Read by QxMD icon Read

UV radiation

Florian Hirsch, Philipp Constantinidis, Ingo Fischer, Sjors Bakels, Anouk Rijs
We investigate the self-reaction of benzyl, C7H7 in a high tempera-ture pyrolysis reactor. The work is motivated by the observation that resonance-stabilized benzyl radicals can accumulate in reactive environments and contribute to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot. Reaction products are detected by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using infrared radiation from the free electron laser FELIX, and are identified by comparison with com-puted spectra. Among the reaction products identified by their IR absorption are several PAH linked to toluene combustion such as bibenzyl, phenanthrene, diphenylmethane and fluorene...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
F Vizzarri, M Palazzo, S Bartollino, D Casamassima, B Parolini, P Troiano, C Caruso, C Costagliola
Ultraviolet-radiation exerts a well-known role in the development of various ocular diseases and may contribute to the progress of age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, the use of compounds able to protect the eyes from UV-induced cellular damage is challenging. The aim of this study has been to test the protective effects of an antioxidant topical formulation against UV-induced damage in rabbit eyes. Twelve male rabbits were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 3 animals each. Control group (CG) did not receive any irradiation and/or eye drop...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Deivisson Lopes Cunha, Alexei Kuznetsov, Carlos Alberto Achete, Antonio Eduardo da Hora Machado, Marcia Marques
Heterogeneous photocatalysis using titanium dioxide as catalyst is an attractive advanced oxidation process due to its high chemical stability, good performance and low cost. When immobilized in a supporting material, additional benefits are achieved in the treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple protocol for impregnation of TiO2 -P25 on borosilicate glass spheres and evaluate its efficiency in the photocatalytic degradation using an oxidizable substrate (methylene blue), in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) reactor...
2018: PeerJ
Sarita Pandey, Anurag Kirti, Arvind Kumar, Hema Rajaram
The ubiquitous SbcCD exonuclease complex has been shown to perform an important role in DNA repair across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, they have remained uncharacterized in the ancient and stress-tolerant cyanobacteria. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120, SbcC and SbcD homologs, defined on the basis of the presence of corresponding functional domains, are annotated as hypothetical proteins, namely Alr3988 and All4463 respectively. Unlike the presence of sbcC and sbcD genes in a bicistronic operon in most organisms, these genes were distantly placed on the chromosome in Anabaena, and found to be negatively regulated by LexA...
March 9, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Tze-An Yuan, Frank Meyskens, Feng Liu-Smith
PURPOSE: Most melanoma studies have been performed in the white population who exhibits the highest incidence rate due to their skin sensitivity to UV radiation. Previous publications have shown that young women (approximately under the menopausal age) exhibit higher incidence rates than men of the same age, and the causes are mostly attributed to their sun behavior or indoor tanning. In our recent publications, we suggested that higher risk in younger women was due to pathophysiological factors, such as hormonal impact, and thus this higher risk in young women should be shared across ethnicities regardless of their skin color or UV behavior...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Marina E Borisova, Andrea Voigt, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Sanjeeb Kumar Sahu, Thomas Juretschke, Nastasja Kreim, Niels Mailand, Chunaram Choudhary, Simon Bekker-Jensen, Masato Akutsu, Sebastian A Wagner, Petra Beli
Ultraviolet (UV) light radiation induces the formation of bulky photoproducts in the DNA that globally affect transcription and splicing. However, the signaling pathways and mechanisms that link UV-light-induced DNA damage to changes in RNA metabolism remain poorly understood. Here we employ quantitative phosphoproteomics and protein kinase inhibition to provide a systems view on protein phosphorylation patterns induced by UV light and uncover the dependencies of phosphorylation events on the canonical DNA damage signaling by ATM/ATR and the p38 MAP kinase pathway...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Titus Josef Brinker, Marlene Heckl, Martina Gatzka, Markus V Heppt, Henrique Resende Rodrigues, Sven Schneider, Wiebke Sondermann, Carolina de Almeida E Silva, Michael C Kirchberger, Joachim Klode, Alexander H Enk, Sarah Knispel, Christof von Kalle, Ingo Stoffels, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Stefan Esser, Aisllan Assis, Breno Bernardes-Souza
BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. Southeast Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation among adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones and adolescents' interest in their appearance indicated effectiveness in a recent study from Germany...
March 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Kang-Yi Su, Liang-In Lin, Steven D Goodman, Rong-Syuan Yen, Cho-Yuan Wu, Wei-Chen Chang, Ya-Chien Yang, Wern-Cherng Cheng, Woei-Horng Fang
Deamination of adenine can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions to generate the highly mutagenic lesion, deoxyinosine (hypoxanthine deoxyribonucleotide, dI). In DNA, dI preferably pairs with cytosine rather than thymine and results in A:T to G:C transition mutations after DNA replication. The deamination of adenine is enhanced by ROS from exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation, UV light, nitrous acid, or heat. In Escherichia coli, dI repair is initiated by endonuclease V (endo V; nfi gene product) nicking but a complete repair mechanism has yet to be elucidated...
February 17, 2018: DNA Repair
Iara F Santiago, Vívian N Gonçalves, Benito Gómez-Silva, Alexandra Galetovic, Luiz H Rosa
Fungi are generally easily dispersed, able to colonise a wide variety of substrata and can tolerate diverse environmental conditions. However, despite these abilities, the diversity of fungi in the Atacama Desert is practically unknown. Most of the resident fungi in desert regions are ubiquitous. Some of them, however, seem to display specific adaptations that enable them to survive under the variety of extreme conditions of these regions, such as high temperature, low availability of water, osmotic stress, desiccation, low availability of nutrients, and exposure to high levels of UV radiation...
March 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Victor Zarantonello, Thiago P Silva, Natália P Noyma, Juliana P Gamalier, Mariana M Mello, Marcelo M Marinho, Rossana C N Melo
Secretion of membrane-limited vesicles, collectively termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), is an important biological process of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This process has been observed in bacteria, but remains to be better characterized at high resolution in cyanobacteria. In the present work, we address the release of EVs by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CYRF-01), a filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacterium, exposed to environmental stressors. First, non-axenic cultures of C. raciborskii (CYRF-01) were exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVA + UVB) over a 6 h period, which is known to induce structural damage to this species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brian P DiMento, Robert P Mason
Many studies have recognized abiotic photochemical degradation as an important sink of methylmercury (CH3 Hg) in sunlit surface waters, but the rate-controlling factors remain poorly understood. The overall objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the relative importance of photochemical reactions in the degradation of CH3 Hg in surface waters across a variety of marine ecosystems by extending the range of water types studied. Experiments were conducted using surface water collected from coastal sites in Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine, as well as offshore sites on the New England continental shelf break, the equatorial Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean...
November 20, 2017: Marine Chemistry
Titus Josef Brinker, Bianca Lisa Faria, Martina Gatzka, Olber Moreira de Faria, Markus V Heppt, Michael C Kirchberger, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fabian Buslaff, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Ana Carla Cruz Oliveira, Henrique Augusto Lino, Breno Bernardes-Souza
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. The Southeast of Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to UV radiation represents a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation for adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that harnesses the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance may represent a novel method to improve skin cancer prevention...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Andrew Spicer, Attila Molnar
It is abundantly clear that the development of gene editing technologies, represents a potentially powerful force for good with regard to human and animal health and addressing the challenges we continue to face in a growing global population. This now includes the development of approaches to modify microalgal strains for potential improvements in productivity, robustness, harvestability, processability, nutritional composition, and application. The rapid emergence and ongoing developments in this area demand a timely review and revision of the current definitions and regulations around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), particularly within Europe...
March 6, 2018: Biology
Bruno Briani, Marina N Sissini, Leidson A Lucena, Manuela B Batista, Iara O Costa, José M C Nunes, Caroline Schmitz, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin, Nathalie Korbee, Leonardo Rörig, Paulo A Horta, Félix L Figueroa, José B Barufi
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) are ultraviolet screen substances synthesized by marine algae. The physiological function of these substances is related to cellular protection against UV radiation and as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These substances can be found mainly in the ocean, among red seaweeds. Its concentration in organisms has been related to ultraviolet radiation and availability of inorganic nitrogen in the environment. We start our study of MAA content in different species to understand if environmental conditions influence the concentration of MAAs in red seaweeds...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Artur Nenov, Rocio Borrego-Varillas, Aurelio Oriana, Lucia Ganzer, Francesco Segatta, Irene Conti, Javier Segarra-Martí, Junko Omachi, Maurizio Dapor, Simone Taioli, Cristian Manzoni, Shaul Mukamel, Giulio Cerullo, Marco Garavelli
We combine sub-20-fs transient absorption spectroscopy with state-of-the-art computations to study the ultrafast photoinduced dynamics of trans-azobenzene (AB). We are able to resolve the lifetime of the ππ* state, whose decay within ca. 50 fs is correlated to the build-up of the nπ* population and to the emergence of coherences in the dynamics, to date unobserved. Nonlinear spectroscopy simulations call for the CNN in-plane bendings as the active modes in the sub-ps photoinduced coherent dynamics out of the ππ* state...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Teija Ruuhola, Line Nybakken, Tendry Randriamanana, Anu Lavola, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The accumulation of flavonoids on the leaf surface is a well-characterized protective mechanism against UV-B radiation. Other protective mechanisms, such as the induction of antioxidative enzymes and peroxidase-mediated lignification may also be important. The effects of UV-B radiation have mainly been considered in short-term studies, whereas ecologically more relevant long-term field studies are still rare. Here we examined the effects of long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the activities of two antioxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1...
March 1, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
C Daniel De Magalhaes Filho, Brian Henriquez, Nicole E Seah, Ronald M Evans, Louis R Lapierre, Andrew Dillin
The transparent nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can sense UV and blue-violet light to alter behavior. Because high-dose UV and blue-violet light are not a common feature outside of the laboratory setting, we asked what role, if any, could low-intensity visible light play in C. elegans physiology and longevity. Here, we show that C. elegans lifespan is inversely correlated to the time worms were exposed to visible light. While circadian control, lite-1 and tax-2 do not contribute to the lifespan reduction, we demonstrate that visible light creates photooxidative stress along with a general unfolded-protein response that decreases the lifespan...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Christine S Ahn, William W Huang
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is not fully understood but involves the complex interplay of genetic factors, immune dysregulation, neurovascular dysregulation, presence of microorganisms, and environmental factors. Increased activation of the immune system occurs through multiple stimuli, including increased levels of cathelicidin and kallikrein 5, Toll-like receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases, and mast cells within the skin. Their effects are enhanced by the presence of microorganisms and external triggers, such as UV radiation...
April 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi Abadi, Farshad H Shirazi, Mohammad Joshaghani, Hamid R Moghimi
Different sunscreens are employed to prevent photo damage (cancer, inflammation, etc.), including ZnO. ZnO is safe when applied as micro-size particle. To overcome some visual problems of ZnO micro-size particles, this sunscreen has been introduced as nano-size particles. Unfortunately, ZnO nanoparticles have raised some health concerns, due to Zn+2 release. On the other hand, it has been shown that ZnO metallic lattice change by metal doping decreases its solubility and toxicity. Therefore, we have decided here to develop new ZnO metallic lattice to reduce its cytotoxicity...
February 27, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Chetan Swaroop, Mukul Shukla
This study is aimed at producing biofilms by reinforcement of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) nanoparticles in polylactic acid (PLA) biopolymer using the solvent casting method. In this study MgO nanoparticles (up to 4 wt%) were reinforced in PLA biopolymer and their key mechanical, barrier, thermal and antibacterial properties were investigated for food packaging applications. Among the prepared biocomposite films, the 2 wt% reinforced PLA films showed the maximum improvement in tensile strength and oxygen barrier properties (up to 29% and 25% respectively) in comparison to pristine PLA films...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"