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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735426/diet-versus-phylogeny-a-comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-captive-colobine-monkey-species
#1
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Rob Knight, Qikun Zhang, Duoying Cui, Katherine R Amato
Both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (N = 64 individuals). Colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (GI) problems. This study included eight Asian colobines (Rhinopithecus brelichi, Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, Pygathrix nemaeus, Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus auratus, and Trachypithecus vetulus) and one African colobine (Colobus guereza)...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710295/relationships-between-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-blood-group-antigens
#2
Anuhya Gampa, Phillip A Engen, Rima Shobar, Ece A Mutlu
FUT2 is a gene for a fucosyltransferase that encodes expression of ABO blood group antigens found on gastrointestinal mucosa and secretions. We hypothesized that the fecal microbiomes of healthy subjects, with blood group antigens A, B and O, have differing compositions. Thirty-three fecal and blood specimens from healthy subjects were analyzed for FUT2 genotype and the fecal microbiome was determined using 454 pyrosequencing. Our data shows that being a blood group secretor is associated with less diversity at higher orders of taxonomy; and the presence of blood group A antigens in the secretor subjects are associated with an expansion families of bacteria within the gut...
July 14, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708498/presence-of-bacteria-in-the-endometrium-and-placentomes-of-pregnant-cows
#3
Cecilia Christensen Karstrup, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim Kåre Jensen, Jørgen Steen Agerholm, Hanne Gervi Pedersen
Bacterial invasion of the bovine uterus during the postpartum period occurs in most cows, but the general consensus is that these bacteria are eliminated before the next pregnancy. The pregnant uterus has therefore hitherto been considered a sterile environment, but this assumption has now been challenged by recent studies in humans, which indicate that bacteria can be present in the placenta of term pregnancies without causing abortion. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether bacteria are present in the uterus of pregnant cows...
May 23, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701620/comparative-analysis-of-the-intestinal-flora-in-type-2-diabetes-and-nondiabetic-mice
#4
Masanori Horie, Takamasa Miura, Satomi Hirakata, Akira Hosoyama, Sakiko Sugino, Aya Umeno, Kazutoshi Murotomi, Yasukazu Yoshida, Taisuke Koike
A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#5
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686722/the-changes-of-gut-microbiota-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#6
Ze-Xuan Wu, Su-Fang Li, Hong Chen, Jun-Xian Song, Yuan-Feng Gao, Feng Zhang, Cheng-Fu Cao
Recent studies suggested that gut microbiota was involved in the development of coronary artery disease. However, the changes of gut microbiota following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unknown. In this study, a total of 66 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, AMI and SHAM groups. The controls (n = 6) were sacrificed after anesthesia. The AMI model was built by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. The rats of AMI and SHAM groups were sacrificed at 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d and 14 d post-operation respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674386/metabolic-and-microbial-signatures-in-rat-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treated-with-caffeic-acid-and-chlorogenic-acid
#7
Zhan Zhang, Di Wang, Shanlei Qiao, Xinyue Wu, Shuyuan Cao, Li Wang, Xiaojian Su, Lei Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment remains lack of effective chemopreventive agents, therefore it is very attractive and urgent to discover novel anti-HCC drugs. In the present study, the effects of chlorogenic acid (ChA) and caffeic acid (CaA) on HCC induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) were evaluated. ChA or CaA could reduce the histopathological changes and liver injury markers, such as alanine transarninase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bile acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637300/commercial-rodent-diets-differentially-regulate-autoimmune-glomerulonephritis-epigenetics-and-microbiota-in-mrl-lpr-mice
#8
Michael R Edwards, Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Thomas E Cecere, Deena Khan, Qinghui Mu, Catharine Cowan, Xin M Luo, S Ansar Ahmed
The course and severity of lupus in spontaneous murine lupus models varies among laboratories, which may be due to variations in diet, housing and/or local environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the influence of common rodent diets while keeping other factors constant. Female lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice were subjected to the same housing conditions and given one of the three diets: Teklad 7013 containing isoflavone rich soy and alfalfa, Harlan 2018 isoflavone rich soy-based diet, or ResearchDiets Inc...
June 15, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628097/cpf1-proteins-excise-crispr-rnas-from-mrna-transcripts-in-mammalian-cells
#9
Guocai Zhong, Haimin Wang, Yujun Li, Mai H Tran, Michael Farzan
Cpf1 is a CRISPR effector protein that has greater specificity than Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) in genome-editing applications. Here we show that Lachnospiraceae bacterium (Lb) and Acidaminococus sp. (As) Cpf1 orthologs have RNase activities that can excise multiple CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) from a single RNA polymerase II-driven RNA transcript expressed in mammalian cells. This property simplifies modification of multiple genomic targets and can be used to increase the efficiency of Cpf1-mediated editing...
June 19, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605664/soy-compared-with-milk-protein-in-a-western-diet-changes-fecal-microbiota-and-decreases-hepatic-steatosis-in-obese-oletf-rats
#10
Matthew R Panasevich, Colin M Schuster, Kathryn E Phillips, Grace M Meers, Sree V Chintapalli, Umesh D Wankhade, Kartik Shankar, Dustie N Butteiger, Elaine S Krul, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector
Soy protein is effective at preventing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy vs. dairy protein-based diet would alter microbiota and attenuate hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF rats were randomized to "Western" diets containing milk protein isolate (MPI), soy protein isolate (SPI) or 50:50 MPI/SPI (MS) (n=9-10/group; 21% kcal protein) for 16 weeks. SPI attenuated (P<.05) fat mass and percent fat by ~10% compared with MS, but not compared with MPI...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601892/variability-stability-and-resilience-of-fecal-microbiota-in-dairy-cows-fed-whole-crop-corn-silage
#11
Minh Thuy Tang, Hongyan Han, Zhu Yu, Takeshi Tsuruta, Naoki Nishino
The microbiota of whole crop corn silage and feces of silage-fed dairy cows were examined. A total of 18 dairy cow feces were collected from six farms in Japan and China, and high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes was performed. Lactobacillaceae were dominant in all silages, followed by Acetobacteraceae, Bacillaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. In feces, the predominant families were Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Paraprevotellaceae...
June 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581492/engineered-cpf1-variants-with-altered-pam-specificities
#12
Linyi Gao, David B T Cox, Winston X Yan, John C Manteiga, Martin W Schneider, Takashi Yamano, Hiroshi Nishimasu, Osamu Nureki, Nicola Crosetto, Feng Zhang
The RNA-guided endonuclease Cpf1 is a promising tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. However, the utility of the commonly used Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 Cpf1 (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 Cpf1 (LbCpf1) is limited by their requirement of a TTTV protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the DNA substrate. To address this limitation, we performed a structure-guided mutagenesis screen to increase the targeting range of Cpf1. We engineered two AsCpf1 variants carrying the mutations S542R/K607R and S542R/K548V/N552R, which recognize TYCV and TATV PAMs, respectively, with enhanced activities in vitro and in human cells...
June 5, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578494/colonization-and-gut-flora-modulation-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-zw3-in-the-intestinal-tract-of-mice
#13
Zhuqing Xing, Wei Tang, Ying Yang, Weitao Geng, Rizwan Ur Rehman, Yanping Wang
This study evaluated the distribution and colonization of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 and determined its capacity to modulate the gut microbiota in an animal model. Based on (1) fluorescence imaging, (2) flow cytometry, and (3) qPCR, we found that ZW3 successfully adhered to mouse mucous tissue and colonized the mouse ileum. Gut microbiota profiling was performed using high-throughput sequencing. After continuous intubation with ZW3 for 1 week, the proportion of Lachnospiraceae, a family of butyric acid-producing bacteria, increased at day 7 (11...
June 3, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570610/bacterial-community-structure-transformed-after-thermophilically-composting-human-waste-in-haiti
#14
Yvette M Piceno, Gabrielle Pecora-Black, Sasha Kramer, Monika Roy, Francine C Reid, Eric A Dubinsky, Gary L Andersen
Recycling human waste for beneficial use has been practiced for millennia. Aerobic (thermophilic) composting of sewage sludge has been shown to reduce populations of opportunistically pathogenic bacteria and to inactivate both Ascaris eggs and culturable Escherichia coli in raw waste, but there is still a question about the fate of most fecal bacteria when raw material is composted directly. This study undertook a comprehensive microbial community analysis of composting material at various stages collected over 6 months at two composting facilities in Haiti...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558788/comparison-of-the-fecal-bacterial-microbiota-of-healthy-and-diarrheic-foals-at-two-and-four-weeks-of-life
#15
A Schoster, H R Staempfli, L G Guardabassi, M Jalali, J S Weese
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea in foals affects up to 60% of foals during the first six months of life. The effect of diarrhea on the fecal bacterial microbiota in foals has not been investigated. Little is known on the fecal bacterial microbial richness and diversity of foals at a young age. The objective was to compare the fecal bacterial microbiota of healthy foals to foals with diarrhea at two and four weeks of life. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from foals (n = 20) at 1-14 (T1) and 15-28 (T2) days of age and analyzed using high throughput sequencing...
May 30, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556772/faecalimonas-umbilicata-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-human-faeces-and-reclassification-of-eubacterium-contortum-eubacterium-fissicatena-and-clostridium-oroticum-as-faecalicatena-contorta-gen-nov-comb-nov-faecalicatena-fissicatena-comb-nov-and-faecalicatena
#16
Mitsuo Sakamoto, Takao Iino, Moriya Ohkuma
Two bacterial strains, designated EGH7T and TSAH33, were isolated from human faeces and characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included analysis of morphology, phenotypic and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequence analyses. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains represented members of the family Lachnospiraceae and formed a monophyletic cluster near Eubacterium contortum JCM 6483T (95 % sequence similarity), Ruminococcus gnavus JCM 6515T (95 %), Clostridium oroticum JCM 1429T (95 %), Eubacterium fissicatena JCM 31501T (95 %) and Clostridium nexile JCM 31500T (94 %)...
May 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553275/host-immune-selection-of-rumen-bacteria-through-salivary-secretory-iga
#17
Janelle M Fouhse, Luke Smiegielski, Melanie Tuplin, Le Luo Guan, Benjamin P Willing
The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#18
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498996/protective-factors-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-against-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Yeon Joo Lee, Esther S Arguello, Robert R Jenq, Eric Littmann, Grace J Kim, Liza C Miller, Lilan Ling, Cesar Figueroa, Elizabeth Robilotti, Miguel-Angel Perales, Juliet N Barker, Sergio Giralt, Marcel R M van den Brink, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that confer protection against CDI after engraftment. Methods: Feces collected from adult recipients allo-HSCT at engraftment were analyzed; 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced and analyzed from each sample...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472118/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-lactobacillus-acidophilus-d2-csl-cect-4529-on-caecum-microbioma-and-productive-performance-in-broiler-chickens
#20
Alessandra De Cesare, Federico Sirri, Gerardo Manfreda, Paola Moniaci, Alberto Giardini, Marco Zampiga, Adele Meluzzi
This study examines the effects of the dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) (LA) on productive performances, incidence of foot pad dermatitis and caecum microbioma in broiler chickens. A total of 1,100 one-day old male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 2 groups of 16 replicates with 25 birds each and reared from 1-41 d. One group was fed a basal diet (CON) and the other group the same diet supplemented with LA. Caecum contents were collected from 4 selected birds at day one and 5 selected birds at the end of the rearing period...
2017: PloS One
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