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Salivary diagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#1
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932152/human-salivary-protein-extraction-from-rnapro%C3%A2-sal%C3%A2-pure%C3%A2-sal%C3%A2-and-passive-drooling-method
#2
Zohaib Khurshid, Syed Faraz Moin, Rabia Sannam Khan, Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan, Abdullah Hamed Alwadaani, Muhammad Sohail Zafar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to carry out a preliminary validation of devices for standardized collection of whole mouth fluid (WMF) in comparison to the passive drooling method for protein analysis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A carefully designed sample collection/pretreatment protocol is crucial to the success of any saliva proteomics project. In this study, WMF was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 10, ages: 18-26 years). Individuals with any oral disease were excluded from the study group...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922514/the-complexity-of-oral-physiology-and-its-impact-on-salivary-diagnostics
#3
Eva J Helmerhorst, Colin Dawes, Frank G Oppenheim
OBJECTIVES: Saliva contains biomarkers for systemic as well as oral diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the variability in the sources of such biomarkers (plasma, cells), and attempted to identify saliva deterioration markers in order to improve saliva diagnostic outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inter- and intra-subject variation in salivary gingival crevicular fluid levels were determined by measuring salivary albumin and transferrin levels. The purity of collected glandular secretions was determined by bacterial culture, and the variability in epithelial cell numbers by cell counting and optical density measurement...
September 18, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916029/oral-mucosa-biology-and-salivary-biomarkers
#4
Rosie Qin, Andrea Steel, Nasim Fazel
Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904865/mouse-glutamate-carboxypeptidase%C3%A2-ii-gcpii-has-a-similar-enzyme-activity-and-inhibition-profile-but-a-different-tissue-distribution-to-human-gcpii
#5
Tomáš Knedlík, Barbora Vorlová, Václav Navrátil, Jan Tykvart, František Sedlák, Šimon Vaculín, Miloslav Franěk, Pavel Šácha, Jan Konvalinka
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or folate hydrolase, is a metallopeptidase expressed predominantly in the human brain and prostate. GCPII expression is considerably increased in prostate carcinoma, and the enzyme also participates in glutamate excitotoxicity in the brain. Therefore, GCPII represents an important diagnostic marker of prostate cancer progression and a putative target for the treatment of both prostate cancer and neuronal disorders associated with glutamate excitotoxicity...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903405/uptake-of-psma-ligands-in-normal-tissues-is-dependent-on-tumor-load-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#6
Florian C Gaertner, Khalil Halabi, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Stefan Kürpig, Elisabeth Eppard, Charalambos Kotsikopoulos, Nikolaos Liakos, Ralph A Bundschuh, Holger Strunk, Markus Essler
Radioligand therapy (RLT) with Lu-177-labeled PSMA-ligands is a new therapy option for prostate cancer. Biodistribution in normal tissues is of interest for therapy planning. We evaluated if the biodistribution of Ga-68-PSMA-11 is influenced by tumor load. RESULTS: In patients with high tumor load, SUVmean was reduced to 61.5% in the lacrimal glands, to 56.6% in the parotid glands, to 63.7% in the submandibular glands, to 61.3% in the sublingual glands and to 55.4% in the kidneys (p < 0...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891406/clinical-practice-guideline-evaluation-of-the-neck-mass-in-adults
#7
Melissa A Pynnonen, M Boyd Gillespie, Benjamin Roman, Richard M Rosenfeld, David E Tunkel, Laura Bontempo, Itzhak Brook, Davoren Ann Chick, Maria Colandrea, Sandra A Finestone, Jason C Fowler, Christopher C Griffith, Zeb Henson, Corinna Levine, Vikas Mehta, Andrew Salama, Joseph Scharpf, Deborah R Shatzkes, Wendy B Stern, Jay S Youngerman, Maureen D Corrigan
Objective Neck masses are common in adults, but often the underlying etiology is not easily identifiable. While infections cause most of the neck masses in children, most persistent neck masses in adults are neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms far exceed any other etiology of adult neck mass. Importantly, an asymptomatic neck mass may be the initial or only clinically apparent manifestation of head and neck cancer, such as squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), lymphoma, thyroid, or salivary gland cancer. Evidence suggests that a neck mass in the adult patient should be considered malignant until proven otherwise...
September 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890252/canalicular-adenoma-a-systematic-review
#8
Alberto J Peraza, John Wright, Ruth Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon but unique benign tumor of salivary gland origin. It is the third most common benign tumor of minor salivary glands, representing less than 1% of all salivary neoplasms. A systematic review is presented of reported cases of CA, to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic features, treatment, and patient outcome. METHODS: Searches of specific databases, as reported, were carried out to identify papers reporting CA...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885737/vascular-pattern-analysis-on-microvascular-sonography-for-differentiation-of-pleomorphic-adenomas-and-warthin-tumors-of-salivary-glands
#9
Inseon Ryoo, Sangil Suh, Young Hen Lee, Hyung Suk Seo, Hae Young Seol, Jeong-Soo Woo, Soo Chin Kim
OBJECTIVES: Pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors are the most common salivary gland tumors. It is important to differentiate between them because at least a partial parotidectomy is necessary for pleomorphic adenomas, whereas enucleation is sufficient for Warthin tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of vascular pattern analysis using microvascular sonography to differentiate between the tumors. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with pathologically proven pleomorphic adenomas (n = 38) and Warthin tumors (n = 24) were included...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885206/ultrasound-elastography-in-diagnosis-and-follow-up-for-patients-with-chronic-recurrent-parotitis
#10
Pamela Zengel, Christoph A Reichel, Teresa Vincek, Dirk André Clevert
PURPOSE: Chronic recurrent parotitis (CRP) is a non-obstructive disease with episodes characterized by painful swelling of the parotid gland. It presents in both a juvenile and an adult form, with no clear information on its actual origin. Diagnosis is based on patient medical history and ultrasound examination but is frequently not correctly identified. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is a novel ultrasound elastography technology that has recently been implemented in the diagnostic work-up of patients with malignancies...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877061/maml2-rearrangements-in-variant-forms-of-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-ancillary-diagnostic-testing-for-the-ciliated-and-warthin-like-variants
#11
Justin A Bishop, Morgan L Cowan, Chung H Shum, William H Westra
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. Recent studies have shown that most MECs harbor gene fusions involving MAML2-an alteration that appears to be specific for MEC, a finding that could be diagnostically useful. While most cases of MEC are histologically straightforward, uncommon variants can cause considerable diagnostic difficulty. We present 2 variants of MEC for which MAML2 studies were crucial in establishing a diagnosis: a previously undescribed ciliated variant, and the recently described Warthin-like variant...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857994/lipoadenoma-of-the-submandibular-gland
#12
Mehmet Çelik, Can Doruk, Aysel Bayram, Gülçin Yegen, Kadir Serkan Orhan
We report a case of an oncocytic lipoadenoma of the submandibular gland, which is a very rare benign tumor of the salivary gland. The patient was a 36-year-old man with a right submandibular mass measuring 29 × 1.3 × 1.2 cm. When the preoperative diagnostic tools were insufficient to rule out malignancy and for definite diagnosis, total removal of the gland was performed. Histopathologically, microscopic examination revealed a well-circumscribed tumor that is surrounded by a thin, fibrous capsule...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846062/association-of-the-salivary-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-its-ligand-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-1-axis-with-oral-inflammation-kidney-disease
#13
Karita M Nylund, Hellevi Ruokonen, Timo Sorsa, Anna Maria Heikkinen, Jukka H Meurman, Fernanda Ortiz, Taina Tervahartiala, Jussi Furuholm, Nagihan Bostanci
BACKGROUND: Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM-1) is a cell-surface receptor involved in amplification of inflammatory response to bacterial infections, along with its ligand peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1). TREM-1 is shed by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to its soluble (s) form. The aim of the study was to investigate association of sTREM-1 and PGLYRP1 with oral inflammatory burden among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at predialysis and post-transplantation stages...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838906/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-contrast-enhanced-ct-of-the-neck-for-the-investigation-of-sialolithiasis
#14
Y M Purcell, R G Kavanagh, A M Cahalane, A G Carroll, S G Khoo, R P Killeen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sialolithiasis is a common benign pathology affecting the salivary glands but it is unclear if contrast-enhanced CT, which is commonly used for investigation of head and neck pathology, can identify calculi as accurately as noncontrast CT. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in the diagnosis of sialolithiasis compared with noncontrast CT of the neck used as the criterion standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, case-control study of 92 consecutive cases in 90 patients who underwent both noncontrast CT of the neck and contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in 2 tertiary referral centers from January 2011 to December 2015 for investigation of sialolithiasis...
August 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828007/a-challenging-diagnosis-of-igg4-related-disease-when-understanding-limitations-of-laboratory-testing-was-pivotal
#15
Victoria Y Y Xu, Mary Bell, Alireza Zahirieh, Janey Hsiao, Kevin Higgins, Zeina Ghorab, Arthur Bookman, Pak Cheung Chan
A 76-year-old man was incidentally found on a CT scan to have lymphadenopathy and bilateral kidney enlargement suggestive of infiltrative renal disease. He was largely asymptomatic but had bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement. A grossly elevated serum IgG (>70 g/L) with concomitant suppression of other immunoglobulins, a small IgG restriction, and a parotid biopsy revealing lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with slight kappa light chain excess all suggested a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD)...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821924/-89-zr-labeled-nivolumab-for-imaging-of-t-cell-infiltration-in-a-humanized-murine-model-of-lung-cancer
#16
Christopher G England, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Brian T Rekoske, Paul A Ellison, Reinier Hernandez, Todd E Barnhart, Douglas G McNeel, Peng Huang, Weibo Cai
PURPOSE: Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody specific for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of T-cell activation and response. Acting as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab binds to PD-1 expressed on the surface of many immune cells and prevents ligation by its natural ligands. Nivolumab is only effective in a subset of patients, and there is limited evidence supporting its use for diagnostic, monitoring, or stratification purposes. METHODS: (89)Zr-Df-nivolumab was synthesized to map the biodistribution of PD-1-expressing tumor infiltrating T-cells in vivo using a humanized murine model of lung cancer...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819242/the-saliva-microbiome-profiles-are-minimally-affected-by-collection-method-or-dna-extraction-protocols
#17
Yenkai Lim, Makrina Totsika, Mark Morrison, Chamindie Punyadeera
Saliva has attracted attention as a diagnostic fluid due to the association of oral microbiota with systemic diseases. However, the lack of standardised methods for saliva collection has led to the slow uptake of saliva in microbiome research. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential effects on salivary microbiome profiles using different methods of saliva collection, storage and gDNA extraction. Three types of saliva fractions were collected from healthy individuals with or without the gDNA stabilising buffer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815484/diagnostic-performance-of-a-newly-developed-salivary-cortisol-and-cortisone-measurement-using-an-lc-ms-ms-method-with-simple-and-rapid-sample-preparation
#18
K Mészáros, G Karvaly, Z Márta, B Magda, J Tőke, N Szücs, M Tóth, K Rácz, A Patócs
BACKGROUND: Late-night salivary cortisol level is one of the first-line tests recommended by the Endocrine Society for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism. Most routine laboratories measure cortisol levels using immunoassay tests which fail to determine low cortisol levels accurately due to the numerous interfering substances. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with simple and rapid sample preparation was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cortisol and cortisone and its performance in the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism was evaluated...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#19
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790964/numb-chin-syndrome-leading-to-a-diagnosis-of-salivary-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Lei Wu, Yifan Zheng, Zhou Zhou, Yanmei Liu, Weixi Zhang, Qi Wu
Numb chin syndrome (NCS) refers to a rare sensory neuropathy characterized by numbness of the chin within the distribution of the mental or inferior alveolar nerve. Although NCS is usually caused by a benign process, it should not be underestimated and a thorough diagnostic evaluation for a new or known progressive malignancy should always be performed. Here, we report a case of salivary ductal adenocarcinoma that mimicked a pulpitis and periodontitis in its early presentation accompanied by numbness of chin...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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