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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098561/decoding-of-intended-saccade-direction-in-an-oculomotor-brain-computer-interface
#1
Nan Jia, Scott Brincat, Andrés Salazar-Gómez, Mikhail Panko, Frank Guenther, Earl Miller
OBJECTIVE: To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from of hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098521/semantic-and-syntactic-associations-during-word-search-modulate-the-relationship-between-attention-and-subsequent-memory
#2
Wei Zhou, Fei Mo, Yunhong Zhang, Jinhong Ding
Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097734/how-lay-people-understand-and-make-sense-of-personalized-disease-risk-information
#3
Olga C Damman, Nina M M Bogaerts, Maaike J van den Haak, Danielle R M Timmermans
BACKGROUND: Disease risk calculators are increasingly web-based, but previous studies have shown that risk information often poses problems for lay users. OBJECTIVE: To examine how lay people understand the result derived from an online cardiometabolic risk calculator. DESIGN: A qualitative study was performed, using the risk calculator in the Dutch National Prevention Program for cardiometabolic diseases. The study consisted of three parts: (i) attention: completion of the risk calculator while an eye tracker registered eye movements; (ii) recall: completion of a recall task; and (iii) interpretation: participation in a semi-structured interview...
January 17, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096499/when-eye-movements-express-memory-for-old-and-new-scenes-in-the-absence-of-awareness-and-independent-of-hippocampus
#4
Christine N Smith, Larry R Squire
Eye movements can reflect memory. For example, participants make fewer fixations and sample fewer regions when viewing old versus new scenes (the repetition effect). It is unclear whether the repetition effect requires that participants have knowledge (awareness) of the old-new status of the scenes or if it can occur independent of knowledge about old-new status. It is also unclear whether the repetition effect is hippocampus-dependent or hippocampus-independent. A complication is that testing conscious memory for the scenes might interfere with the expression of unconscious (unaware), experience-dependent eye movements...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095975/sleep-related-abnormal-sexual-behaviors-sexsomnia-successfully-treated-with-a-mandibular-advancement-device-a-case-report
#5
Imran S Khawaja, Thomas D Hurwitz, Carlos H Schenck
Sleep-related abnormal sexual behaviors (sexsomnia) are classified as a subtype of non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias. There are reported cases of control of sexsomnia with treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure. We present a case of sexsomnia controlled with the treatment of OSA with a mandibular advancement device.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095970/cyclic-alternating-pattern-associated-with-catathrenia-and-bruxism-in-a-10-year-old-patient
#6
Brian Villafuerte-Trisolini, Fiorella Adrianzén-Álvarez, Kevin R Duque, Jimmy Palacios-García, Darwin Vizcarra-Escobar
Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is widely recognized as an expression of sleep instability in electroencephalogram activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep. We report a case with sequences of CAP followed by bruxism and catathrenia in a 10-y-old male patient with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in treatment with methylphenidate. We found CAP in 83.1% of all episodes of catathrenia, and the CAP rate was 12.8%. We propose to consider catathrenia as one of the sleep disorders that may be accompanied by CAP...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095009/cross-lingual-neighborhood-effects-in-generalized-lexical-decision-and-natural-reading
#7
Nicolas Dirix, Uschi Cop, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory cross-lingual neighborhood density effect on reading times of second language words, replicating van Heuven, Dijkstra, and Grainger (1998). Reaction times for native language words were not influenced by neighborhood density or frequency but error rates showed cross-lingual neighborhood effects depending on target word frequency...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094321/the-reference-frame-of-the-tilt-aftereffect-measured-by-differential-pavlovian-conditioning
#8
Yusuke Nakashima, Yoichi Sugita
We used a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm to measure tilt aftereffect (TAE) strength. Gabor patches, rotated clockwise and anticlockwise, were used as conditioned stimuli (CSs), one of which (CS+) was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), whereas the other (CS-) appeared alone. The UCS was an air puff delivered to the left eye. In addition to the CS+ and CS-, the vertical test patch was also presented for the clockwise and anticlockwise adapters. The vertical patch was not followed by the UCS...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093830/age-affects-sleep-microstructure-more-than-sleep-macrostructure
#9
Johanna F A Schwarz, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Eva Lindberg, Georg Gruber, Håkan Fischer, Jenny Theorell-Haglöw
It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22-71 years old) of the 'Sleep and Health in Women' study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f(2)  = 0.32) and K-complex density (f(2)  = 0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093029/low-doses-of-mirtazapine-or-quetiapine-for-transient-insomnia-a-randomised-double-blind-cross-over-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Julie Karsten, Loes A Hagenauw, Jeanine Kamphuis, Marike Lancel
Low doses of the antidepressant mirtazapine or the neuroleptic quetiapine are often prescribed off-label for insomnia. However, studies on the effects on sleep and hangover effects the following day are scarce. In this randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, the influence of 7.5 mg mirtazapine and 50 mg quetiapine on both normal sleep and sleep disturbed by acoustic stress (traffic noise) as a model for transient insomnia was assessed. Additionally, hangover effects on next-day alertness and cognitive functioning were examined...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#11
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092077/the-reference-frame-for-encoding-and-retention-of-motion-depends-on-stimulus-set-size
#12
Duong Huynh, Srimant P Tripathy, Harold E Bedell, Haluk Öğmen
The goal of this study was to investigate the reference frames used in perceptual encoding and storage of visual motion information. In our experiments, observers viewed multiple moving objects and reported the direction of motion of a randomly selected item. Using a vector-decomposition technique, we computed performance during smooth pursuit with respect to a spatiotopic (nonretinotopic) and to a retinotopic component and compared them with performance during fixation, which served as the baseline. For the stimulus encoding stage, which precedes memory, we found that the reference frame depends on the stimulus set size...
January 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091584/enhancement-of-outflow-facility-in-the-murine-eye-by-targeting-selected-tight-junctions-of-schlemm-s-canal-endothelia
#13
Lawrence C S Tam, Ester Reina-Torres, Joseph M Sherwood, Paul S Cassidy, Darragh E Crosbie, Elke Lütjen-Drecoll, Cassandra Flügel-Koch, Kristin Perkumas, Marian M Humphries, Anna-Sophia Kiang, Jeffrey O'Callaghan, John J Callanan, A Thomas Read, C Ross Ethier, Colm O'Brien, Matthew Lawrence, Matthew Campbell, W Daniel Stamer, Darryl R Overby, Pete Humphries
The juxtacanalicular connective tissue of the trabecular meshwork together with inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC) provide the bulk of resistance to aqueous outflow from the anterior chamber. Endothelial cells lining SC elaborate tight junctions (TJs), down-regulation of which may widen paracellular spaces between cells, allowing greater fluid outflow. We observed significant increase in paracellular permeability following siRNA-mediated suppression of TJ transcripts, claudin-11, zonula-occludens-1 (ZO-1) and tricellulin in human SC endothelial monolayers...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091557/the-same-oculomotor-vermal-purkinje-cells-encode-the-different-kinematics-of-saccades-and-of-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#14
Zongpeng Sun, Aleksandra Smilgin, Marc Junker, Peter W Dicke, Peter Thier
Saccades and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are two types of goal-directed eye movements whose kinematics differ profoundly, a fact that may have contributed to the notion that the underlying cerebellar substrates are separated. However, it is suggested that some Purkinje cells (PCs) in the oculomotor vermis (OMV) of monkey cerebellum may be involved in both saccades and SPEM, a puzzling finding in view of the different kinematic demands of the two types of eye movements. Such 'dual' OMV PCs might be oddities with little if any functional relevance...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090728/exploring-text-and-icon-graph-interpretation-in-students-with-dyslexia-an-eye-tracking-study
#15
Sunjung Kim, Rebecca Wiseheart
A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs...
January 16, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090684/predict-pd-an-online-approach-to-prospectively-identify-risk-indicators-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Alastair J Noyce, Lea R'Bibo, Luisa Peress, Jonathan P Bestwick, Kerala L Adams-Carr, Niccolo E Mencacci, Christopher H Hawkes, Joseph M Masters, Nicholas Wood, John Hardy, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrew J Lees, Anette Schrag
BACKGROUND: A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. METHODS: Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088873/developmental-changes-in-ultradian-sleep-cycles-across-early-childhood
#17
Sean Lopp, William Navidi, Peter Achermann, Monique LeBourgeois, Cecilia Diniz Behn
Nocturnal human sleep is composed of cycles between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. In adults, the structure of ultradian cycles between NREM and REM sleep is well characterized; however, less is known about the developmental trajectories of ultradian sleep cycles across early childhood. Cross-sectional studies indicate that the rapid ultradian cycling of active-quiet sleep in infancy shifts to a more adult-like pattern of NREM-REM sleep cycling by the school-age years, yet longitudinal studies elucidating the details of this transition are scarce...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088714/children-s-and-adults-use-of-verbal-information-to-visually-anticipate-others-actions-a-study-on-explicit-and-implicit-social-cognitive-processing
#18
Markus Paulus, Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Sodian, Kerstin Ganglmayer
According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088347/disparity-configuration-influences-depth-discrimination-in-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-but-not-in-children
#19
Laurie M Wilcox, Brittney Hartle, Aliya Solski, Kevin J Mackenzie, Deborah Giaschi
We report a series of experiments in which we assess depth discrimination performance in adults and children using a disparity-balanced target configuration to avoid the effects of anticipatory vergence eye movements. In our first study we found that children outperformed adults by a substantial margin, and the adults were consistently near chance. This was surprising given that we initially tested naïve adults to provide a benchmark for the children's data, and all observers met the criterion for stereoacuity...
January 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#20
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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