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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339259/perturbations-of-the-gut-microbiome-genes-in-infants-with-atopic-dermatitis-according-to-feeding-type
#1
Min-Jung Lee, Mi-Jin Kang, So-Yeon Lee, Eun Lee, Kangjin Kim, Sungho Won, Dong In Suh, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Sheen, Kangmo Ahn, Bong-Soo Kim, Soo-Jong Hong
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape the development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of the gut microbiome in atopic dermatitis, the metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types. METHODS: The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6-month-old) by pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with atopic dermatitis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324644/nanocomposite-of-half-fin-anchovy-hydrolysates-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-exhibits-actual-non-toxicity-and-regulates-intestinal-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-and-oxidative-status-in-mice
#2
Ru Song, Jianbin Yao, Qingqing Shi, Rongbian Wei
The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322139/effects-of-polysaccharides-from-purple-sweet-potatoes-on-immune-response-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-normal-and-cyclophosphamide-treated-mice
#3
Chao Tang, Jian Sun, Bo Zhou, Changhai Jin, Jun Liu, Juan Kan, Chunlu Qian, Nianfeng Zhang
In this study, three polysaccharides including water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP), dilute alkali-soluble polysaccharide (DASP) and concentrated alkali-soluble polysaccharide (CASP) were extracted from purple sweet potatoes and then administered to normal and cyclophosphamide (CTX) treated mice by gavage. The results showed that WSP and CASP could restore the spleen index and immune cytokine (IL-2 and IL-6) levels in CTX treated mice, while DASP could enhance the levels of TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6. As compared to the normal control group, WSP and CASP treatment groups exhibited increased levels of Bacteroidetes, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospira, but decreased levels of Firmicutes, Alcaligenaceae and Sutterella in normal mice...
January 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318631/early-life-gut-microbiome-and-egg-allergy
#4
Mina Fazlollahi, Yoojin Chun, Alexander Grishin, Robert A Wood, A Wesley Burks, Peter Dawson, Stacie M Jones, Donald Y M Leung, Hugh A Sampson, Scott H Sicherer, Supinda Bunyavanich
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. METHODS: We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317671/bacterial-community-assembly-from-cow-teat-skin-to-ripened-cheeses-is-influenced-by-grazing-systems
#5
Marie Frétin, Bruno Martin, Etienne Rifa, Verdier-Metz Isabelle, Dominique Pomiès, Anne Ferlay, Marie-Christine Montel, Céline Delbès
The objectives of this study were to explore bacterial community assembly from cow teat skin to raw milk cheeses and to evaluate the role of farming systems on this assembly using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. The two grazing systems studied (extensive vs. semi-extensive) had a greater effect on the microbiota of cow teat skin than on that of raw milks and cheeses. On teat skin, the relative abundance of several taxa at different taxonomic levels (Coriobacteriia, Bifidobacteriales, Corynebacteriales, Lachnospiraceae, Atopobium, and Clostridium) varied depending on the grazing system and the period (early or late summer)...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#6
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306345/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-different-diets-on-microbiome-diversity-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-rumen-liquor-in-dairy-goat
#7
P Cremonesi, G Conte, M Severgnini, F Turri, A Monni, E Capra, L Rapetti, S Colombini, S Chessa, G Battelli, S P Alves, M Mele, B Castiglioni
Fat supplementation plays an important role in defining milk fatty acids (FA) composition of ruminant products. The use of sources rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid favors the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids isomers, increasing the healthy properties of milk. Ruminal microbiota plays a pivotal role in defining milk FA composition, and its profile is affected by diet composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of rumen FA production and microbial structure to hemp or linseed supplementation in diets of dairy goats...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303807/mucus-microbiome-of-anastomotic-tissue-during-surgery-has-predictive-value-for-colorectal-anastomotic-leakage
#8
Jasper B van Praagh, Marcus C de Goffau, Ilsalien S Bakker, Harry van Goor, Hermie J M Harmsen, Peter Olinga, Klaas Havenga
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of gut microbiota, depending on treatment method, with the development of colorectal anastomotic leakage (AL). BACKGROUND: AL is a major cause for morbidity and mortality after colorectal surgery, but the mechanism behind this complication still is not fully understood. METHODS: Bacterial DNA was isolated from 123 "donuts" of patients where a stapled colorectal anastomosis was made and was analyzed using 16S MiSeq sequencing...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290943/analyzing-the-innate-immunity-of-nih-hairless-mice-and-the-impact-of-gut-microbial-polymorphisms-on-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#9
Zhong-Hao Ji, Wen-Zhi Ren, Wei Gao, Yang Hao, Wei Gao, Jian Chen, Fu-Shi Quan, Jin-Ping Hu, Bao Yuan
Spontaneous mutant hairless (HL) mice are often used to study hair growth and hair follicle development, and they often exhibit immune dysfunctions. Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne bacterium, has been used in animal models to study immune responses to infection. Herein, we analyzed the innate immunity of HL mice and the impact of gut microbial polymorphisms on L. monocytogenes infection. Compared to NIH mice, NIH HL mice were more susceptible to L. monocytogenes, as weight losses, mortality, bacterial load, and histopathological lesions were more severe; the decrease in monocytes may be an important underlying reason...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282825/inclusion-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-strain-toa5001-in-the-diet-of-broilers-suppresses-the-symptoms-of-coccidiosis-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota
#10
Takamitsu Tsukahara, Ryo Inoue, Keizo Nakayama, Takio Inatomi
Coccidiosis is an intestinal parasitic infection and one of the most prevalent and economically damaging diseases of chickens. Furthermore, coccidia-induced mucogenesis promotes secondary colonization by Clostridium perfringens, a major pathogen of chickens that causes necrotic enteritis. Our previous work found that supernatant of a culture of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain TOA5001 (BA) inhibited the growth of C. perfringens on Gifu anaerobic broth medium. Accordingly, we evaluated the effectiveness of dietary BA administration in inhibiting C...
December 28, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278751/correlation-between-gut-microbiota-and-personality-in-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Han-Na Kim, Yeojun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Min-Jung Kwon, Juhee Cho, Hocheol Shin, Hyung-Lae Kim
Personality affects fundamental behavior patterns and has been related with health outcomes and mental disorders. Recent evidence has emerged supporting a relationship between the microbiota and behavior, referred to as brain-gut relationships. Here, we first report correlations between personality traits and gut microbiota. This research was performed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the sequencing data of the 16S rRNA gene in 672 adults. The diversity and the composition of the human gut microbiota exhibited significant difference when stratified by personality traits...
December 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273795/fusimonas-intestini-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-intestinal-bacterium-of-the-family-lachnospiraceae-associated-with-diabetes-in-mice
#12
Hiroyuki Kusada, Keishi Kameyama, Xian-Ying Meng, Yoichi Kamagata, Hideyuki Tamaki
Our previous study shows that an anaerobic intestinal bacterium strain AJ110941P contributes to type 2 diabetes development in mice. Here we phylogenetically and physiologically characterized this unique mouse gut bacterium. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the strain belongs to the family Lachnospiraceae but shows low sequence similarities ( < 92.5%) to valid species, and rather formed a distinct cluster with uncultured mouse gut bacteria clones. In metagenomic database survey, the 16S sequence of AJ110941P also matched with mouse gut-derived datasets (56% of total datasets) with > 99% similarity, suggesting that AJ110941P-related bacteria mainly reside in mouse digestive tracts...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#13
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#14
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228270/influenza-a-virus-subtype-h9n2-infection-disrupts-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-of-chickens
#15
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (Uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227180/removal-of-the-cecum-affects-intestinal-fermentation-enteric-bacterial-community-structure-and-acute-colitis-in-mice
#16
Kirsty Brown, D Wade Abbott, Richard R E Uwiera, G Douglas Inglis
The murine cecum is a major site of fermentation of dietary materials, and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). To examine the role that the cecum plays in acute bacterial infection in mice, the cecum was surgically removed, and changes in bacterial communities and production of SCFAs were analyzed relative to surgical sham animals. To incite bacterial colitis, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium. The impact of butyrate administered directly into the colon was also examined. Concentrations of SCFAs in feces were substantially lower in mice with an excised cecum...
December 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226172/enteric-microbiome-markers-as-early-predictors-of-clinical-outcome-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-results-of-a-prospective-study-in-adult-patients
#17
Nicasio Mancini, Raffaella Greco, Renée Pasciuta, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Giacomo Pini, Olivia Beatrice Morrow, Mara Morelli, Luca Vago, Nicola Clementi, Fabio Giglio, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Alessandra Forcina, Laura Infurnari, Sarah Marktel, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo Carrabba, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Roberto Burioni, Jacopo Peccatori, Maria Pia Sormani, Giuseppe Banfi, Fabio Ciceri, Massimo Clementi
Background: Infections and graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) still represent major, not easily predictable complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). Both conditions have been correlated to altered enteric microbiome profiles during the peritransplant period. The main objective of this study was to identify possible early microbiome-based markers useful in pretransplant risk stratification. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 96 consecutive patients at the beginning of the pretransplant conditioning regimen (T0) and at 10 (T1) and 30 (T2) days following transplant...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216491/microbial-source-tracking-markers-associated-with-domestic-rainwater-harvesting-systems-correlation-to-indicator-organisms
#18
M Waso, S Khan, W Khan
Domestic rainwater harvesting (tank water) systems were screened for the presence of a panel of microbial source tracking (MST) markers and traditional indicator organisms. The indicator organisms were enumerated utilizing traditional culture-based methods, while the MST markers were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci were also quantified using qPCR. Correlations and concurrence between these parameters were then investigated to determine which markers could be utilized to supplement traditional indicator analysis...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215589/impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-the-gut-microbiota
#19
REVIEW
Lara Costantini, Romina Molinari, Barbara Farinon, Nicolò Merendino
Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211710/moving-beyond-microbiome-wide-associations-to-causal-microbe-identification
#20
Neeraj K Surana, Dennis L Kasper
Microbiome-wide association studies have established that numerous diseases are associated with changes in the microbiota. These studies typically generate a long list of commensals implicated as biomarkers of disease, with no clear relevance to disease pathogenesis. If the field is to move beyond correlations and begin to address causation, an effective system is needed for refining this catalogue of differentially abundant microbes and to allow subsequent mechanistic studies. Here we demonstrate that triangulation of microbe-phenotype relationships is an effective method for reducing the noise inherent in microbiota studies and enabling identification of causal microbes...
December 6, 2017: Nature
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