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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340419/photolytic-degradation-of-the-%C3%AE-blocker-nebivolol-in-aqueous-solution
#1
Alaa Salma, Holger V Lutze, Torsten C Schmidt, Jochen Tuerk
Nebivolol (NEB) is one of the top-sold prescription drugs belonging to the third generation of beta-blockers. However, so far, occurrence data in the environment are lacking. Within this study NEB has been found for the first time in effluent samples of wastewater treatment plants in Germany with an average concentration of 13 ng L(-1). Its photodegradation behavior in the environment and in technical processes is largely unknown. To fill this gap, three different UV treatment procedures (UV-C at 254 nm, UV-B at 312 nm and UV-A at 365 nm) were investigated in three different matrices: pure water, pure water in presence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger tert...
March 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335278/recent-prospects-in-the-inline-monitoring-of-nanocomposites-and-nanocoatings-by-optical-technologies
#2
REVIEW
Elodie Bugnicourt, Timothy Kehoe, Marcos Latorre, Cristina Serrano, Séverine Philippe, Markus Schmid
Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites' potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g...
August 19, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335255/a-gallium-oxide-graphene-oxide-hybrid-composite-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-reaction
#3
Seungdu Kim, Kook In Han, In Gyu Lee, Won Kyu Park, Yeojoon Yoon, Chan Sei Yoo, Woo Seok Yang, Wan Sik Hwang
Hybrid composites (HCs) made up of gallium oxide (GaO) and graphene oxide (GO) were investigated with the intent of enhancing a photocatalytic reaction under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The material properties of both GaO and GO were preserved, even after the formation of the HCs. The incorporation of the GO into the GaO significantly enhanced the photocatalytic reaction, as indicated by the amount of methylene blue (MB) degradation. The improvements in the reaction were discussed in terms of increased surface area and the retarded recombination of generated charged carriers...
July 1, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332195/skin-cancer-history-sun-related-attitudes-behaviour-and-sunburn-among-renal-transplant-recipients-versus-general-population
#4
Vivian Ka Ying Leung, Suzanne Jane Dobbinson, David Josef Goodman, John Kanellis, Alvin Heong Chong
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have both an excessive skin cancer incidence and a high mortality rate. In Australia RTR receive extensive public education on skin cancer and many undergo further education pre/post-transplant. This study examines whether RTR have sufficiently rigorous sun protection behaviour compared with the general population. METHODS: Altogether 179 RTR from two large Melbourne hospitals involving skin clinic teams in patient care were recruited to undergo cross-sectional telephone interviews...
March 23, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329661/predictors-of-actinic-keratosis-count-in-those-with-multiple-keratinocyte-carcinomas
#5
Julia A Siegel, Adam J Luber, Martin A Weinstock
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are frequently treated in the U.S., impacting an estimated 40 million people in 2004 and costing over $1 billion annually. AKs are a major public health concern because of their high prevalence, substantial cost, and potential for malignant transformation to keratinocyte carcinoma (KC). In this analysis, predictors of AK count were explored using pre-randomization baseline data from two large randomized trials of veterans with multiple prior KCs (n=932 and n=1131). Multivariate analyses were conducted to elucidate associations between AK count and several demographic and health related factors...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329638/developing-a-continuous-quality-improvement-assessment-using-a-patient-centered-approach-in-optimizing-sle-disease-control
#6
Katelyn Updyke, Brittany Urso, James A Solomon
Systemic lupus erythematous is a multi-organ autoimmune disease in which the patient has "lost" self- tolerance and developed immune-complexes containing self-antigen that cause disease through tissue inflammation and multi-organ damage. Patients often have unpredictable flares in symptoms with poorly identified triggers. However, it has been suggested in other literature that exogenous exposures, including ingested beef, cigarette smoke, UV radiation, metal-complexing agents, and infections can contribute to exacerbations and improvements in SLE symptoms...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329630/body-mass-index-height-and-early-onset-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-case-control-study
#7
Yanchang Zhang, Brenda Cartmel, Courtney C Choy, Annette M Molinaro, David J Leffell, Allen E Bale, Susan T Mayne, Leah M Ferucci
BackgroundBasal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the US. Body mass index (BMI) and height have been associated with a variety of cancer types, yet the evidence regarding BCC is limited. Therefore, we evaluated BMI and height in relation to early- onset BCC and explored the potential role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure as well as estrogen-related exposures in the BMI-BCC relationship.MethodsBCC cases (n=377) diagnosed under age 40 were identified through a central dermatopathology facility in Connecticut...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329062/comparison-of-demographic-and-photobiological-features-of-chronic-actinic-dermatitis-in-patients-with-lighter-vs-darker-skin-types
#8
Ki-Wei Tan, Ann K Haylett, Tsui C Ling, Lesley E Rhodes
Importance: Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) is classically described in older, white men, although increasing reports describe younger patients with darker skin types, particularly South Asians. Photocontact allergy occurs in CAD but is less studied than contact allergy in this exquisitely photosensitive condition. Objective: To evaluate for differences in demographic and photobiological features between persons with darker and lighter skin types who have CAD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective review included 70 consecutive adult patients (≥18 years) undergoing investigation for photosensitivity who were diagnosed with CAD from November 1, 2000, through August 31, 2015, at the specialist Photobiology Unit of a tertiary academic referral center...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326097/different-proteome-profiles-between-male-and-female-populus-cathayana-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#9
Yunxiang Zhang, Lihua Feng, Hao Jiang, Yuanbin Zhang, Sheng Zhang
With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323482/constraints-on-the-early-terrestrial-surface-uv-environment-relevant-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#10
Sukrit Ranjan, Dimitar D Sasselov
The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world...
March 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323456/stratosphere-conditions-inactivate-bacterial-endospores-from-a-mars-spacecraft-assembly-facility
#11
Christina L Khodadad, Gregory M Wong, Leandro M James, Prital J Thakrar, Michael A Lane, John A Catechis, David J Smith
Every spacecraft sent to Mars is allowed to land viable microbial bioburden, including hardy endospore-forming bacteria resistant to environmental extremes. Earth's stratosphere is severely cold, dry, irradiated, and oligotrophic; it can be used as a stand-in location for predicting how stowaway microbes might respond to the martian surface. We launched E-MIST, a high-altitude NASA balloon payload on 10 October 2015 carrying known quantities of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (4.07 × 10(7) spores per sample), a radiation-tolerant strain collected from a spacecraft assembly facility...
March 21, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323102/preparation-of-core-crosslinked-linear-dendritic-copolymer-micelles-with-enhanced-stability-and-their-application-for-drug-solubilisation
#12
Zhengyuan Zhou, Robert T Forbes, Antony D'Emanuele
In this study we explore the preparation of core-crosslinked micelles of linear-dendritic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)-co-poly(ester-sulfide) (PES) polymers to improve the stability of such polymeric micelle systems against premature disintegration and drug release. A series of MPEG-PES copolymers were synthesised via stepwise reactions of acetylation and thiol-ene photoreaction. Surface tension measurement showed that the copolymers with ethenyl surface groups could self-associate in dilute aqueous solutions to form micelles...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321860/nicotinamide-for-skin-cancer-chemoprevention
#13
REVIEW
Diona L Damian
Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319625/photoprotection-prevents-skin-cancer-let-s-make-it-fashionable-to-wear-sun-protective-clothing
#14
Jeffrey M Milch, Nicholas F Logemann
Protection from UV radiation (UVR) is of paramount importance in preventing skin cancers, the majority of which occur on sun-exposed areas of the face, ears, and neck. A reusable, inexpensive, and truly simple measure of personal protection that greatly reduces exposure to UVR, thereby reducing the risk for developing skin cancers, can be achieved simply by regularly wearing a wide-brimmed hat. In some areas of the world where sunny climates are pervasive and exposure to UVR is part of everyday life, fashion trends, policy, and public health initiatives are in sync, and photoprotection with wide-brimmed hats is embraced as a common and fashionable practice...
February 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318234/light-absorbing-brown-carbon-aerosol-constituents-from-combustion-of-indonesian-peat-and-biomass
#15
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Michael Williams, Jing Chen, Masayuki Itoh, Jason Douglas Surratt, Mikinori Kuwata
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) constituents of organic aerosol (OA) have been shown to significantly absorb ultra-violet (UV) and visible light, and thus, impact radiative forcing. However, molecular identification of the BrC constituents is still limited. In this study, we characterize BrC constituents at the molecular level in: i) aerosols emitted by combustion of peat, fern/leaf, and charcoal from Indonesia and ii) ambient aerosols collected in Singapore during the 2015 haze episode. Aerosols were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to a diode array detector and electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC/DAD-(-)ESI-HR-QTOFMS) operated in the negative ion mode...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300410/delayed-molecular-triplet-generation-from-energized-lead-sulfide-quantum-dots
#16
Sofia Garakyaraghi, Cedric Mongin, Devin B Granger, John E Anthony, Felix N Castellano
The generation and transfer of triplet excitons across the molecular-semiconductor interface represents an important technological breakthrough featuring numerous fundamental scientific questions. This contribution demonstrates unprecedented delayed formation of TIPS-pentacene molecular triplet excitons bound on the surface of PbS nanocrystals mediated through the initial production of a proposed charge transfer intermediate following selective excitation of the PbS quantum dots. Ultrafast UV-Vis and near-IR transient absorption spectroscopy was used to track the dynamics of the initial PbS exciton quenching as well as time scale of the formation of molecular triplet excited states that persisted for 10 μs on the PbS surface, enabling subsequent energy and electron transfer reactivity...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299721/pro-np%C3%A2-protect-against-tio2-nanoparticle-induced-phototoxicity-in-zebrafish-model-exploring-potential-application-for-skin-care
#17
Min-Sik Kim, Melinda Stees, Bala Vamsi K Karuturi, Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu, Richard E Peterson, Gary L Madsen, Vinod Labhasetwar
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are used in sunscreen products to protect the skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays. However, following exposure to sunlight, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2NPs can produce an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing skin cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response. In zebrafish model, we evaluated how well Pro-NP™ (biodegradable NPs containing superoxide dismutase and catalase) could protect them from TiO2NP-induced photo-oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of Pro-NP™ would protect zebrafish embryos from the phototoxic effects of TiO2NPs, improving overall survival and growth...
March 15, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298101/acetonitrile-cluster-solvation-in-a-cryogenic-ethane-methane-propane-liquid-implications-for-titan-lake-chemistry
#18
L René Corrales, Thomas D Yi, Samantha K Trumbo, David Shalloway, Jonathan I Lunine, David A Usher
The atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, exhibits interesting UV- and radiation-driven chemistry between nitrogen and methane, resulting in dipolar, nitrile-containing molecules. The assembly and subsequent solvation of such molecules in the alkane lakes and seas found on the moon's surface are of particular interest for investigating the possibility of prebiotic chemistry in Titan's hydrophobic seas. Here we characterize the solvation of acetonitrile, a product of Titan's atmospheric radiation chemistry tentatively detected on Titan's surface [H...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295176/active-sunscreen-ingredients-in-australia
#19
REVIEW
Francis Hx Yap, Hock C Chua, Clare P Tait
UV radiation exposure is the major contributor to photocarcinogenesis and photoageing. Reducing UV radiation exposure can be achieved by using adequate sunscreen preparations. The use of sunscreen can significantly reduce the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses and invasive melanoma. In the Australian market over 900 sunscreen products are available, each with their own brand, formulation and ingredients. It can be difficult for dermatologists and consumers to determine which are the most effective and appropriate products to use...
March 10, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293822/ibuprofen-removal-by-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-and-ecotoxicological-evaluation-of-the-treated-solutions
#20
EDITORIAL
João P Candido, Sandro J Andrade, Ana L Fonseca, Flávio S Silva, Milady R A Silva, Márcia M Kondo
Emerging contaminants including pharmaceuticals are a class of compounds that are causing great concern due to several environmental problems. Conventional water and wastewater treatments do not achieve high removal efficiencies for many of these drugs. Therefore, the present work investigated the removal of ibuprofen (IBP) by heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 irradiated with artificial UV light or solar radiation. The treated solutions were tested against Daphnia similis and Raphidocelis subcapitata, which are species commonly used as bioindicators of environmental conditions...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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