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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452427/effect-of-routine-screening-head-ultrasounds-on-clinical-interventions-for-premature-infants
#1
Andrew Z Heling, Matthew M Laughon, Wayne A Price
OBJECTIVE: This article assesses whether routine, screening head ultrasound (HUS) studies performed at 7 to 14 postnatal days for premature infants are followed by clinical interventions. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included all inborn infants delivered at < 30 weeks' gestational age (GA) between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a single center who had a routine, screening HUS performed between 7 and 14 postnatal days ( n = 303). We defined "clinical intervention" as a 7 to 14 postnatal day HUS that was followed by neurosurgical intervention prior to a 36- to 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA) HUS or elective withdrawal of critical care within 30 days of a positive HUS finding...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452151/does-reduced-mastication-influence-cognitive-and-systemic-health-during-aging
#2
REVIEW
Sophie Miquel, Marcelo Aspiras, Jon E L Day
There is a growing body of literature which suggests that oral health and mastication can influence cognitive and systemic health during aging. However, it is currently unclear whether oral health, masticatory efficiency, cognitive health and systemic health merely deteriorate independently with age, or whether mechanisms exist linking mastication to cognitive and systemic health directly. The aim of this paper is to review the extent to which reduced mastication influences cognitive and systemic health during aging because this knowledge may underpin future interventions that improve quality of life...
February 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#3
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450819/familial-hypercholesterolemia-cascade-screening-in-children-and-relatives-of-the-affected
#4
Nitika Setia, Renu Saxena, J P S Sawhney, Ishwar C Verma
OBJECTIVE: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol since birth, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Cascade screening of children and family members of proven FH individuals can identify more subjects who have high LDL cholesterol or the family mutation and appropriate intervention can reduce their risk of atherosclerosis and prevent its complications...
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450525/association-of-the-affordable-care-act-dependent-coverage-provision-with-prenatal-care-use-and-birth-outcomes
#5
Jamie R Daw, Benjamin D Sommers
Importance: The effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) dependent coverage provision on pregnancy-related health care and health outcomes is unknown. Objective: To determine whether the dependent coverage provision was associated with changes in payment for birth, prenatal care, and birth outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study, using a differences-in-differences analysis of individual-level birth certificate data comparing live births among US women aged 24 to 25 years (exposure group) and women aged 27 to 28 years (control group) before (2009) and after (2011-2013) enactment of the dependent coverage provision...
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449545/transcriptional-repression-of-dna-repair-genes-is-a-hallmark-and-a-cause-of-cellular-senescence
#6
Guillaume Collin, Anda Huna, Marine Warnier, Jean-Michel Flaman, David Bernard
Cellular senescence response is (i) activated by numerous stresses, (ii) is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest, and (iii) by a set of specific features. Timely regulated senescence is thought to be beneficial, whereas chronic senescence such as during normal or premature aging is deleterious as it favors most, if not all, age-related diseases. In this study, using in-house or publicly available microarray analyses of transcriptomes of senescent cells, as well as analyses of the level of expression of several DNA repair genes by RT-qPCR and immunoblot, we show that repression of DNA repair gene expression is associated with cellular senescence...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447939/the-cardiovascular-robustness-hypothesis-unmasking-young-adults-hidden-risk-for-premature-cardiovascular-death
#7
Lutz E Kraushaar, Alexander Dressel
An undetected high risk for premature death of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with low-to-moderate risk factor levels is an acknowledged obstacle to CVD prevention. In this paper, we present the hypothesis that the vasculature's robustness against risk factor load will complement conventional risk factor models as a novel stratifier of risk. Figuratively speaking, mortality risk prediction without robustness scoring is akin to predicting the breaking risk of a lake's ice sheet considering load only while disregarding the sheet's bearing strength...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447881/tympanostomy-tubes-for-serous-otitis-media-and-risk-of-recurrences
#8
Nathalie Klopp-Dutote, Catherine Kolski, Vladimir Strunski, Cyril Page
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of tympanostomy tubes (TTs) in the management of serous otitis media (SOM) and the risk factors for SOM recurrence. METHOD: This single-centre cohort study was performed in the University hospital of Amiens, France; and concerned 215 under-12 children having undergone at least one bilateral TT (Shepard grommet-type) placements for SOM. RESULTS: The mean TT retention time was 10 months. SOM recurred in 79 children (62...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447482/role-of-vitamin-a-supplementation-in-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-trials
#9
Bhawan Deep Garg, Anju Bansal, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common consequence of extreme prematurity (< 28 weeks of gestation). BPD affects approximately 55% of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of BPD in ELBW neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE and ongoing clinical trials...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447461/genetic-ablation-of-p16-ink4a-does-not-protect-against-cellular-senescence-in-mouse-models-of-copd-emphysema
#10
Isaac K Sundar, Kahkashan Rashid, Janice Gerloff, Dongmei Li, Irfan Rahman
Cigarette smoke (CS) affects DNA damage and cellular senescence signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). p16(INK4a) (p16: a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) is a key marker of cellular senescence, which is induced by CS in lung cells. It is thought that removal of p16 attenuates premature aging by removing senesced cells. However, the role of p16 in CS-induced stress induce premature senescence (SIPS) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP during the development of COPD/emphysema is not known...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446865/european-guidance-on-paediatric-use-of-probiotics-states-that-benefits-are-limited-to-several-conditions-and-urges-caution-with-specific-vulnerable-groups
#11
REVIEW
Iva Hojsak, Valentina Fabiano, Tudor Lucian Pop, Olivier Goulet, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Fugen Cullu Çokuğraş, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Sanja Kolaček
AIM: The use of probiotics has been covered by many guidelines, position papers and evidence-based recommendations, but few have referred to specific patient groups or clinical indications. This European study summarises recommendations and scientifically credited guidelines on the use of probiotics for children and provides practice points. METHODS: An expert panel was convened by the European Paediatric Association in June 2017 to define the relevant clinical questions for using probiotics in paediatric healthcare and review and summarise the guidelines, recommendations, position papers and high-quality evidence...
February 15, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446813/ultrasound-monitoring-of-cervical-length-in-twin-pregnancies
#12
Kaouther Dimassi, Ines Bouriel, Amel Triki, Ali Mrabet, Mohamed Faouzi Gara
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is the major cause of adverse outcomes in twin pregnancy. A shortened cervix at 20-24 weeks of amenorrhea is a good predictor of preterm birth in asymptomatic patients. However, there are no recommendations for serial cervical length measurements for these high risk pregnancies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits from monthly cervical length monitoring in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a prospective study...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445452/exploiting-immune-cell-metabolic-machinery-for-functional-hiv-cure-and-the-prevention-of-inflammaging
#13
REVIEW
Clovis S Palmer, Riya Palchaudhuri, Hassan Albargy, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Suzanne M Crowe
An emerging paradigm in immunology suggests that metabolic reprogramming and immune cell activation and functions are intricately linked. Viral infections, such as HIV infection, as well as cancer force immune cells to undergo major metabolic challenges. Cells must divert energy resources in order to mount an effective immune response. However, the fact that immune cells adopt specific metabolic programs to provide host defense against intracellular pathogens and how this metabolic shift impacts immune cell functions and the natural course of diseases have only recently been appreciated...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444805/a-reassessment-of-genes-modulating-aging-in-mice-using-demographic-measurements-of-the-rate-of-aging
#14
João Pedro de Magalhães, Louise Thompson, Izabella de Lima, Dale Gaskill, Xiaoyu Li, Daniel Thornton, Chenhao Yang, Daniel Palmer
Many studies have reported genetic interventions having an effect on mouse lifespan, however it is crucial to discriminate between manipulations of aging and aging-independent causes of life extension. Here, we used the Gompertz equation to determine whether previously reported aging-related mouse genes statistically affect the demographic rate of aging. Of 30 genetic manipulations previously reported to extend lifespan, for only 2 we found evidence of retarding demographic aging: Cisd2 and hMTH1 Of 24 genetic manipulations reported to shorten lifespan and induce premature aging features, we found evidence of 5 accelerating demographic aging: Casp2 , Fn1 , IKK-β , JunD and Stub1 Overall, our reassessment found that only 15% of the genetic manipulations analysed significantly affected the demographic rate of aging as predicted, suggesting that a relatively small proportion of interventions affecting longevity do so by regulating the rate of aging...
February 14, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444643/sonographic-evaluation-of-adrenal-size-in-neonates-23-to-41-weeks-of-gestation
#15
Shigeo Iijima
BACKGROUND: Fetal adrenal gland size is known to have a positive correlation with both gestational age and estimated body weight. In contrast, some clinical observations suggest that maturation of the adrenal stress response occurs after 30 weeks of gestation. In this study, adrenal gland size at birth in extremely preterm to term neonates was investigated using ultrasonography to evaluate the adrenal developmental pattern and the impact of prematurity and perinatal factors. METHODS: The area of the right adrenal gland was measured in the first 3 h of life in 350 neonates and corrected for birth weight (BW) to determine the corrected adrenal area index (cAI)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444139/post-discharge-body-weight-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-very-low-birth-weight-infants-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#16
Chung-Ting Hsu, Chao-Huei Chen, Ming-Chih Lin, Teh-Ming Wang, Ya-Chi Hsu
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443827/a-comparison-of-hla-molecular-mismatch-methods-to-determine-hla-immunogenicity
#17
C Wiebe, V Kosmoliaptsis, D Pochinco, C Taylor, P Nickerson
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection is a major cause of premature graft loss in kidney transplantation. Multiple scoring systems are available to assess the HLA mismatch between donors and recipients at the molecular level, however, their correlation with the development of de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) has not been compared in recipients on active immunosuppression. METHODS: HLA-DRβ1/3/4/5/DQα1β1 molecular mismatch was determined using eplet analysis, amino acid mismatch, and electrostatic mismatch for 596 renal transplant recipients and correlated with HLA-DR/DQ dnDSA development...
February 13, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443399/two-year-neurodevelopment-and-growth-outcomes-for-preterm-neonates-who-received-low-dose-intravenous-soybean-oil
#18
Margaret L Ong, Isabell B Purdy, Orly L Levit, Daniel T Robinson, Tristan Grogan, Martiniano Flores, Kara L Calkins
BACKGROUND: In some studies, the dose of intravenous soybean oil (SO) has been associated with a decreased incidence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The effect of lipid sparing on neurodevelopment (ND) and growth remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of SO dose on ND and growth over the first 2 years of age in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-site prospective follow-up study. Neonates with a gestational age ≤29 weeks were randomized to low-dose (LOW) or standard-dose (CON) SO...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443362/outcomes-of-intravitreal-bevacizumab-and-diode-laser-photocoagulation-for-treatment-warranted-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#19
Tiffany A Chen, Ira H Schachar, Darius M Moshfeghi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of infants with treatment-warranted retinopathy of prematurity (TW-ROP) who received intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) (IVB) injections as compared to diode laser photocoagulation (DLP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from the Stanford University Network for Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity database and inpatients at Stanford Children's Hospital were retrospectively reviewed for premature newborns with TW-ROP treated with DLP or 0...
February 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440157/is-socioeconomic-segregation-of-the-poor-associated-with-higher-premature-mortality-under-the-age-of-60-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-survey-data-in-major-indian-cities
#20
Tarani Chandola, Sitamma Mikkilineni, Anil Chandran, Souvik Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Nan Zhang, Sergio Luiz Bassanesi
OBJECTIVES: Although urbanisation is generally associated with poverty reduction in low-income and middle-income countries, it also results in increased socioeconomic segregation of the poor. Cities with higher levels of socioeconomic segregation tend to have higher mortality rates, although the evidence is based on ecological associations. The paper examines whether socioeconomic segregation of the poor is associated with higher under-60 years ('premature') mortality risk in Indian cities and whether this association is confounded by contextual and compositional sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
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