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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#1
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903747/improved-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-treated-with-resveratrol-is-associated-with-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiome
#2
Miranda M Sung, Ty T Kim, Emmanuel Denou, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Shereen M Hamza, Nikole J Byrne, Grant Masson, Heekuk Park, David S Wishart, Karen L Madsen, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
Oral administration of resveratrol is able to improve glucose homeostasis in obese individuals. Herein we show that resveratrol ingestion produces taxonomic and predicted functional changes in the gut microbiome of obese mice. In particular, changes in the gut microbiome were characterized by a decreased relative abundance of Turicibacteraceae, Moryella, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia and increased relative abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides Moreover, fecal transfer from healthy resveratrol-fed donor mice is sufficient to improve glucose homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting that the resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877168/characterization-of-electricity-generated-by-soil-in-microbial-fuel-cells-and-the-isolation-of-soil-source-exoelectrogenic-bacteria
#3
Yun-Bin Jiang, Wen-Hui Zhong, Cheng Han, Huan Deng
Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 days period. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturable strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863401/isoliquiritigenin-decreases-the-incidence-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota
#4
Minna Wu, Yaqi Wu, Baoguo Deng, Jinsong Li, Haiying Cao, Yan Qu, Xinlai Qian, Genshen Zhong
Imbalances in intestinal bacteria correlate with colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Traditional Chinese medicines have been used to adjust the gut microbiota, and isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid extracted from licorice, has shown antitumor efficacy. In this study, the effects of ISL on CAC development and the gut microbiota were evaluated using an azoxymethane and dextran sulphate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced mouse model of CAC (CACM). Histopathological analysis suggested that ISL reduced tumor incidence in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858139/lactobacillus-plantarum-hac01-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#5
Soyoung Park, Yosep Ji, Hoe-Yune Jung, Hyunjoon Park, Jihee Kang, Sang-Haeng Choi, Heuynkil Shin, Chang-Kee Hyun, Kyong-Tai Kim, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
The functional features of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (HAC01), isolated from fermented Korean kimchi, were studied with regard to the fat mass, immunometabolic biomarkers and dysbiosis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) served as reference strain and a PBS-treated group as control. The administration of L. plantarum HAC01 resulted in reduction of the mesenteric adipose depot, the conjunctive tissue closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, where lipid oxidative gene expression was upregulated compared to the control group...
November 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854567/metagenomic-evaluation-of-bacteria-from-voles
#6
Katja A Koskela, Laura Kalin-Mänttäri, Heidi Hemmilä, Teemu Smura, Paula M Kinnunen, Jukka Niemimaa, Heikki Henttonen, Simo Nikkari
Voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) are known carriers of zoonotic bacteria such as Bartonella spp. and Francisella tularensis. However, apart from F. tularensis, the bacterial microbiome of voles has not previously been determined in Finland and rarely elsewhere. Therefore, we studied liver samples from 61 voles using 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR analysis, followed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-three of these samples were also studied with tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The samples originated from 21 field voles (Microtus agrestis), 37 tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus), and 3 bank voles (Myodes glareolus)...
November 17, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812583/the-modulatory-effect-of-infusions-of-green-tea-oolong-tea-and-black-tea-on-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-induced-obese-mice
#7
Zhibin Liu, Zhichao Chen, Hongwen Guo, Dongping He, Huiru Zhao, Zhiyao Wang, Wen Zhang, Lan Liao, Chen Zhang, Li Ni
Tea consumption has been identified to have an anti-obesity effect. Whether it is associated with gut microbiota modulation is investigated in this study. Phenolic profiles of infusions of green tea, oolong tea and black tea were comprehensively compared first, by utilizing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS). Subsequently, high-fat-diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice were orally administered these three types of tea infusions for 13 weeks to evaluate their anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects...
November 4, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812181/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-eczema-in-infants
#8
Huajun Zheng, Hong Liang, Yuezhu Wang, Maohua Miao, Tao Shi, Fen Yang, Enuo Liu, Wei Yuan, Zai-Si Ji, De-Kun Li
Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797671/nutritional-correlates-of-human-oral-microbiome
#9
Ikuko Kato, Adrian Vasquez, Gregory Moyerbrailean, Susan Land, Zora Djuric, Jun Sun, Ho-Sheng Lin, Jeffrey L Ram
BACKGROUND: Despite many potential effects of the oral microbiome on oral and systemic health, scant information is available regarding the associations between diet and the oral microbiome. METHODS: Oral rinse DNA samples from 182 participants in a population-based case-control study for colorectal cancer were used to amplify a V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq paired end chemistry on 2 runs, yielding approximately 33 million filtered reads that were assigned to bacterial classes...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773914/diet-dependent-modular-dynamic-interactions-of-the-equine-cecal-microbiota
#10
Camilla Kristoffersen, Rasmus B Jensen, Ekaterina Avershina, Dag Austbø, Anne-Helene Tauson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge on dynamic interactions in microbiota is pivotal for understanding the role of bacteria in the gut. We herein present comprehensive dynamic models of the horse cecal microbiota, which include short-chained fatty acids, carbohydrate metabolic networks, and taxonomy. Dynamic models were derived from time-series data in a crossover experiment in which four cecum-cannulated horses were fed a starch-rich diet of hay supplemented with barley (starch intake 2 g kg(-1) body weight per day) and a fiber-rich diet of only hay...
October 21, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746239/factors-influencing-the-infant-gut-microbiome-at-age-3-6%C3%A2-months-findings-from-the-ethnically-diverse-vitamin-d-antenatal-asthma-reduction-trial-vdaart
#11
Joanne E Sordillo, Yanjiao Zhou, Michael J McGeachie, John Ziniti, Nancy Lange, Nancy Laranjo, Jessica R Savage, Vincent Carey, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Robert Strunk, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Scott T Weiss, George Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome in infancy influences immune system maturation, and may have an important impact on allergic disease risk. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how prenatal and early life factors impact the gut microbiome in a relatively large, ethnically diverse study population of infants at age 3 to 6 months, who were enrolled in Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy to prevent asthma and allergies in offspring...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745563/impact-of-feed-restriction-and-housing-hygiene-conditions-on-specific-and-inflammatory-immune-response-the-cecal-bacterial-community-and-the-survival-of-young-rabbits
#12
S Combes, K Massip, O Martin, H Furbeyre, L Cauquil, G Pascal, O Bouchez, N Le Floc'h, O Zemb, I P Oswald, T Gidenne
Limiting the post-weaning intake of the young rabbit is known to improve its resistance to digestive disorders, whereas a degradation of its housing hygiene is assumed to have a negative impact on its health. This study aims at providing insights into the mechanism of digestive health preservation regarding both host (growth and immune response) and its symbiotic digestive microbiota. A 2×2 factorial design from weaning (day 28) to day 64 was set up: ad libitum intake or restricted intake at 70% of ad libitum, and high v...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739530/chronic-sleep-disruption-alters-gut-microbiota-induces-systemic-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#13
Valeriy A Poroyko, Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B Chang, David Gozal
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) commonly occurs in human populations, and although it does not involve circadian shifts or sleep deprivation, it markedly alters feeding behaviors ultimately promoting obesity and insulin resistance. These symptoms are known to be related to the host gut microbiota. Mice were exposed to SF for 4 weeks and then allowed to recover for 2 weeks. Taxonomic profiles of fecal microbiota were obtained prospectively, and conventionalization experiments were performed in germ-free mice...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737357/bacterial-diversity-of-symptomatic-primary-endodontic-infection-by-clonal-analysis
#14
Letícia Maria Menezes Nóbrega, Francisco Montagner, Adriana Costa Ribeiro, Márcia Alves Pinto Mayer, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida Gomes
The aim of this study was to explore the bacterial diversity of 10 root canals with acute apical abscess using clonal analysis. Samples were collected from 10 patients and submitted to bacterial DNA isolation, 16S rRNA gene amplification, cloning, and sequencing. A bacterial genomic library was constructed and bacterial diversity was estimated. The mean number of taxa per canal was 15, ranging from 11 to 21. A total of 689 clones were analyzed and 76 phylotypes identified, of which 47 (61.84%) were different species and 29 (38...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716140/longitudinal-survey-of-clostridium-difficile-presence-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-belgian-nursing-home
#15
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703453/evaluation-of-the-microbial-diversity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#16
Xin Fang, Xin Wang, Shaoguo Yang, Fanjing Meng, Xiaolei Wang, Hua Wei, Tingtao Chen
More and more evidences indicate that diseases of the central nervous system have been seriously affected by fecal microbes. However, little work is done to explore interaction between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fecal microbes. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing method was used to compare the intestinal microbial diversity of healthy people and ALS patients. The principal coordinate analysis, Venn and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) showed an obvious microbial changes between healthy people (group H) and ALS patients (group A), and the average ratios of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Anaerostipes, Prevotella, Escherichia, and Lachnospira at genus level between ALS patients and healthy people were 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696135/acrolein-increases-macrophage-atherogenicity-in-association-with-gut-microbiota-remodeling-in-atherosclerotic-mice-protective-role-for-the-polyphenol-rich-pomegranate-juice
#17
Oren Rom, Hila Korach-Rechtman, Tony Hayek, Yael Danin-Poleg, Haim Bar, Yechezkel Kashi, Michael Aviram
The unsaturated aldehyde acrolein is pro-atherogenic, and the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its anti-oxidative/anti-atherogenic properties, inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark feature of early atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate two unexplored areas of acrolein atherogenicity: macrophage lipid metabolism and the gut microbiota composition. The protective effects of PJ against acrolein atherogenicity were also evaluated. Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that were fed acrolein (3 mg/kg/day) for 1 month showed significant increases in serum and aortic cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660180/medicinal-herbs-as-a-potential-strategy-to-decrease-methane-production-by-rumen-microbiota-a-systematic-evaluation-with-a-focus-on-perilla-frutescens-seed-extract
#18
Jiakun Wang, Mei Liu, Yuelei Wu, Liang Wang, Jianxin Liu, Linshu Jiang, Zhongtang Yu
Mitigation of the methane (CH4) emission from ruminants is needed to decrease the environmental impact of ruminant animal production. Different plant materials and chemicals have been tested, but few are both effective and practical. Medicinal herbs contain biological compounds and antimicrobials that may be effective in lowering the CH4 production. However, few studies have systematically evaluated medicinal herbs for their effect on CH4 production or on the rumen microbiota. In this study, extracts from 100 medicinal herbs were assessed for their ability to decrease CH4 production by rumen microbiota in vitro...
September 22, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630115/cpf1-nucleases-demonstrate-robust-activity-to-induce-dna-modification-by-exploiting-homology-directed-repair-pathways-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Eszter Tóth, Nóra Weinhardt, Petra Bencsura, Krisztina Huszár, Péter I Kulcsár, András Tálas, Elfrieda Fodor, Ervin Welker
BACKGROUND: Cpf1 nucleases have recently been repurposed for site-specific genome modification. Two members of the Cpf1 family, the AsCpf1 from Acidaminococcus sp. and the LbCpf1 from Lachnospiraceae bacterium were shown to induce higher indel frequencies than SpCas9 when examining four randomly-selected target sequences for each type of nuclease. Whether they are a real match for Cas9 nucleases, however, remains to be verified. RESULTS: Here, we used AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 to induce homology directed repair, either single strand annealing (SSA) or homologous recombination (HR), in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells...
2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616696/effects-of-ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharides-on-chronic-pancreatitis-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-mice
#20
Koukou Li, Cheng Zhuo, Chunying Teng, Sumei Yu, Xin Wang, Yang Hu, Guangming Ren, Min Yu, Juanjuan Qu
This study manifested the effects of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLP S3) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) therapy and intestinal microbiota modulation in mice induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). The GLPS3 was prepared from cultured mycelium and markedly alleviated the pancreatitis in mice through decreasing lipase, AMS, IFN-γ and TNF-α level as well as increasing SOD and total antioxidant activity. Furthermore, high throughput sequencing analysis revealed that GLPS3 altered the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota, especially, decreased the relative abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes and increased that of phylum Firmictutes...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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