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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351821/reliability-of-the-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-rules-for-assessing-sleep-depth-in-clinical-practice
#1
Magdy Younes, Samuel T Kuna, Allan I Pack, James K Walsh, Clete A Kushida, Bethany Staley, Grace W Pien
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published manuals for scoring polysomnograms that recommend time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep stages (stage N1, N2, and N3 sleep) be reported. Given the well-established large interrater variability in scoring stage N1 and N3 sleep, we determined the range of time in stage N1 and N3 sleep scored by a large number of technologists when compared to reasonably estimated true values. METHODS: Polysomnograms of 70 females were scored by 10 highly trained sleep technologists, two each from five different academic sleep laboratories...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351023/does-talking-on-a-cell-phone-with-a-passenger-or-dialing-affect-driving-performance-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#2
Jeff K Caird, Sarah M Simmons, Katelyn Wiley, Kate A Johnston, William J Horrey
Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria...
February 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350687/intraocular-currents-bernoulli-s-principle-and-non-drainage-scleral-buckling-for-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment
#3
D Wong, Y K Chan, T Bek, I Wilson, E Stefánsson
For many years, it is not fully understood how non-drainage scleral buckling surgery brings about spontaneous reattachment of the detached retina when retinal breaks remain open at the end of surgery. Various explanations have been put forward, but none more interesting than the effect of fluid currents associated with eye movements. One such explanation involved the physics of the Bernoulli's principle. Daniel Bernoulli was an eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and he described an equation based on the conservation of energy...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348583/rapid-updating-of-spatial-working-memory-across-saccades
#4
Paul J Boon, Silvia Zeni, Jan Theeuwes, Artem V Belopolsky
Each time we make an eye movement, positions of objects on the retina change. In order to keep track of relevant objects their positions have to be updated. The situation becomes even more complex if the object is no longer present in the world and has to be held in memory. In the present study, we used saccadic curvature to investigate the time-course of updating a memorized location across saccades. Previous studies have shown that a memorized location competes with a saccade target for selection on the oculomotor map, which leads to saccades curving away from it...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345551/quantifying-novice-and-expert-differences-in-visual-diagnostic-reasoning-in-veterinary-pathology-using-eye-tracking-technology
#5
Amy L Warren, Tyrone L Donnon, Catherine R Wagg, Heather Priest, Nicole J Fernandez
Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344925/translating-visual-information-into-action-predictions-statistical-learning-in-action-and-nonaction-contexts
#6
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects...
January 17, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342047/direction-fixed-and-direction-changing-positional-nystagmus-in-ramsay-hunt-syndrome
#7
Chang-Hee Kim, Jin Woo Choi, Kyu Jin Han, Yong Sik Lee, Jung Eun Shin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of positional nystagmus (PN) using a head-roll test in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome with vertigo (RHS_V) and discuss possible mechanisms. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral academic medical center. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight patients with RHS_V were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Eye movements were recorded at positions of head roll to the right or left, and PN was classified as direction-fixed or direction-changing...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340715/postural-control-and-the-relation-with-cervical-sensorimotor-control-in-patients-with-idiopathic-adult-onset-cervical-dystonia
#8
J De Pauw, R Mercelis, A Hallemans, G Van Gils, S Truijen, P Cras, W De Hertogh
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to an abnormal head posture or movements of the neck. Dysfunctions in somatosensory integration are present and previous data showed enlarged postural sway in stance. Postural control during quiet sitting and the correlation with cervical sensorimotor control were investigated. Postural control during quiet sitting was measured via body sway parameters in 23 patients with CD, regularly receiving botulinum toxin treatment and compared with 36 healthy controls...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339960/which-differences-in-priming-effect-between-neglect-and-hemianopia-a-case-description-of-a-bilateral-brain-lesioned-patient
#9
Matteo Sozzi, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Lisa Melzi, Massimo Corbo, Irene Venturella, Michela Balconi
It is widely known that visuospatial neglect and hemianopia maybe superimposed. We considered the differences in implicit information processing which is effective in patients with neglect but not with hemianopia. We then hypothesize that a prime-word in the neglected field should determine a semantic activation effect but not in a blind hemifield. Moreover eye movements could provide further details. In this work we considered a patient with a bilateral with the presence of either a left visual neglect and a right homonymous hemianopia...
October 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339206/objective-sleep-measures-in-subacute-stroke-inpatients-associated-with-levels-and-improvements-in-activities-of-daily-living
#10
Ren-Jing Huang, Ching-Hsiang Lai, Shin-Da Lee, Fang-Yu Pai, Shen-Wen Chang, Ai-Hui Chung, Yi-Fang Chang, Hua Ting
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether objective polysomnographic measures of prevalent sleep problems such as sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB) and insomnia are associated with activities of daily living levels in inpatients at rehabilitation units DESIGN: Retrospective and observational study SETTING: Single rehabilitation center PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-three enrolled subacute stroke inpatients (61.6 ± 13.1 years; 23.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2; 33% female; 90.5 ± 36.7 days post-stroke) underwent a one-night polysomnography study and one-month-long inpatient rehabilitation program...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338982/involvement-of-peripheral-alpha2a-adrenoceptor-in-the-acceleration-of-gastrointestinal-transit-and-abdominal-visceral-pain-induced-by-intermittent-deprivation-of-rem-sleep
#11
Fukie Yaoita, Masamichi Muto, Hiroki Murakami, Shiori Endo, Mifuyu Kozawa, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Takeshi Tadano, Koichi Tan-No
Many studies have associated sleep alterations with the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the direct pathophysiological relationship has not been clarified. In addition, alterations in noradrenergic signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of IBS, and alpha2-adrenoceptors are potential treatment targets. We have previously shown that acceleration of gastrointestinal transit (GIT) elicited by intermittent rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation stress may fulfill the profile of a model of IBS...
January 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336129/somatic-tinnitus
#12
REVIEW
Massimo Ralli, Antonio Greco, Fabrizio Cialente, Arianna Di Stadio, Lucia Longo, Andrea Ciofalo, Rosaria Turchetta, Giancarlo Cianfrone, Marco de Vincentiis
Modulation of tinnitus characteristics such as pitch and loudness has been extensively described following movements of the head, neck and limbs, vertical or horizontal eye gaze, pressure on myofascial trigger points, cutaneous stimulation of the hands, electrical stimulation of the median nerve, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Modulation of tinnitus follows complex interactions between auditory and somatosensory afferents and can be favored by underlying somatic disorders. When tinnitus appears to be preceded or strictly linked to a somatic disorder, and therefore related to problems of the musculoskeletal system rather than of the ear, it is defined somatic tinnitus...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#13
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334945/blood-pressure-change-does-not-associate-with-center-of-pressure-movement-after-postural-transition-in-geriatric-outpatients
#14
Sjoerd T Timmermans, Esmee M Reijnierse, Jantsje H Pasma, Marijke C Trappenburg, Gerard J Blauw, Andrea B Maier, Carel G M Meskers
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a blood pressure drop after postural change, is associated with impaired standing balance and falls in older adults. This study aimed to assess the association between blood pressure (BP) and a measure of quality of standing balance, i.e. Center of Pressure (CoP) movement, after postural change from supine to standing position in geriatric outpatients, and to compare CoP movement between patients with and without OH. METHODS: In a random subgroup of 75 consecutive patients who were referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic, intermittent BP measurements were obtained simultaneously with CoP measurements in mediolateral and anterior-posterior direction directly after postural change during 3 min of quiet stance with eyes open on a force plate...
January 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334488/severe-intraocular-pressure-elevation-after-intracameral-healon-5-viscoelastic-support-for-post-operative-hypotony-after-xen-gel-stent-insertion
#15
Alice Bruynseels, Freda Sii, Imran Masood, Peter Shah
PURPOSE: To describe (i) a novel case of severe intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation due to intracameral Healon 5 for management of early post-operative hypotony following XEN Gel Stent insertion and (ii) the management of this complication. METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 52-year-old male, with primary open angle glaucoma and suboptimal left IOP control on maximally tolerated medical therapy, was managed with XEN Gel Stent insertion at another tertiary eye unit...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333910/soft-contact-lenses-to-optimize-vision-in-adults-with-idiopathic-infantile-nystagmus-a-pilot-parallel-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Maria Theodorou, Ana Quartilho, Wen Xing, Catey Bunce, Gary Rubin, Gillian Adams, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
PURPOSE: The optimal management of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is still unclear. Contact lenses (CL) may be superior to glasses in improving visual function in INS but it is not known whether their beneficial effects are due to optical correction alone, or to an additional proprioceptive effect, and whether soft CLs would be as effective as rigid CLs. There is little data on feasibility and and the present study aimed to provide this information. METHODS: We completed a pilot Randomized Control Trial (RCT) at a single tertiary referral centre in London, UK...
January 15, 2018: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333908/false-positive-acetylcholine-receptor-antibodies-in-a-case-of-unilateral-chronic-progressive-external-ophthalmoplegia-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Rehan Rajput, Amun Sachdev, Nizar Din, Erika Marie Damato, Aidan Murray
METHODS: We present a rare case with atypical presenting features of unilateral CPEO with a false positive Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (AchRA) test resulting in diagnostic delay. We illustrate the unilateral nature of this case and demonstrate the caveats of performing myogenic ptosis correction in such patients. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of false positive AchRA, a test commonly performed in the investigation of ptosis. RESULTS: A 34-year old female presented with a more than 3-year history of slowly-progressive, unilateral, right-sided restriction in eye movements and ptosis...
January 15, 2018: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333474/saccades-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-maladapted-irregular-curved-and-slow
#18
Aasef G Shaikh, Stewart A Factor, Jorge Juncos
Background and objectives: Slowed and curved rapid eye movements, saccades, are the well-known features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We hypothesized that the saccades in PSP are not only slow and curved, but they are also irregular and have timing deficits. Methods: We tested this hypothesis in 12 patients with PSP by measuring vertical and horizontal visually guided saccades using a limbus tracker. Results: Both, horizontal and vertical saccades were slow and had irregular trajectory and velocity profiles, but deficits were much more robust in vertical saccades...
September 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332107/the-sleep-architecture-of-saudi-arabian-patients-with-kleine-levin-syndrome
#19
Saad M Al Shareef, Aljohara S Almeneessier, Omeima Hammad, Richard M Smith, Ahmed S BaHammam
To establish baseline sleep architecture during an acute attack of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) in a cohort of Saudi Arabian KLS patients and compare these characteristics with other published cohorts. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of the polysomnographic characteristics of 10 typical symptomatic Saudi Arabian KLS patients attending the University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2015. Data were captured by nocturnal polysomnography during an acute attack of hypersomnia and compared with other published cohorts identified via a systematic literature search...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#20
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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