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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935061/autophagy-in-uv-damage-response
#1
Ashley Sample, Yu-Ying He
UV radiation exposure from sunlight and artificial tanning beds is the major risk factor for the development of skin cancer and skin photoaging. UV-induced skin damage can trigger a cascade of DNA damage response signaling pathways, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and, if damage is irreparable, apoptosis. Compensatory proliferation replaces the apoptotic cells to maintain skin barrier integrity. Disruption of these processes can be exploited to promote carcinogenesis by allowing the survival and proliferation of damaged cells...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935057/crosstalk-among-uv-induced-inflammatory-mediators-dna-damage-and-epigenetic-regulators-facilitates-suppression-of-the-immune-system
#2
Ram Prasad, Santosh K Katiyar
The suppression of the immune system by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of photocarcinogenesis. Numerous changes occur in the skin on UVB exposure, including the generation of inflammatory mediators, DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and migration and functional alterations in the antigen-presenting dendritic cells. Although each of these alterations can elicit a cascade of events that have the potential to modulate immune sensitivity alone, there is emerging evidence that there is considerable crosstalk between these cascades...
December 9, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934192/biobased-nanoparticles-for-broadband-uv-protection-with-photostabilized-uv-filters
#3
Douglas R Hayden, Arnout Imhof, Krassimir P Velikov
Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon solar irradiation. Herein, we demonstrate significant reduction in the ROS concentration by encapsulating an antioxidant photostabilizer with multiple UV filters into biobased ethyl cellulose nanoparticles...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933497/a-review-and-investigation-of-the-effect-of-nanophotocatalytic-ozonation-process-for-phenolic-compound-removal-from-real-effluent-of-pulp-and-paper-industry
#4
Hamed Biglari, Mojtaba Afsharnia, Vali Alipour, Rasoul Khosravi, Kiomars Sharafi, Amir Hossein Mahvi
Phenol and its derivatives are the major environmental pollutants discharged from paper and pulp industries into water bodies. All these compounds and chlorinated phenolic compounds in particular are very toxic to fauna and flora, even at relatively low concentration. This study aimed to investigate the removal rate of phenolic compounds from the effluent of pulp and paper industries using a combination of ozonation and photocatalytic processes. Firstly, a certain volume from the effluent of paper and pulp industries containing certain phenol concentrations was obtained and fed into a prefabricated reactor at laboratory scale...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929538/downregulation-of-aspp2-improves-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-survival-via-promoting-becn1-dependent-autophagy-initiation
#5
Rui Chen, Hao Wang, Beibei Liang, Guoke Liu, Min Tang, Rongjie Jia, Xiaoyu Fan, Wei Jing, Xuyu Zhou, Huajing Wang, Yang Yang, Huafeng Wei, Bohua Li, Jian Zhao
Autophagy is an important catabolic process, which sustains intracellular homeostasis and lengthens cell survival under stress. Here we identify the ankyrin-repeat-containing, SH3-domain-containing, and proline-rich region-containing protein 2 (ASPP2), a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, as a molecular regulator of starvation-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ASPP2 expression is associated with an autophagic response upon nutrient deprivation and downregulation of ASPP2 facilitates autophagic flux, whereas overexpression of ASPP2 blocks this starvation-induced autophagy in HCC cells...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927078/assessment-of-the-uv-cl2-advanced-oxidation-process-for-the-degradation-of-the-emerging-contaminants-amitriptyline-hydrochloride-methyl-salicylate-and-2-phenoxyethanol-in-water-systems
#6
F Javier Benitez, Francisco J Real, Juan L Acero, Francisco Casas
Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol) frequently found in waste-waters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the advanced oxidation process constituted by the combination of UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: amitriptyline hydrochloride > methyl salicylate > 2-phenoxyethanol...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925218/insights-into-light-driven-dna-repair-by-photolyases-challenges-and-opportunities-for-electronic-structure-theory
#7
Shirin Faraji, Andreas Dreuw
UV radiation causes two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. (6-4) photolyases are light-activated enzymes that selectively bind to DNA and trigger repair of mutagenic 6-4 photoproducts via photoinduced electron transfer from flavin adenine dinucleotide anion (FADH(-) ) to the lesion triggering repair. This review provides an overview of the sequential steps of the repair process, i.e. light absorption and resonance energy transfer, photo-induced electron transfer, and electron-induced splitting mechanisms, with an emphasis on the role of theory and computation...
December 7, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923803/whole-exome-sequencing-validates-a-preclinical-mouse-model-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Elena V Knatko, Brandon Praslicka, Maureen Higgins, Alan Evans, Karin J Purdie, Catherine A Harwood, Charlotte M Proby, Aikseng Ooi, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) are among the most common and highly mutated human malignancies. Solar UV radiation is the major factor in the etiology of cSCC. Whole exome sequencing of 18 microdissected tumor samples (cases) derived from SKH-1 hairless mice that had been chronically exposed to solar-simulated UV (SSUV) radiation showed a median point mutation (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP) rate of 155 per megabase. The majority (78.6%) of the SNPs are C.G>T.A transitions, a characteristic UVR-induced mutational signature...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918996/arsenic-removal-from-water-by-coupling-photocatalysis-and-complexation-ultrafiltration-processes-a-preliminary-study
#9
R Molinari, P Argurio
Inorganic As removal from contaminated water has been studied by off-line coupling of photocatalysis and complexation-ultrafiltration (CP-UF), showing that this combination permits to obtain a quite complete arsenic removal from the treated water. Two commercial polymers, poly(dimethylamine-coepichlorohydrin-coethylenediamine) (PDEHED) and poly(diallyl dimethyl amnmonium chloride) (PolyDADMAC) have been tested in the CP-UF process. The operating conditions (pH and polymer/As weight ratio) for As(V) complexation were determined finding values of 7...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918012/effect-of-ferrous-ion-concentration-on-the-kinetics-of-radiation-induced-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-formation-and-growth
#10
T I Sutherland, C J Sparks, J M Joseph, Z Wang, G Whitaker, T K Sham, J C Wren
Magnetite nanoparticles were formed by γ-radiolysis of solutions containing different initial concentrations of FeSO4 without any other chemical additives. The particles formed in a given [Fe(2+)]0 had a narrow size distribution and the average size increased with [Fe(2+)]0. Five hour irradiation at 0.8 Gy s(-1) produced an average size ranging from 23 ± 2 nm to 300 ± 40 nm in 0.1 mM or 10 mM [Fe(2+)]0 solutions, respectively. To ascertain the size-determining mechanism, the kinetics of γ-radiation-induced particle formation and growth were investigated by simultaneously analyzing the [H2(g)] in the headspace, the [Fe(II)] and [Fe(III)] dispersed in solution, UV-Vis absorbances at 304 nm and 380 nm, and the pH of the solution...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917830/structural-analysis-of-the-bright-monomeric-yellow-green-fluorescent-protein-mneongreen-obtained-by-directed-evolution
#11
Damien Clavel, Guillaume Gotthard, David von Stetten, Daniele De Sanctis, Hélène Pasquier, Gerard G Lambert, Nathan C Shaner, Antoine Royant
Until recently, genes coding for homologues of the autofluorescent protein GFP had only been identified in marine organisms from the phyla Cnidaria and Arthropoda. New fluorescent-protein genes have now been found in the phylum Chordata, coding for particularly bright oligomeric fluorescent proteins such as the tetrameric yellow fluorescent protein lanYFP from Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A successful monomerization attempt led to the development of the bright yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen. The structures of lanYFP and mNeonGreen have been determined and compared in order to rationalize the directed evolution process leading from a bright, tetrameric to a still bright, monomeric fluorescent protein...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916910/excited-state-dynamics-of-melamine-and-its-lysine-derivative-investigated-by-femtosecond-transient-absorption-spectroscopy
#12
Yuyuan Zhang, Ashley A Beckstead, Yuesong Hu, Xijun Piao, Dennis Bong, Bern Kohler
Melamine may have been an important prebiotic information carrier, but its excited-state dynamics, which determine its stability under UV radiation, have never been characterized. The ability of melamine to withstand the strong UV radiation present on the surface of the early Earth is likely to have affected its abundance in the primordial soup. Here, we studied the excited-state dynamics of melamine (a proto-nucleobase) and its lysine derivative (a proto-nucleoside) using the transient absorption technique with a UV pump, and UV and infrared probe pulses...
November 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911840/multistep-regulation-of-autophagy-by-wnk1
#13
Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage, A-Young Lee, Chonlarat Wichaidit, Andres Lorente-Rodriguez, Akansha M Shah, Steve Stippec, Angelique W Whitehurst, Melanie H Cobb
The with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) kinases are an atypical family of protein kinases that regulate ion transport across cell membranes. Mutations that result in their overexpression cause hypertension-related disorders in humans. Of the four mammalian WNKs, only WNK1 is expressed throughout the body. We report that WNK1 inhibits autophagy, an intracellular degradation pathway implicated in several human diseases. Using small-interfering RNA-mediated WNK1 knockdown, we show autophagosome formation and autophagic flux are accelerated...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911466/transparent-nanofibrous-mesh-self-assembled-from-molecular-legos-for-high-efficiency-air-filtration-with-new-functionalities
#14
Varun Kumar Singh, Sai Kishore Ravi, Wanxin Sun, Swee Ching Tan
Alarming levels of particulate matter pollution in air pose a serious health threat in several countries, therefore intriguing a strong need for an economic and a viable technology of air filtration. Current air purification technology is rather expensive with certain types even having the risk of emitting hazardous by-products. The authors have developed a multifunctional air filter inspired from the nasal hairs possessing an ability to specifically trap/exhale the foreign particles and allergens while still letting the air flow...
December 2, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910198/degradation-and-biocompatibility-of-photoembossed-plga-acrylate-blend-for-improved-cell-adhesion
#15
Nanayaa F Hughes-Brittain, Lin Qiu, Wen Wang, Ton Peijs, Cees W M Bastiaansen
We have shown previously that PMMA-acrylate photopolymers are biocomopatible and can exhibit improved cell adhesion compared to PMMA, due to an increase in negative surface charge caused by UV radiation PLGA has been used widely in soft tissue regeneration due to its high biocompatibility and cell adhesion. This polymer is also biodegradable and can be utilised in the field of vascular regeneration. In this study, PLGA is blended with a triacrylate monomer (TPETA) to create a degradable photopolymer blend. Surface relief structures are formed on this PLGA-TPETA by photoembossing...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905394/uvr2-ensures-transgenerational-genome-stability-under-simulated-natural-uv-b-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Eva-Maria Willing, Thomas Piofczyk, Andreas Albert, J Barbro Winkler, Korbinian Schneeberger, Ales Pecinka
Ground levels of solar UV-B radiation induce DNA damage. Sessile phototrophic organisms such as vascular plants are recurrently exposed to sunlight and require UV-B photoreception, flavonols shielding, direct reversal of pyrimidine dimers and nucleotide excision repair for resistance against UV-B radiation. However, the frequency of UV-B-induced mutations is unknown in plants. Here we quantify the amount and types of mutations in the offspring of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and UV-B-hypersensitive mutants exposed to simulated natural UV-B over their entire life cycle...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903963/cdh1-regulates-e2f1-degradation-in-response-to-differentiation-signals-in-keratinocytes
#17
Randeep K Singh, Lina Dagnino
The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903823/in%C3%A2-vitro-skin-models-and-tissue-engineering-protocols-for-skin-graft-applications
#18
REVIEW
Lucas B Naves, Chetna Dhand, Luis Almeida, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Seeram Ramakrishna
In this review, we present a brief introduction of the skin structure, a concise compilation of skin-related disorders, and a thorough discussion of different in vitro skin models, artificial skin substitutes, skin grafts, and dermal tissue engineering protocols. The advantages of the development of in vitro skin disorder models, such as UV radiation and the prototype model, melanoma model, wound healing model, psoriasis model, and full-thickness model are also discussed. Different types of skin grafts including allografts, autografts, allogeneic, and xenogeneic are described in detail with their associated applications...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892893/photoprotective-and-radioprotective-properties-of-nitroxides-and-their-application-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Marcin Lewandowski, Krzysztof Gwoździński
Nitroxides are a group of stable organic radicals of low molecular weight having a nitroxyl group > N-.O, which has an unpaired electron. The presence of this group allows a nitroxide to participate in redox reactions. They serve as mimics of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and have stimulative properties towards haemoproteins with catalase-like activity. Nitroxides oxidize Fe (II) to Fe (III) preventing the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions. As the radicals have the ability to scavenge other free radicals. Nitroxides are not immunogenic, and mutagenic and do not show toxicity to the human cells...
October 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892658/occupational-syncarcinogenesis-in-the-skin-combined-effects-of-two-carcinogens-from-the-german-occupational-disease-list
#20
Heinrich Dickel, Otto Blome, Beate Dickel, Thomas Bruckner, Eggert Stockfleth, Silas Paras Soemantri
BACKGROUND: Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled...
November 28, 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
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