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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230396/detecting-target-changes-in-multiple-object-tracking-with-peripheral-vision-more-pronounced-eccentricity-effects-for-changes-in-form-than-in-motion
#1
Christian Vater, Ralf Kredel, Ernst-Joachim Hossner
In the current study, dual-task performance is examined with multiple-object tracking as a primary task and target-change detection as a secondary task. The to-be-detected target changes in conditions of either change type (form vs. motion; Experiment 1) or change salience (stop vs. slowdown; Experiment 2), with changes occurring at either near (5°-10°) or far (15°-20°) eccentricities (Experiments 1 and 2). The aim of the study was to test whether changes can be detected solely with peripheral vision. By controlling for saccades and computing gaze distances, we could show that participants used peripheral vision to monitor the targets and, additionally, to perceive changes at both near and far eccentricities...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229429/stimulus-response-incompatibility-eliminates-inhibitory-cueing-effects-with-saccadic-but-not-manual-responses
#2
Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Simon Kwon, Su Ren Gan, S Azrin Jamaluddin, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
There are thought to be two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) depending on whether the oculomotor system is activated or suppressed. When saccades are allowed, output-based IOR is generated, whereas input-based IOR arises when saccades are prohibited. In a series of 4 experiments, we mixed or blocked compatible and incompatible trials with saccadic or manual responses to investigate whether cueing effects would follow the same pattern as those observed with more traditional peripheral onsets and central arrows...
February 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228928/rotating-snakes-illusion-quantitative-analysis-reveals-a-region-in-luminance-space-with-opposite-illusory-rotation
#3
Lea Atala-Gérard, Michael Bach
The Rotating Snakes Illusion employs patterns with repetitive asymmetric luminance steps forming a "snake wheel." In the underlying luminance sequence {black, dark grey, white, light grey}, coded as {0, g1, 100, g2}, we varied g1 and g2 and measured illusion strength via nulling: Saccades were performed next to a "snake wheel" that rotated physically; observers adjusted rotation until a stationary percept obtained. Observers performed the perceptual nulling of the seeming rotation reliably. Typical settings for (g1, g2), measured from images by Kitaoka, are around (20%, 60%)...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228585/fixation-target-representation-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-anti-saccade-task
#4
Xin Zhou, Christos Constantinidis
Neurons that discharge strongly during the time period of fixation of a visual target and cease to discharge prior to saccade initiation have been described in the brain stem, superior colliculus, and cortical areas. In subcortical structures, fixation neurons play a reciprocal role with saccadic neurons during the generation of eye movements. Their role in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less obvious and it is not known if they are activated by fixation, inhibit saccade generation, or play a role in more complex functions such as the inhibition of inappropriate responses...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#5
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226255/action-perception-as-hypothesis-testing
#6
Francesco Donnarumma, Marcello Costantini, Ettore Ambrosini, Karl Friston, Giovanni Pezzulo
We present a novel computational model that describes action perception as an active inferential process that combines motor prediction (the reuse of our own motor system to predict perceived movements) and hypothesis testing (the use of eye movements to disambiguate amongst hypotheses). The system uses a generative model of how (arm and hand) actions are performed to generate hypothesis-specific visual predictions, and directs saccades to the most informative places of the visual scene to test these predictions - and underlying hypotheses...
January 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223519/robust-sampling-of-decision-information-during-perceptual-choice
#7
Hildward Vandormael, Santiago Herce Castañón, Jan Balaguer, Vickie Li, Christopher Summerfield
Humans move their eyes to gather information about the visual world. However, saccadic sampling has largely been explored in paradigms that involve searching for a lone target in a cluttered array or natural scene. Here, we investigated the policy that humans use to overtly sample information in a perceptual decision task that required information from across multiple spatial locations to be combined. Participants viewed a spatial array of numbers and judged whether the average was greater or smaller than a reference value...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222190/salient-object-changes-influence-overt-attentional-prioritization-and-object-based-targeting-in-natural-scenes
#8
Nicola C Anderson, Mieke Donk
A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222173/back-to-basics-the-effects-of-block-vs-interleaved-trial-administration-on-pro-and-anti-saccade-performance
#9
Liran Zeligman, Ari Z Zivotofsky
The pro and anti-saccade task (PAT) is a widely used tool in the study of overt and covert attention with promising potential role in neurocognitive and psychiatric assessment. However, specific PAT protocols can vary significantly between labs, potentially resulting in large variations in findings across studies. In light of recent calls towards a standardization of PAT the current study's objective was to systematically and purposely evaluate the effects of block vs. interleaved administration-a fundamental consideration-on PAT measures in a within subject design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220094/the-word-frequency-effect-on-saccade-targeting-during-chinese-reading-evidence-from-a-survival-analysis-of-saccade-length
#10
Yanping Liu, Ren Huang, Yugang Li, Dingguo Gao
Our study employs distributional analysis (i.e., survival analysis) to examine how the frequency of target words influences saccade lengths into and out of these target words in Chinese reading. The results of survival analysis indicate the survival curves in the high- and low-frequency conditions diverge for a short saccade length, with more than 80% of the lengths of incoming and outgoing saccades being larger than the divergence points. These results as well as simulations using the novel Dynamic-adjustment Model of saccadic targeting (Liu et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209521/impaired-visual-competition-in-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-defects
#11
A C Geuzebroek, A V van den Berg
Intense visual training can lead to partial recovery of visual field defects caused by lesions of the primary visual cortex. However, the standard visual detection and discrimination tasks, used to assess this recovery process tend to ignore the complexity of the natural visual environment, where multiple stimuli continuously interact. Visual competition is an essential component for natural search tasks and detecting unexpected events. Our study focused on visual decision-making and to what extent the recovered visual field can compete for attention with the 'intact' visual field...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202573/alteration-of-the-microsaccadic-velocity-amplitude-main-sequence-relationship-after-visual-transients-implications-for-models-of-saccade-control
#12
Antimo Buonocore, Chih-Yang Chen, Xiaoguang Tian, Saad Idrees, Thomas Muench, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades occur during gaze fixation in order to correct for miniscule foveal motor errors. The mechanisms governing such fine oculomotor control are still not fully understood. In this study, we explored microsaccade control by analyzing the impacts of transient visual stimuli on these movements' kinematics. We found that such kinematics can be altered in systematic ways depending on the timing and spatial geometry of visual transients relative to the movement goals. In two male rhesus macaques, we presented peripheral or foveal visual transients during an otherwise stable period of fixation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202396/do-low-spatial-frequencies-explain-the-extremely-fast-saccades-towards-human-faces
#13
Nathalie Guyader, Alan Chauvin, Muriel Boucart, Carole Peyrin
The visual perception of human faces by man is fast and efficient compared to that of other categories of objects. Using a saccadic choice task, recent studies showed that participants were able to initiate fast reliable saccades in just 100 to 110 ms toward an image of a human face, when this was presented alongside another image without a face. This extremely fast saccadic reaction time is barely predicted using classical models of visual perception. Thus, the present research investigates whether this result might be explained by the low spatial frequency content of images...
February 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198465/fatigue-related-impairments-in-oculomotor-control-are-prevented-by-norepinephrine-dopamine-reuptake-inhibition
#14
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Jason Turuwhenua, Alexa Srzich, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue-induced reductions in saccade velocity have been reported following acute, prolonged exercise. Interestingly, the detrimental impact of fatigue on oculomotor control can be prevented by a moderate dose of caffeine. This effect may be related to central catecholamine upregulation via caffeine's action as an adenosine antagonist. To test this hypothesis, we compared the protective effect of caffeine on oculomotor control post-exercise to that of a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 cyclists consumed placebo, caffeine or a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (bupropion) during 180 minutes of stationary cycling...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195951/assessment-of-oculomotor-function-in-patients-with-postconcussion-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#15
Foad Taghdiri, Brenda Varriano, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
BACKGROUND: Concussion and its associated sequel, postconcussion syndrome (PCS), have a debilitating impact on the lives of concussed patients. However, a diagnostic biomarker for this condition is lacking. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in using oculomotor function testing as an objective assessment of patients with PCS. OBJECTIVES: To systematically synthesize, appraise, and summarize all published empirical studies that have assessed alteration of oculomotor functions in patients with PCS...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195427/oculomotor-deficits-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-potential-biomarkers-of-preclinical-detection-and-disease-progression
#16
Chao Wu, Ding-Bang Chen, Li Feng, Xiang-Xue Zhou, Ji-Wei Zhang, Hua-Jing You, Xiu-Ling Liang, Zhong Pei, Xun-Hua Li
AIMS: To detect specific oculomotor deficits in preclinical stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and evaluate whether these abnormalities prove useful as potential biomarkers of disease progression. METHODS: A Chinese cohort of 56 patients with SCA3, including 12 preclinical carriers of SCA3 (pre-SCA3) and 44 manifest SCA3, and 26 healthy control individuals were recruited. We performed a detailed investigation on central oculomotor performance including fixation, gaze, smooth pursuit, prosaccade, and antisaccade using video-oculography...
February 13, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194135/inaccurate-saccades-and-enhanced-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-suppression-during-combined-eye-head-movements-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-possible-implications-for-cervical-vertigo
#17
Janine L Johnston, Pierre M Daye, Glen T D Thomson
BACKGROUND: The primate ocular motor system is designed to acquire peripheral targets of interest by coordinating visual, vestibular, and neck muscle activation signals. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye-head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition. Previous studies have relied on manipulating head movements in normal individuals to study VOR suppression and gaze kinematics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192379/compensatory-saccades-are-associated-with-physical-performance-in-older-adults-data-from-the-baltimore-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#18
Yanjun Xie, Eric R Anson, Eleanor M Simonsick, Stephanie A Studenski, Yuri Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether compensatory saccade metrics observed in the video head impulse test, specifically saccade amplitude and latency, predict physical performance. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a prospective cohort study. SETTING: National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program Clinical Research Unit in Baltimore, Maryland. PATIENTS: Community-dwelling older adults...
March 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#19
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187157/distinct-eye-movement-patterns-enhance-dynamic-visual-acuity
#20
Dimitrios J Palidis, Pearson A Wyder-Hodge, Jolande Fooken, Miriam Spering
Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players...
2017: PloS One
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