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immune checkpoint inhibitors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931587/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Sonam Puri, Michael Shafique, Jhanelle E Gray
Surgical resection ± chemotherapy ± radiation or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are established treatment modalities for resectable stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and concurrent chemotherapy with radiation is the therapy of choice for unresectable locally advanced disease. Despite treatment with curative intent, most patients subsequently relapse and develop distant disease. Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advancement in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. Therapy against programed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) is associated with a significant improvement in overall survival in stage IV disease, and these results have led to a great interest in evaluating these agents in earlier-stage NSCLC...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930025/society-for-endocrinology-endocrine-emergency-guidance-acute-management-of-the-endocrine-complications-of-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#2
C E Higham, A Olsson-Brown, P Carroll, T Cooksley, J Larkin, P Lorigan, D Morganstein, P J Trainer
Immunotherapy treatment with checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) (CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors) significantly improves survival in a number of cancers. Treatment can be limited by immune-mediated adverse effects including endocrinopathies such as hypophysitis, adrenalitis, thyroiditis and diabetes mellitus. If endocrinopathies (particularly hypocortisolemia) are not recognized early, they can be fatal. The diagnosis and management of endocrinopathies can be complicated by simultaneous multi-organ immune adverse effects...
July 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927883/extraocular-muscle-enlargement-and-thyroid-eye-disease-like-orbital-inflammation-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-cancer-patients
#3
Oded Sagiv, Thomas J Kandl, Sudip D Thakar, Bradley A Thuro, Naifa L Busaidy, Maria Cabanillas, Camilo Jimenez, Ramona Dadu, Paul H Graham, J Matthew Debnam, Bita Esmaeli
PURPOSE: To describe thyroid eye disease (TED)-like orbital inflammatory syndrome in 3 cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. METHODS: All consecutive patients treated by the senior author who were receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors and developed TED-like orbital inflammation were included. RESULTS: Three cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors developed orbital inflammation. The first patient was treated with a combination of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitor and a programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor and developed TED-like orbital inflammation with normal thyroid function and antibody levels...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927336/nivolumab-and-its-use-in-the-second-line-treatment-of-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#4
Daniele Raggi, Andrea Necchi, Patrizia Giannatempo
Nivolumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody blocking PD-1 with demonstrated effectiveness against metastatic urothelial carcinoma. In this review, we describe the pharmacological properties of nivolumab and the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma with this checkpoint inhibitor after the failure of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibition offers potential to prolong patient survival with well manageable toxicity although serious immune-related adverse events may occur...
June 21, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925736/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-icis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#5
Kazue Yoneda, Naoko Imanishi, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Fumihiro Tanaka
Cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become a "game changer" in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its most clinically important advantage over traditional chemotherapy using cytotoxic agents are its long-term survival benefits, and some advanced NSCLC patients treated with an antibody against programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have survived for 5 years or longer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are also potentially useful for earlier-stage NSCLC when used in combination with surgery or radiotherapy...
2018: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924748/granulomatous-tumoral-melanosis-associated-with-pembrolizumab-therapy-a-mimicker-of-disease-progression-in-metastatic-melanoma
#6
Randi Woodbeck, Andrei I Metelitsa, Karen A Naert
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma, with these agents significantly improving survival for patients with metastatic disease. With the increasing use of these agents, the number of adverse reactions secondary to their use has also increased. Sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions are one such immune checkpoint inhibitor-related adverse event. We report a case of sarcoid-like granulomatous tumoral melanosis in a patient on the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor inhibitor pembrolizumab for metastatic melanoma...
July 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923635/two-cases-of-dabrafenib-and-trametinib-therapy-failed-advanced-melanoma-successfully-controlled-by-nivolumab-monotherapy
#7
Yota Sato, Taku Fujimura, Yumi Kambayashi, Kayo Tanita, Hisayuki Tono, Akira Hashimoto, Setsuya Aiba
Although therapies for advanced melanoma have been greatly improved by the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors, there are still many concerns about the administration of these novel drugs. Therefore, to combine these therapies sequentially at appropriate time points of the disease is important. In this report, we report two cases in which dabrafenib and trametinib therapy for advanced melanoma failed but were successfully controlled by nivolumab monotherapy, and investigated the sera sCD163, CCL22 and CXCL10 as biomarkers for tumor progression...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923615/clinical-development-and-initial-approval-of-novel-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-oncology-insights-from-a-global-regulatory-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Philippe Serrano, Markus Hartmann, Elmar Schmitt, Pedro Franco, Georgios Amexis, Jan Gross, Christine Mayer-Nicolai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923081/vasculitis-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Anisha Daxini, Keri Cronin, Antoine G Sreih
Recent experimental and genetic studies have implicated the role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 (PDL-1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in the pathogenesis of medium and large vessel vasculitis. This study sought to evaluate the occurrence and nature of vasculitis associated with cancer treatment using immune checkpoint inhibition (anti-PD-1, anti-PDL-1, and anti-CTLA4). A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching all available clinical data up to February 2018 in several databases and search engines including Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Clinicaltrials...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923026/inhibition-of-the-adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-expression-of-t-cell-coinhibitory-receptors-and-improves-effector-function-for-enhanced-checkpoint-blockade-and-act-in-murine-cancer-models
#10
Robert D Leone, Im-Meng Sun, Min-Hee Oh, Im-Hong Sun, Jiayu Wen, Judson Englert, Jonathan D Powell
Adenosine signaling via the A2a receptor (A2aR) is emerging as an important checkpoint of immune responses. The presence of adenosine in the inflammatory milieu or generated by the CD39/CD73 axis on tissues or T regulatory cells serves to regulate immune responses. By nature of the specialized metabolism of cancer cells, adenosine levels are increased in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor immune evasion. To this end, small molecule inhibitors of the A2aR are being pursued clinically to enhance immunotherapy...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922881/cardiotoxicity-of-novel-targeted-chemotherapeutic-agents
#11
REVIEW
Isaac B Rhea, Guilherme H Oliveira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the continuing development of newer targeted therapies in oncology, it is necessary to understand their potential cardiovascular side effects. In this review, we discuss the association of novel targeted agents and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the last 5 years, multiple new agents have been developed to target specific cancer pathways and found to have off-targeted cardiotoxicity. The most recent example is the recognition of myocarditis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors...
June 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922709/myocarditis-with-tremelimumab-plus-durvalumab-combination-therapy-for-endometrial-cancer-a-case-report
#12
Syed S Mahmood, Carol L Chen, Natalie Shapnik, Udhay Krishnan, Harsimran S Singh, Vicky Makker
Background: Fulminant myocarditis has been reported in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We present the first described case of acute immune-mediated myocarditis and myositis associated with durvalumab plus tremelimumab combination therapy. The patient was undergoing treatment for advanced endometrial cancer. Case presentation: A 75-year-old Caucasian female presented with difficulty ambulating due to neck protraction, imbalance, and increased shortness of breath with exertion 3 weeks after her first durvalumab and tremelimumab administration for advanced endometrial cancer...
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922232/the-role-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-pathway-in-immune-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-clinical-ramifications-in-gynecologic-malignancies
#13
Muna Alemi Yahya, Shilhav Meisel Sharon, Shay Hantisteanu, Mordechai Hallak, Ilan Bruchim
Treatment of patients with gynecologic malignancies diagnosed at advanced stages remains a therapeutic challenge. Survival rates of these patients remain significantly low, despite surgery and chemotherapy. Advances in understanding the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of cancer have led to the rapid evolution of immunotherapeutic approaches. Immunotherapeutic strategies, including targeting specific immune checkpoints, as well as dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy are being investigated in several malignancies, including gynecological cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915799/a-case-of-severe-encephalitis-while-on-pd-1-immunotherapy-for-recurrent-clear-cell-ovarian-cancer
#14
Morgan Burke, Melissa Hardesty, Wayne Downs
Recurrent clear cell ovarian carcinoma is a difficult to treat condition and early trial data has suggested a possible role for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 immunotherapy that has been used in this setting. While immune related toxicity of these agents has been well described, the occurrence of immune specific neurotoxicity is thought to be rare. We present a case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for a recurrent ovarian clear cell cancer and we believe this to be the first such reported case associated with the use of PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy...
May 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915627/anti-inflammatory-biologics-and-anti-tumoral-immune-therapies-associated-colitis-a-focused-review-of-literature
#15
REVIEW
Weixun Zhou, Yan Huang, Jinping Lai, Jun Lu, Michael Feely, Xiuli Liu
An increasing number of drugs including monoclonal antibodies and small molecules, either anti-inflammatory or immunity-enhancing, have been developed to treat human diseases and the number of medications in these classes is likely to expand in the future. The two most commonly used categories of such therapies are the anti-inflammatory group (anti- tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, anti-interleukins/interleukin receptors, and anti-integrin bodies) and the anti-tumoral agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CD20, and anti-endothelial growth factor)...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915446/refractory-hypotension-due-to-nivolumab-induced-adrenal-insufficiency
#16
Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Keisuke Kondo, Toshihisa Ichiba, Hiroshi Naito, Kazuhito Mizuki, Ken Masuda
Nivolumab, a new immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been found to improve outcomes for patients with some advanced cancers, is being increasingly used. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause immune-related adverse events, including dermatitis, enterocolitis, hepatitis and hypophysitis, but adrenal insufficiency rarely occurs. We present a case of Nivolumab-induced adrenal insufficiency in a man who complained of refractory hypotension. A 52-year-old man with non-small cell lung cancer visited our emergency department complaining of fatigue and diarrhea...
May 2018: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914571/targeting-adenosine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
Robert D Leone, Leisha A Emens
Immune checkpoint antagonists (CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1) and CAR T-cell therapies generate unparalleled durable responses in several cancers and have firmly established immunotherapy as a new pillar of cancer therapy. To extend the impact of immunotherapy to more patients and a broader range of cancers, targeting additional mechanisms of tumor immune evasion will be critical. Adenosine signaling has emerged as a key metabolic pathway that regulates tumor immunity. Adenosine is an immunosuppressive metabolite produced at high levels within the tumor microenvironment...
June 18, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914537/combination-therapy-of-ipilimumab-and-nivolumab-induced-thyroid-storm-in-a-patient-with-hashimoto-s-disease-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-report
#18
Kazuko Yonezaki, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Hitomi Imachi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Nao Yamaji, Jingya Lyu, Tao Dong, Koji Murao
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have widely been used for the management of advanced melanoma. However, high-grade immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. We report a case of a patient with melanoma who developed thyroid storm following treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old Japanese man with a history of malignant melanoma presented to our department with severe thyrotoxicosis and poor blood glucose control...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914088/the-role-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas Meti, Khashayar Esfahani, Nathalie A Johnson
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a unique disease entity both in its pathology and the young patient population that it primarily affects. Although cure rates are high, survivorship can be linked with significant recent long-term morbidity associated with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The most significant advances have been with the use of the anti-CD30-drug conjugated antibody brentuximab vedotin (BV) and inhibitors of program death 1 (PD-1). HL is genetically wired to up-regulate program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in >95% of cases, creating a state of so-called “T cell exhaustion”, which can be reversed with immune checkpoint-inhibitor blockade...
June 15, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913090/oral-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Shun Yamamoto, Shunsuke Kondo
Many clinical trials have been conducted with chemotherapies in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few agents have shown efficacy. It is thought that the efficacy of some agents might have resulted from the heterogeneity of tumors, insufficient dosages due to liver cirrhosis, and post-therapy effects. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced HCC. Areas covered: The authors provide an overview of chemotherapies used for the treatment of HCC, including ongoing trials...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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