joseph H Lorent, Yong Zhou, Christian Klose, Jeffrey T Chang, John F Hancock, Ilya Levental
Mammalian cells produce hundreds of dynamically regulated lipid species that are actively turned over and trafficked to produce functional membranes. These lipid repertoires are susceptible to perturbations from dietary sources, with potentially profound physiological consequences. However, neither the lipid repertoires of various cellular membranes, their modulation by dietary fats, nor their effects on cellular phenotypes have been widely explored. We report that differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts or adipocytes results in extensive remodeling of the plasma membrane (PM), producing cell-specific membrane compositions and biophysical properties...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133625/the-interplay-of-peptide-affinity-and-scaffold-stiffness-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#11
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131948/stable-wettability-control-of-nanoporous-microstructures-by-icvd-coating-of-carbon-nanotubes
#12
Hossein Sojoudi, Sanha Kim, Hangbo Zhao, Rama Kishore Annavarapu, Dhanushkodi Mariappan, A John Hart, Gareth H McKinley, Karen K Gleason
Scalable manufacturing of structured materials with engineered nanoporosity is critical for applications in energy storage devices (i.e. batteries and supercapacitors) and wettability control of surfaces (i.e. superhydrophobic and superomniphobic surfaces). Patterns formed in arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) have been extensively studied for these applications. However, the as-deposited features are often undesirably altered upon liquid infiltration and evaporation due to capillarity-driven aggregation of the low density CNTs...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131760/deep-learning-a-primer-for-radiologists
#13
Gabriel Chartrand, Phillip M Cheng, Eugene Vorontsov, Michal Drozdzal, Simon Turcotte, Christopher J Pal, Samuel Kadoury, An Tang
Deep learning is a class of machine learning methods that are gaining success and attracting interest in many domains, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and playing games. Deep learning methods produce a mapping from raw inputs to desired outputs (eg, image classes). Unlike traditional machine learning methods, which require hand-engineered feature extraction from inputs, deep learning methods learn these features directly from data. With the advent of large datasets and increased computing power, these methods can produce models with exceptional performance...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130885/animal-thermoregulation-a-review-of-insulation-physiology-and-behaviour-relevant-to-temperature-control-in-buildings
#14
Dominic McCafferty, Guillaume Pandraud, Jérôme Gilles, Maria Fabra-Puchol, Pierre-Yves Henry
Birds and mammals have evolved many thermal adaptations that are relevant for bioinspired design of temperature control systems and energy management in buildings. Similar to many buildings, endothermic animals generate internal metabolic heat, are well insulated, regulate their temperature within set limits, modify microclimate and adjust thermal exchange with their environment. Here, we review the major components of animal thermoregulation in endothermic birds and mammals that are pertinent for building engineering, in a world where climate is changing and reduction in energy use is needed...
November 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128535/branched-peptides-integrate-into-self-assembled-nanostructures-and-enhance-biomechanics-of-peptidic-hydrogels
#15
Raffaele Pugliese, Federico Fontana, Amanda Marchini, Fabrizio Gelain
Self-assembling peptides (SAP) have drawn an increasing interest in the tissue engineering community. They display unquestionable biomimetic properties, tailorability and promising biocompatibility. However their use has been hampered by poor mechanical properties making them fragile soft scaffolds. To increase SAP hydrogel stiffness we introduced a novel strategy based on multiple ramifications of (LDLK)3, a well-known linear SAP, connected with one or multiple "lysine knots". Differently branched SAPs were tested by increasing the number of (LDLK)3-like branches and by adding the neuro-regenerative functional motif BMHP1 as a single branch...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127673/technology-development-as-a-normative-practice-a-meaning-based-approach-to-learning-about-values-in-engineering-damming-as-a-case-study
#16
Mahdi G Nia, Mehdi F Harandi, Marc J de Vries
Engineering, as a complex and multidimensional practice of technology development, has long been a source of ethical concerns. These concerns have been approached from various perspectives. There are ongoing debates in the literature of the philosophy of engineering/technology about how to organize an optimized view of the values entailed in technology development processes. However, these debates deliver little in the way of a concrete rationale or framework that could comprehensively describe different types of engineering values and their multi-aspect interrelations in real engineering practices...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126580/codebook-based-electrooculography-data-analysis-towards-cognitive-activity-recognition
#17
P Lagodzinski, K Shirahama, M Grzegorzek
With the advancement in mobile/wearable technology, people started to use a variety of sensing devices to track their daily activities as well as health and fitness conditions in order to improve the quality of life. This work addresses an idea of eye movement analysis, which due to the strong correlation with cognitive tasks can be successfully utilized in activity recognition. Eye movements are recorded using an electrooculographic (EOG) system built into the frames of glasses, which can be worn more unobtrusively and comfortably than other devices...
October 28, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126218/libra-wa-a-web-application-for-ligand-binding-site-detection-and-protein-function-recognition
#18
Daniele Toti, Viet Hung Le, Valentina Tortosa, Valentina Brandi, Fabio Polticelli
Summary: Recently, LIBRA, a tool for active/ligand binding site prediction, was described. LIBRA's effectiveness was comparable to similar state-of-the-art tools; however, its scoring scheme, output presentation, dependence on local resources and overall convenience were amenable to improvements. To solve these issues, LIBRA-WA, a web application based on an improved LIBRA engine, has been developed, featuring a novel scoring scheme consistently improving LIBRA's performance, and a refined algorithm that can identify binding sites hosted at the interface between different subunits...
November 6, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125134/implicit-relevance-feedback-from-electroencephalography-and-eye-tracking-in-image-search
#19
Jan Eike Golenia, Markus Andreas Wenzel, Mihail Bogojeski, Benjamin Blankertz
OBJECTIVE: Methods from brain-computer interfacing (BCI) open a direct access to the mental processes of computer users, which offers particular benefits in comparison to standard methods for inferring user-related information. The signals can be recorded unobtrusively in the background, which circumvents the time-consuming and distracting need for the users to give explicit feedback to questions concerning the individual interest. The obtained implicit information makes it possible to create dynamic user interest profiles in real-time, that can be taken into account by novel types of adaptive, personalised software...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123197/a-microdevice-platform-recapitulating-hypoxic-tumor-microenvironments
#20
Yuta Ando, Hoang P Ta, Daniel P Yen, Sang-Sin Lee, Sneha Raola, Keyue Shen
Hypoxia plays a central role in cancer progression and resistance to therapy. We have engineered a microdevice platform to recapitulate the intratumor oxygen gradients that drive the heterogeneous hypoxic landscapes in solid tumors. Our design features a "tumor section"-like culture by incorporating a cell layer between two diffusion barriers, where an oxygen gradient is established by cellular metabolism and physical constraints. We confirmed the oxygen gradient by numerical simulation and imaging-based oxygen sensor measurement...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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