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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097050/microbial-communities-mediating-algal-detritus-turnover-under-anaerobic-conditions
#1
Jessica M Morrison, Chelsea L Murphy, Kristina Baker, Richard M Zamor, Steve J Nikolai, Shawn Wilder, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
BACKGROUND: Algae encompass a wide array of photosynthetic organisms that are ubiquitously distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Algal species often bloom in aquatic ecosystems, providing a significant autochthonous carbon input to the deeper anoxic layers in stratified water bodies. In addition, various algal species have been touted as promising candidates for anaerobic biogas production from biomass. Surprisingly, in spite of its ecological and economic relevance, the microbial community involved in algal detritus turnover under anaerobic conditions remains largely unexplored...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078750/metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
M Mego, C Manichanh, A Accarino, D Campos, M Pozuelo, E Varela, J Vulevic, G Tzortzis, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas-related symptoms. AIM: To investigate changes in the metabolic activity of gut microbiota induced by a recognised prebiotic. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given a prebiotic (2.8 g/day HOST-G904, HOST Therabiomics, Jersey, Channel Islands) for 3 weeks...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072880/characterisation-of-early-life-fecal-microbiota-in-susceptible-and-healthy-pigs-to-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#3
Samir Dou, Pascale Gadonna-Widehem, Véronique Rome, Dounia Hamoudi, Larbi Rhazi, Lyes Lakhal, Thibaut Larcher, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Arturo Pinon-Quintana, Alain Guyonvarch, Isabelle L E Huërou-Luron, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038683/the-gut-microbiota-in-conventional-and-serrated-precursors-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Brandilyn A Peters, Christine Dominianni, Jean A Shapiro, Timothy R Church, Jing Wu, George Miller, Elizabeth Yuen, Hal Freiman, Ian Lustbader, James Salik, Charles Friedlander, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease arising from at least two precursors-the conventional adenoma (CA) and the serrated polyp. We and others have previously shown a relationship between the human gut microbiota and colorectal cancer; however, its relationship to the different early precursors of colorectal cancer is understudied. We tested, for the first time, the relationship of the gut microbiota to specific colorectal polyp types. RESULTS: Gut microbiota were assessed in 540 colonoscopy-screened adults by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool samples...
December 30, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035686/interaction-between-atypical-antipsychotics-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-bipolar-disease-cohort
#5
Stephanie A Flowers, Simon J Evans, Kristen M Ward, Melvin G McInnis, Vicki L Ellingrod
OBJECTIVES: The atypical antipsychotic (AAP) class is often associated with metabolic disease, but the mechanistic underpinnings of this risk are not understood. Due to reports linking gut bacteria function to metabolic disease, we hypothesize that AAP-treatment in adults results in gut dysbiosis potentiating metabolic criteria. This report describes recent findings linking AAP-treatment with differences in gut microbiota communities in a human cohort with bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: In a cross- sectional design, we obtained 16S ribosomal sequences from 117 BD patients (49 AAP-treated, 68 non-AAP treated)...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018327/correlation-of-gut-microbiota-composition-with-resistance-to-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-rats
#6
Suzana Stanisavljević, Jovanka Lukić, Svetlana Soković, Sanja Mihajlovic, Marija Mostarica Stojković, Djordje Miljković, Natasa Golić
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is widely accepted that autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is the essential pathogenic force in the disease. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that activated encephalitogenic cells tend to migrate toward gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) and that interrupted balance between regulatory and inflammatory immunity within the GALT might have decisive role in the initiation and propagation of the CNS autoimmunity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992409/in-vivo-high-throughput-profiling-of-crispr-cpf1-activity
#7
Hui K Kim, Myungjae Song, Jinu Lee, A Vipin Menon, Soobin Jung, Young-Mook Kang, Jae W Choi, Euijeon Woo, Hyun C Koh, Jin-Wu Nam, Hyongbum Kim
CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) is an effector endonuclease of the class 2 CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) gene editing system. We developed a method for evaluating Cpf1 activity, based on target sequence composition in mammalian cells, in a high-throughput manner. A library of >11,000 target sequence and guide RNA pairs was delivered into human cells using lentiviral vectors. Subsequent delivery of Cpf1 into this cell library induced insertions and deletions (indels) at the integrated synthetic target sequences, which allowed en masse evaluation of Cpf1 activity by using deep sequencing...
December 19, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940538/distribution-and-differential-survival-of-traditional-and-alternative-indicators-of-fecal-pollution-at-freshwater-beaches
#8
Danielle D Cloutier, Sandra L McLellan
: Alternative indicators have been developed that can be used to identify host sources of fecal pollution, yet little is known about how their distribution and fate compare to traditional indicators. E. coli and enterococci were widely distributed at the six beaches studied and were detected in almost 95% of water samples (n=422) and 100% of sand samples (n=400). Berm sand contained the highest amount of E. coli (P<0.01), whereas enterococci levels were highest in the backshore (P<0...
December 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923606/blautia-massiliensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-fresh-human-fecal-sample-and-emended-description-of-the-genus-blautia
#9
Guillaume A Durand, Thao Pham, Sokhna Ndongo, Sory Ibrahima Traore, Grégory Dubourg, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Caroline Michelle, Nicholas Armstrong, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
The strain GD9(T) is the type strain of the newly proposed species Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. It was isolated from a fresh stool sample collected from a healthy human using the culturomics strategy. Cells are Gram-negative rods, oxygen intolerant, non-motile and non-spore forming. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain GD9(T) was closely related to Blautia luti, with a 97.8% sequence similarity. Major fatty acids were C14:0 (19.8%) and C16:0 (53.2%). Strain GD9(T) exhibits a genome of 3,717,339 bp that contains 3,346 protein-coding genes and 81 RNAs genes including 63 tRNAs...
December 5, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#10
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903747/improved-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-treated-with-resveratrol-is-associated-with-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiome
#11
Miranda M Sung, Ty T Kim, Emmanuel Denou, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Shereen M Hamza, Nikole J Byrne, Grant Masson, Heekuk Park, David S Wishart, Karen L Madsen, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
Oral administration of resveratrol is able to improve glucose homeostasis in obese individuals. Herein we show that resveratrol ingestion produces taxonomic and predicted functional changes in the gut microbiome of obese mice. In particular, changes in the gut microbiome were characterized by a decreased relative abundance of Turicibacteraceae, Moryella, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia and increased relative abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides Moreover, fecal transfer from healthy resveratrol-fed donor mice is sufficient to improve glucose homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting that the resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877168/characterization-of-electricity-generated-by-soil-in-microbial-fuel-cells-and-the-isolation-of-soil-source-exoelectrogenic-bacteria
#12
Yun-Bin Jiang, Wen-Hui Zhong, Cheng Han, Huan Deng
Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 days period. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturable strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863401/isoliquiritigenin-decreases-the-incidence-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota
#13
Minna Wu, Yaqi Wu, Baoguo Deng, Jinsong Li, Haiying Cao, Yan Qu, Xinlai Qian, Genshen Zhong
Imbalances in intestinal bacteria correlate with colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Traditional Chinese medicines have been used to adjust the gut microbiota, and isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid extracted from licorice, has shown antitumor efficacy. In this study, the effects of ISL on CAC development and the gut microbiota were evaluated using an azoxymethane and dextran sulphate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse model of CAC (CACM). Histopathological analysis suggested that ISL reduced tumor incidence in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858139/lactobacillus-plantarum-hac01-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#14
Soyoung Park, Yosep Ji, Hoe-Yune Jung, Hyunjoon Park, Jihee Kang, Sang-Haeng Choi, Heuynkil Shin, Chang-Kee Hyun, Kyong-Tai Kim, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
The functional features of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (HAC01), isolated from fermented Korean kimchi, were studied with regard to the fat mass, immunometabolic biomarkers and dysbiosis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) served as reference strain and a PBS-treated group as control. The administration of L. plantarum HAC01 resulted in reduction of the mesenteric adipose depot, the conjunctive tissue closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, where lipid oxidative gene expression was upregulated compared to the control group...
November 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854567/metagenomic-evaluation-of-bacteria-from-voles
#15
Katja A Koskela, Laura Kalin-Mänttäri, Heidi Hemmilä, Teemu Smura, Paula M Kinnunen, Jukka Niemimaa, Heikki Henttonen, Simo Nikkari
Voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) are known carriers of zoonotic bacteria such as Bartonella spp. and Francisella tularensis. However, apart from F. tularensis, the bacterial microbiome of voles has not previously been determined in Finland and rarely elsewhere. Therefore, we studied liver samples from 61 voles using 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR analysis, followed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-three of these samples were also studied with tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The samples originated from 21 field voles (Microtus agrestis), 37 tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus), and 3 bank voles (Myodes glareolus)...
November 17, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812583/the-modulatory-effect-of-infusions-of-green-tea-oolong-tea-and-black-tea-on-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-induced-obese-mice
#16
Zhibin Liu, Zhichao Chen, Hongwen Guo, Dongping He, Huiru Zhao, Zhiyao Wang, Wen Zhang, Lan Liao, Chen Zhang, Li Ni
Tea consumption has been identified to have an anti-obesity effect. Whether it is associated with gut microbiota modulation is investigated in this study. Phenolic profiles of infusions of green tea, oolong tea and black tea were comprehensively compared first, by utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS). Subsequently, high-fat-diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice were orally administered these three types of tea infusions for 13 weeks to evaluate their anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812181/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-eczema-in-infants
#17
Huajun Zheng, Hong Liang, Yuezhu Wang, Maohua Miao, Tao Shi, Fen Yang, Enuo Liu, Wei Yuan, Zai-Si Ji, De-Kun Li
Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797671/nutritional-correlates-of-human-oral-microbiome
#18
Ikuko Kato, Adrian Vasquez, Gregory Moyerbrailean, Susan Land, Zora Djuric, Jun Sun, Ho-Sheng Lin, Jeffrey L Ram
BACKGROUND: Despite many potential effects of the oral microbiome on oral and systemic health, scant information is available regarding the associations between diet and the oral microbiome. METHODS: Oral rinse DNA samples from 182 participants in a population-based case-control study for colorectal cancer were used to amplify a V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq paired end chemistry on 2 runs, yielding approximately 33 million filtered reads that were assigned to bacterial classes...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773914/diet-dependent-modular-dynamic-interactions-of-the-equine-cecal-microbiota
#19
Camilla Kristoffersen, Rasmus B Jensen, Ekaterina Avershina, Dag Austbø, Anne-Helene Tauson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge on dynamic interactions in microbiota is pivotal for understanding the role of bacteria in the gut. We herein present comprehensive dynamic models of the horse cecal microbiota, which include short-chained fatty acids, carbohydrate metabolic networks, and taxonomy. Dynamic models were derived from time-series data in a crossover experiment in which four cecum-cannulated horses were fed a starch-rich diet of hay supplemented with barley (starch intake 2 g kg(-1) body weight per day) and a fiber-rich diet of only hay...
December 23, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746239/factors-influencing-the-infant-gut-microbiome-at-age-3-6%C3%A2-months-findings-from-the-ethnically-diverse-vitamin-d-antenatal-asthma-reduction-trial-vdaart
#20
Joanne E Sordillo, Yanjiao Zhou, Michael J McGeachie, John Ziniti, Nancy Lange, Nancy Laranjo, Jessica R Savage, Vincent Carey, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Robert Strunk, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Scott T Weiss, George Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact on allergic disease risk. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at age 3 to 6 months, who were enrolled in Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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