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Marzieh Salehi Fadardi, Larry Allen Abel
SIGNIFICANCE: This study compares saccades and visual task performance in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) with that in normally sighted individuals under mental load. The results highlighted that to more completely evaluate INS therapies recognition time should also be measured with mental load, resembling real-world conditions. PURPOSE: Patients with INS may complain of "being slow to see." Stress is reported to worsen nystagmus and to prolong visual recognition time...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Shira Russell-Giller, Diana Toto, Mike Heitzman, Mustafa Naematullah, John Shumko
BACKGROUND: The King-Devick (K-D) test is a rapid number-naming task that has been well validated as a sensitive sideline performance measure for concussion detection. Patients with concussion take significantly longer to complete the K-D test than healthy controls. Previous research suggests that ocular motor deficits, specifically saccadic abnormalities, may be an underlying factor for the prolonged time. However, these findings have not been studied at length. HYPOTHESIS: K-D testing time of concussed adolescents at the initial clinical concussion visit will positively correlate with vestibular/ocular motor screening (VOMS) total scores...
March 1, 2018: Sports Health
Mirela Nikolova, Stephanie Jainta, Hazel I Blythe, Simon P Liversedge
During reading, binocular visual input results in superior performance and is particularly important in the pre-processing of parafoveal text prior to direct fixation. It is not yet clear whether binocular vision in the parafovea is necessary for accurate saccadic targeting, or for efficient pre-processing of upcoming text, prior to direct fixation. In the present sentence reading experiment, we used a dichoptic gaze-contingent moving window paradigm in order to establish 1) how much parafoveal binocular input is necessary for fluent reading and 2) which aspect of parafoveal processing is more reliant on binocular vision...
March 13, 2018: Vision Research
Louis F Dell'Osso, Richard W Hertle, Jonathan B Jacobs
PURPOSE: To describe the effects of extraocular muscle extirpation performed after previous eye muscle surgery in a 20-year-old woman with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) for whom we have 19 years of follow-up data. METHODS: Clinical examinations were performed. Eye movement data analysis was carried out using the eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) and longest foveation domain (LFD). RESULTS: The patient re-presented to the authors at age 20, 2 years after bilateral anterior myectomy of the horizontal rectus muscles, bilateral anterior nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscle, and bilateral superior oblique recessions...
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Shilpa B Gaikwad, Eric G Johnson, Todd C Nelson, Oluwaseun I Ambode, Abdulaziz A Albalwi, Ahmad A Alharbi, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motion sensitivity is a common condition among the general population and may be accompanied by postural instability and anxiety. Preliminary studies suggest that minimal dosage of gaze stability exercises improves postural stability in young adults with chronic motion sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive gaze stability exercises on postural stability, motion sensitivity, and anxiety in healthy young adults with chronic motion sensitivity...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
Understanding the long-term effects of concussive events remains a challenge for the development of modern medical practices and the prevention of recurrent traumas. In this study, we utilized indices of oculomotor performance and the ability to react to simple environmental stimuli to assess the long-term motor effects of traumatic brain injury in its mildest form (mTBI). We performed analysis of eye movement accuracy, investigated the presence of abnormal eye movements, and quantified time to react to simple environmental stimuli on long-term mTBI survivors...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mirna Pineda-Ortíz, Gustavo Pacheco-López, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Carmen Rubio, Juan Valadez-Rodríguez
RATIONALE: Visual therapy, which includes a restorative and compensatory approach, seems to be a viable treatment option for homonymous defects of the visual field in patients with postgeniculate injury of the visual pathway, due to occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Until now, the Mexican population suffering from homonymous hemianopia did not have health services that provided any type of visual therapy for their condition. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old patient, who underwent a surgical procedure for resection of the AVM, was referred with posterior low vision on the left side...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Adonis K Moschovakis
We studied the phasic saccade related discharges of single neurons (S neurons) of the premotor cortex of female rhesus monkeys, mostly in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus. As described in previous work from our laboratory (Neromyliotis and Moschovakis, 2017b), some of these cells emitted phasic discharges for coordinated movements of the eyes and hand as well as for movements of either effector executed in isolation (motor equivalence -Meq). Other cells (S), did not emit phasic discharges for hand movements unaccompanied by saccades...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Erik Summerside, Reza Shadmehr, Alaa A Ahmed
Making a movement may be thought of as an economic decision in which one spends effort in order to acquire reward. Time discounts reward, which predicts that the magnitude of reward should affect movement vigor: we should move faster, spending greater effort, when there is greater reward at stake. Indeed, saccade peak velocities are greater and reaction-times are shorter when a target is paired with reward. Here, we focused on human reaching and asked whether movement kinematics were affected by expectation of reward...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kristen L Janky, Jessie Patterson, Neil Shepard, Megan Thomas, Kamran Barin, Tom Creutz, Kendra Schmid, Julie A Honaker
OBJECTIVE: 1) Characterize corrective saccades (CS) in normal controls, and 2) examine the sensitivity of the video head impulse test (vHIT) for identifying vestibular loss using both gain and CS. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective combined with retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Seventy subjects with normal vestibular function served as controls (mean age, 44.1 yr; range, 10-78) and data from 49 patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibular loss was retrospectively reviewed (mean age, 50; range, 7-81)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Sonia Bansal, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Barbara L Schwartz, Wilsaan M Joiner
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia reflect disturbances in sense of agency-difficulty distinguishing internally from externally generated sensory and perceptual experiences. One theory attributes these anomalies to a disruption in corollary discharge (CD), an internal copy of generated motor commands used to distinguish self-movement-generated sensations from externally generated stimulation. METHODS: We used a transsaccadic shift detection paradigm to examine possible deficits in CD and sense of agency based on the ability to perceive visual changes in 31 schizophrenia patients (SZPs) and 31 healthy control subjects...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Anne Giersch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
David Souto, Sabine Born, Dirk Kerzel
Inhibition of return is the name typically given to the prolonged latency of motor responses directed to a previously cued target location. There is intense debate about the origins of this effect and its function, but most take for granted (despite lack of evidence) that it depends little on forward masking. Therefore, we re-examined the role of forward masking in inhibition of return. Forward masking was indexed by slower saccadic reaction times (SRTs) when the target orientation repeated the cue orientation at the same location...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alfred Lim, Vivian Eng, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in reaction times to targets that appeared at a previously cued location relative to an uncued location, often investigated using a spatial cueing paradigm. Despite numerous studies that have examined many aspects of IOR, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying IOR are still in dispute. The objective of the current research is to investigate the plausible mechanisms by manipulating the cue and target types between central and peripheral stimuli in a traditional cue-target paradigm with saccadic responses to targets...
March 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Zahra Zargol Moradi, Sanjay Manohar, Mihaela Duta, Florence Enock, Glyn W Humphreys
An in-group bias describes an individual's bias towards a group that they belong to. Previous studies suggest that in-group bias facilitates approach motor responses, but disrupts avoidance ones. Such motor biases are shown to be more robust when the out-group is threatening. We investigated whether, under controlled visual familiarity and complexity, in-group biases still promote pro-saccade and hinder anti-saccades oculomotor responses. Participants first learned to associate an in-group or out-group label with an arbitrary shape...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Yoshiko Izawa, Hisao Suzuki
Focal stimulation in the frontal eye field (FEF) evoked eye movements that were often accompanied by neck movements. Experiments were performed with concurrent recording of both movements in trained monkeys. We recorded neck forces under a head-restrained condition using a force-measuring system. With the system, we measured forces along the x, y, and z axes and torque about the z axis. Torque about the z axis that represented yaw rotation of the head was significantly affected by stimulation. We found that stimulation generated two types of motor actions of the eyes and neck...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tao Yao, Stefan Treue, B Suresh Krishna
While making saccadic eye-movements to scan a visual scene, humans and monkeys are able to keep track of relevant visual stimuli by maintaining spatial attention on them. This ability requires a shift of attentional modulation from the neuronal population representing the relevant stimulus pre-saccadically to the one representing it post-saccadically. For optimal performance, this trans-saccadic attention shift should be rapid and saccade-synchronized. Whether this is so is not known. We trained two rhesus monkeys to make saccades while maintaining covert attention at a fixed spatial location...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Nese Celebisoy
HINTS battery involving head impulse test (HIT), nystagmus, and test of skew is the critical bedside examination to differentiate acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy from posterior circulation stroke (PCS) in acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The highest sensitivity component of the battery has been reported to be the horizontal HIT, whereas skew deviation is defined as the most specific but non-sensitive sign for PCS. Video-oculography-based HIT (vHIT) may have an additional power in making the differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurology
J Iskander, M Hossny, S Nahavandi, L Del Porto
Simulating and analysing eye movement is useful for assessing visual system contribution to discomfort with respect to body movements, especially in virtual environments where simulation sickness might occur. It can also be used in the design of eye prosthesis or humanoid robot eye. In this paper, we present two biomechanic ocular models that are easily integrated into the available musculoskeletal models. The model was previously used to simulate eye-head coordination. The models are used to simulate and analyse eye movements...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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