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Joanne E Sordillo, Yanjiao Zhou, Michael J McGeachie, John Ziniti, Nancy Lange, Nancy Laranjo, Jessica R Savage, Vincent Carey, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Robert Strunk, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Scott T Weiss, George Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact allergic disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at 3-6 months of age, who were enrolled in VDAART, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring. METHODS: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 333 infants' stool samples...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
S Combes, K Massip, O Martin, H Furbeyre, L Cauquil, G Pascal, O Bouchez, N Le Floc'h, O Zemb, I P Oswald, T Gidenne
Limiting the post-weaning intake of the young rabbit is known to improve its resistance to digestive disorders, whereas a degradation of its housing hygiene is assumed to have a negative impact on its health. This study aims at providing insights into the mechanism of digestive health preservation regarding both host (growth and immune response) and its symbiotic digestive microbiota. A 2×2 factorial design from weaning (day 28) to day 64 was set up: ad libitum intake or restricted intake at 70% of ad libitum, and high v...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Letícia Maria Menezes Nóbrega, Francisco Montagner, Adriana Costa Ribeiro, Márcia Alves Pinto Mayer, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida Gomes
The aim of this study was to explore the bacterial diversity of 10 root canals with acute apical abscess using clonal analysis. Samples were collected from 10 patients and submitted to bacterial DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. A bacterial genomic library was constructed and bacterial diversity was estimated. The mean number of taxa per canal was 15, ranging from 11 to 21. A total of 689 clones were analyzed and 76 phylotypes identified, of which 47 (61.84%) were different species and 29 (38...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Xin Fang, Xin Wang, Shaoguo Yang, Fanjing Meng, Xiaolei Wang, Hua Wei, Tingtao Chen
More and more evidences indicate that diseases of the central nervous system have been seriously affected by fecal microbes. However, little work is done to explore interaction between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fecal microbes. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing method was used to compare the intestinal microbial diversity of healthy people and ALS patients. The principal coordinate analysis, Venn and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) showed an obvious microbial changes between healthy people (group H) and ALS patients (group A), and the average ratios of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Anaerostipes, Prevotella, Escherichia, and Lachnospira at genus level between ALS patients and healthy people were 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Oren Rom, Hila Korach-Rechtman, Tony Hayek, Yael Danin-Poleg, Haim Bar, Yechezkel Kashi, Michael Aviram
The unsaturated aldehyde acrolein is pro-atherogenic, and the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its anti-oxidative/anti-atherogenic properties, inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark feature of early atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate two unexplored areas of acrolein atherogenicity: macrophage lipid metabolism and the gut microbiota composition. The protective effects of PJ against acrolein atherogenicity were also evaluated. Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that were fed acrolein (3 mg/kg/day) for 1 month showed significant increases in serum and aortic cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Jiakun Wang, Mei Liu, Yuelei Wu, Liang Wang, Jianxin Liu, Linshu Jiang, Zhongtang Yu
Mitigation of the methane (CH4) emission from ruminants is needed to decrease the environmental impact of ruminant animal production. Different plant materials and chemicals have been tested, but few are both effective and practical. Medicinal herbs contain biological compounds and antimicrobials that may be effective in lowering the CH4 production. However, few studies have systematically evaluated medicinal herbs for their effect on CH4 production or on the rumen microbiota. In this study, extracts from 100 medicinal herbs were assessed for their ability to decrease CH4 production by rumen microbiota in vitro...
September 22, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eszter Tóth, Nóra Weinhardt, Petra Bencsura, Krisztina Huszár, Péter I Kulcsár, András Tálas, Elfrieda Fodor, Ervin Welker
BACKGROUND: Cpf1 nucleases have recently been repurposed for site-specific genome modification. Two members of the Cpf1 family, the AsCpf1 from Acidaminococcus sp. and the LbCpf1 from Lachnospiraceae bacterium were shown to induce higher indel frequencies than SpCas9 when examining four randomly-selected target sequences for each type of nuclease. Whether they are a real match for Cas9 nucleases, however, remains to be verified. RESULTS: Here, we used AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 to induce homology directed repair, either single strand annealing (SSA) or homologous recombination (HR), in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells...
2016: Biology Direct
Koukou Li, Cheng Zhuo, Chunying Teng, Sumei Yu, Xin Wang, Yang Hu, Guangming Ren, Min Yu, Juanjuan Qu
This study manifested the effects of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLP S3) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) therapy and intestinal microbiota modulation in mice induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). The GLPS3 was prepared from cultured mycelium and markedly alleviated the pancreatitis in mice through decreasing lipase, AMS, IFN-γ and TNF-α level as well as increasing SOD and total antioxidant activity. Furthermore, high throughput sequencing analysis revealed that GLPS3 altered the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota, especially, decreased the relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes and increased that of phylum Firmictutes...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nicholas J Ollberding, Eszter Völgyi, Maurizio Macaluso, Ranjit Kumar, Casey Morrow, Frances A Tylavsky, Chandrika J Piyathilake
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary infection is implicated in the initiation of spontaneous PTB; however, examination of the urinary microbiota in relation to preterm delivery using next-generation sequencing technologies is lacking. In a case-control study nested within the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study, we examined associations between the urinary microbiota and PTB. A total of 49 cases (delivery < 37 weeks gestation) and 48 controls (delivery ≥ 37 weeks gestation) balanced on health insurance type were included in the present analysis...
2016: PloS One
Henry A Paz, Christopher L Anderson, Makala J Muller, Paul J Kononoff, Samodha C Fernando
The rumen microbial community in dairy cows plays a critical role in efficient milk production. However, there is a lack of data comparing the composition of the rumen bacterial community of the main dairy breeds. This study utilizes 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the rumen bacterial community composition in Holstein and Jersey cows fed the same diet by sampling the rumen microbiota via the rumen cannula (Holstein cows) or esophageal tubing (both Holstein and Jersey cows). After collection of the rumen sample via esophageal tubing, particles attached to the strainer were added to the sample to ensure representative sampling of both the liquid and solid fraction of the rumen contents...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yohanna Sarria-Guzmán, Yosef Chávez-Romero, Selene Gómez-Acata, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina, Eleacin Morales-Salazar, Luc Dendooven, Yendi E Navarro-Noya
Plant-associated microbes have specific beneficial functions and are considered key drivers for plant health. The bacterial community structure of healthy Anthurium andraeanum L. plants was studied by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing associated with different plant parts and the rhizosphere. A limited number of bacterial taxa, i.e., Sinorhizobium, Fimbriimonadales, and Gammaproteobacteria HTCC2089 were enriched in the A. andraeanum rhizosphere. Endophytes were more diverse in the roots than in the shoots, whereas all shoot endophytes were found in the roots...
September 29, 2016: Microbes and Environments
Maryam Goudarzi, Tytus D Mak, Jonathan P Jacobs, Bo-Hyun Moon, Steven J Strawn, Jonathan Braun, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace, Heng-Hong Li
Medical responders to radiological and nuclear disasters currently lack sufficient high-throughput and minimally invasive biodosimetry tools to assess exposure and injury in the affected populations. For this reason, we have focused on developing robust radiation exposure biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids such as urine, serum and feces. While we have previously reported on urine and serum biomarkers, here we assessed perturbations in the fecal metabolome resulting from exposure to external X radiation in vivo...
September 2016: Radiation Research
Carmen Espinosa-Gongora, Niels Larsen, Kristian Schønning, Merete Fredholm, Luca Guardabassi
Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S...
2016: PloS One
Kaizhen Liu, Qin Xu, Lizhi Wang, Jiwen Wang, Wei Guo, Meili Zhou
This experiment was conducted to explore the impact of diet on the ruminal microbial community in goat. Twelve goats were divided into two groups and fed complete feed (CF) or all forage (AF) diet. The total microbial DNAs in the rumen liquid were extracted. The V4 region of microbial 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced using high-throughput. Information of sequences was mainly analyzed by QIIME 1.8.0. The results showed that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most predominant microbial phyla in the rumem of all goats...
August 10, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Mehrbod Estaki, Jason Pither, Peter Baumeister, Jonathan P Little, Sandeep K Gill, Sanjoy Ghosh, Zahra Ahmadi-Vand, Katelyn R Marsden, Deanna L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Reduced microbial diversity in human intestines has been implicated in various conditions such as diabetes, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. The role of physical fitness in the context of human intestinal microbiota is currently not known. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyze fecal microbiota of 39 healthy participants with similar age, BMI, and diets but with varying cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Fecal short-chain fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography...
2016: Microbiome
M A Fleury, E Jouy, F Eono, R Cariolet, W Couet, P Gobin, O Le Goff, S Blanquet-Diot, M Alric, I Kempf
Colistin is often used in piglets but underdosing and overdosing are frequent. The impact of such administrations on fecal microbiota was studied. Piglets were given either underdoses of colistin by oral gavage for five days or overdoses by in-feed medication for 14days. The composition of fecal microbiota was studied by quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, culture of Enterobacteriaceae, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The mean colistin concentrations during the treatment for underdosed and overdosed groups were 14...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Daniela E Koeck, Sarah Hahnke, Vladimir V Zverlov
Phylogenetic studies were performed on new isolates of novel Gram-stain-positive, anaerobic, non sporulating rod-shaped bacteria isolated from a thermophilic biogas plant. The novel organisms were able to degrade crystalline cellulose. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison indicated that the isolates SD1D, SD1G, SD1I and RK1P share 100 % sequence identity. They are most closely related to Herbinix hemicellulosilytica T3/55T with which they share a similarity of 96.4 %. As a representative of the whole group of isolates, strain SD1D was further characterized...
July 21, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jessica E Beilharz, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Jayanthi Maniam, Margaret J Morris
Short-term exposure to high-energy diets impairs memory but there is little data on the relative contributions of fat and sugar to these deficits or the mechanisms responsible. Here, we investigated how these different macronutrients affect memory, neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity markers and the gut microbiota. Rats were fed matched purified diets for 2weeks; Control, Sugar, Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA), which varied only in the percentage of energy available from sugar and the amount and type of fat...
October 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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