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Penicillin susceptible staphylococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145786/cephalexin-susceptibility-breakpoint-for-veterinary-isolates-clinical-laboratory-standards-institute-revision
#1
Mark G Papich, Cindy Lindeman
The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) uses cephalothin as the class representative for testing veterinary isolates for susceptibility to other first-generation cephalosporins, including cephalexin. We examined replacing cephalothin with cephalexin because cephalexin is used more often clinically. Bacterial isolates were obtained from dogs and cats from a national surveillance program. CLSI testing methods were used to determine the MIC for 4 cephalosporins used in veterinary medicine. Cephalexin clinical breakpoints for canine isolates were established by using published pharmacokinetic data and Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the probability of target attainment (PTA)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132926/molecular-epidemiology-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-production-in-penicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-under-high-susceptibility-conditions
#2
Takashi Matono, Maki Nagashima, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Ayano Motohashi, Satoshi Kutsuna, Kayoko Hayakawa, Norio Ohmagari, Mitsuo Kaku
Little is known about the prevalence of β-lactamase production in penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates under high-susceptibility conditions. We analyzed S. aureus isolates with penicillin G minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 0.12 μg/ml that were recovered from in-/outpatients (n = 108) between 2016 and 2017 in Japan. β-Lactamase production was detected by nitrocefin-based and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute penicillin zone edge testing and blaZ PCR. All isolates were categorized as having penicillin G MIC ≤0...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103614/membrane-microdomain-disassembly-inhibits-mrsa-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Esther García-Fernández, Gudrun Koch, Rabea M Wagner, Agnes Fekete, Stephanie T Stengel, Johannes Schneider, Benjamin Mielich-Süss, Sebastian Geibel, Sebastian M Markert, Christian Stigloher, Daniel Lopez
A number of bacterial cell processes are confined functional membrane microdomains (FMMs), structurally and functionally similar to lipid rafts of eukaryotic cells. How bacteria organize these intricate platforms and what their biological significance is remain important questions. Using the pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we show here that membrane-carotenoid interaction with the scaffold protein flotillin leads to FMM formation, which can be visualized using super-resolution array tomography...
October 26, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099691/phylogenetic-distribution-and-expression-of-a-penicillin-binding-protein-homologue-ear-and-its-significance-in-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Vineet K Singh, Robert P Ring, Vijay Aswani, Mary E Stemper, Jennifer Kislow, Zhan Ye, Sanjay K Shukla
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause serious infections in humans. A plethora of known and putative virulence factors are produced by staphylococci that collectively orchestrate pathogenesis. Ear protein (Escherichia coli ampicillin resistance) in S. aureus is an exoprotein in COL strain, predicted to be a superantigen, and speculated to play roles in antibiotic resistance and virulence. The goal of this study was to determine if expression of ear is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms in its promoter and coding sequences and whether this gene plays roles in antibiotic resistance and virulence...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093105/trends-in-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-staphylococcus-aureus-in-boston-massachusetts-2000-2014
#5
Sanjat Kanjilal, Mohamad R Abdul Sater, Maile Thayer, Georgia K Lagoudas, Soohong Kim, Paul C Blainey, Yonatan H Grad
The rate of infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has declined over the past decade, but it is unclear whether this represents a decline in S. aureus infections overall. To evaluate trends in the annual rates of infection by S. aureus subtype and mean antibiotic resistance, we conducted a 15-year retrospective observational study at two tertiary care institutions in Boston, MA of 31 753 adult inpatients with S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens. We inferred gain and loss of methicillin resistance through genome sequencing of 180 isolates from 2016...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091195/ceftaroline-efficacy-against-high-mic-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-an-in-vitro-hollow-fibre-infection-model
#6
Renu Singh, Mashal Almutairi, Richard A Alm, Sushmita D Lahiri, Maryann San Martin, April Chen, Jane E Ambler
Objectives: The current CLSI and EUCAST clinical susceptible breakpoint for 600 mg q12h dosing of ceftaroline (active metabolite of ceftaroline fosamil) for Staphylococcus aureus is ≤1 mg/L. Efficacy data for S. aureus infections with ceftaroline MIC ≥2 mg/L are limited. This study was designed to generate in-depth pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) understanding of S. aureus isolates inhibited by ≥ 2 mg/L ceftaroline using an in vitro hollow-fibre infection model (HFIM)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081626/ceftriaxone-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-case-series
#7
Rachel Amanda Lowe, Katie Elizabeth Barber, Jamie Leigh Wagner, Allison Miriam Bell-Harlan, Kayla Renay Stover
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) causes 45% of S. aureus bloodstream infections (BSI) and is the most important cause of BSI-associated death. The standard of care therapy is an anti-staphylococcal penicillin or cefazolin, but dosing frequencies for these agents are often infeasible; multiple daily doses tie up infusion lines and are impractical for outpatient antibiotic infusion. Ceftriaxone represents a promising alternative, with once daily dosing and a short infusion time. Currently, treatment with ceftriaxone for invasive MSSA infections is infrequent, with minimal data supporting the clinical utility of ceftriaxone for MSSA BSI...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071076/burden-of-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-pathogens-in-school-children-of-nepal
#8
Sangita Thapa, Shishir Gokhale, Annavarapu Laxminarasimha Sharma, Lokendra Bahadur Sapkota, Shamshul Ansari, Rajendra Gautam, Sony Shrestha, Puja Neopane
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections are one of the most common human infections in all age group and important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Most bacterial upper respiratory tract infections are vaccine preventable. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of carrier state of bacterial upper respiratory tract pathogens among school children. It also aimed to study their antibiograms. METHODS: The specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected from 204 participants on calcium alginate coated swabs (HiMedia)...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050434/microbial-loads-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-different-types-of-raw-poultry-based-meat-preparations
#9
Laura Buzón-Durán, Rosa Capita, Carlos Alonso-Calleja
The hygiene status of raw chicken-meat preparations from retail outlets in North-Western Spain was investigated. Microbial counts (aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliforms, enterococci, pseudomonads, fluorescent pseudomonads, yeasts and molds, and Staphylococcus aureus) were determined for minced meat, hamburgers, nuggets, white sausages, red sausages, escalope, and roll-ups. S. aureus isolates were tested for susceptibility to twenty antimicrobials of veterinary and human clinical significance (disc diffusion method, CLSI)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023054/genetic-characterization-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-and-virulence-determinants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-form-bovine-mastitis
#10
Amal Awad, Hazem Ramadan, Sherif Nasr, Ahmed Ateya, Samar Atwa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is commonly associated with mastitis in dairy herds with potential public health implications. This study was conducted to investigate the existence of S. aureus in mastitic milk and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolated strains as well as the resistance and virulence associated genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred quarter milk samples were collected from 3 dairy farms at Dakahliya (n = 2) and Damietta (n = 1) Governorates, Egypt from September to December 2016...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977678/associations-between-resistance-phenotype-and-gene-expression-in-response-to-serial-exposure-to-oxacillin-and-ciprofloxacin-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
M J Uddin, J Ahn
This study was designed to delineate the relationship between resistance phenotypes and gene expression in wild-type (SA(WT) ), oxacillin-induced (SA(OXA) ), ciprofloxacin-induced (SA(CIP) ) and clinically acquired antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA(CA) ) exposed to oxacillin (β-lactam) and ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone). The phenotypic response and gene expression were varied with the antibiotic exposure. SA(WT) was highly resistant to oxacillin (MIC = 8 μg ml(-1) ) after serial exposure to oxacillin, while the oxacillin susceptibility was not changed in SA(WT) when exposed to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 0·25 μg ml(-1) )...
October 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969119/antimicrobial-activity-of-honey-with-special-reference-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-mssa
#12
Guruvu Neeraja Rani, Radhika Budumuru, Narasinga Rao Bandaru
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial agents are essentially important in reducing the global burden of infectious diseases. With the irrational and excessive use of antibiotics in underdeveloped and developing countries, there may be chances to develop and spread resistant pathogens in the community. As a result, the effectiveness of the antibiotics is diminishing. Therefore, the need for novel alternative antimicrobial strategies has renewed interest in natural products like turmeric, honey, ginger and others exhibiting antibacterial properties...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951056/antimicrobial-activity-among-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-the-asia-pacific-region-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-comparison-of-2015-results-with-previous-years
#13
Qiwen Yang, Ying-Chun Xu, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Michael J Dowzicky
We report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Asia-Pacific during 2004-2010 and 2015. MICs were determined by broth microdilution using CLSI guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed using CLSI breakpoints, except for tigecycline FDA breakpoints. For Acinetobacter baumannii, multidrug-resistant (MDR) rates were 81.8% in 2015 and 48.5% during 2004-2010. Among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae respectively, rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producers in 2015 were 24...
August 31, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949803/enterotoxin-production-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-staphylococci-isolated-from-traditional-raw-milk-cheeses-in-serbia
#14
Snezana Bulajic, Svetlana Colovic, Dusan Misic, Jasna Djordjevic, Radoslava Savic-Radovanovic, Jelena Asanin, Tijana Ledina
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) by examining a total of 71 raw milk cheeses. Additionally, enterotoxigenicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of mecA and mecC genes in the staphylococcal isolates were investigated. The isolation and enumeration procedure of CPS followed the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. The presumptive staphylococci were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using the VITEK MS system...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916003/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-wild-boars
#15
D Seinige, A Von Altrock, C Kehrenberg
We here report the occurrence of S. aureus in wild boars and characterize isolates genotypically and phenotypically in order to get knowledge about the occurrence of clonal lineages and genotypes in free-living wild animals. Forty-one S. aureus isolates obtained from 111 wild boars hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany, were investigated and compared to human and livestock isolates. The S. aureus belonged to multilocus sequence types ST1, ST7, ST30, ST133, ST425, ST804, ST890 and to the new ST3237, ST3238, ST3255 and ST3369...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915926/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-staphylococcus-species-isolated-from-cats-presented-at-a-veterinary-academic-hospital-in-south-africa
#16
Daniel Nenene Qekwana, Dikeledi Sebola, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method...
September 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900682/treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#17
Michael Z David, Robert S Daum
Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. S. aureus isolates identified in the 1960s were sometimes resistant to methicillin, a ß-lactam antimicrobial active initially against a majority S...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895381/penicillin-g-susceptibility-among-staphylococcus-aureus-is-not-so-infrequent-a-retrospective-study
#18
Josquin Moraly, Redouane Dahoumane, Vincent Dubée, Gabriel Préda, Jean-Luc Baudel, Jérémie Joffre, Naïke Bigé, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Eric Maury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893360/borderline-oxacillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-borsa-a-more-common-problem-than-expected
#19
REVIEW
Maria M Hryniewicz, Katarzyna Garbacz
Borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a quite poorly understood and inadequately defined phenotype of methicillin resistance. BORSA strains show low, borderline resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs), with oxacillin MICs typically equal to 1-8 µg ml(-1), and in contrast to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), do not have an altered penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a, encoded by the mecA or mecC gene. Their resistance is typically associated with hyperproduction of beta-lactamases or, in some cases, point mutations in PBP genes...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866692/frequency-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-gene-in-staphylococcus-aureus-colonising-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Z Mohd-Zain, S F A Mohd-Nawi, A Adnan, S Kumar
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients pose a high risk of contracting skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Those who are colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that carry Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) are predisposed to severe infections that could lead to necrotic skin infections. However the association of S. aureus specifically methicillin sensitive S. aureus carrying PVL gene in HIV patients has not been widely reported. Here, we study the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of PVL-producing S...
August 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
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