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Aiqun Lin, Wenxia Zheng, Yan He, Wenli Tang, Xiaobo Wei, Rongni He, Wei Huang, Yuying Su, Yaowei Huang, Hongwei Zhou, Huifang Xie
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has revealed alterations in the communication between the gut and brain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and previous studies have confirmed that alterations in the gut microbiome play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including PD. The aim of this study was to determine whether the faecal microbiome of PD patients in southern China differs from that of control subjects and whether the gut microbiome composition alters among different PD motor phenotypes...
May 16, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Ditte V Vestergaard, Gitte J Holst, Ioannis Basinas, Grethe Elholm, Vivi Schlünssen, Allan Linneberg, Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Kai Finster, Torben Sigsgaard, Ian P G Marshall
Airborne bacterial communities are subject to conditions ill-suited to microbial activity and growth. In spite of this, air is an important transfer medium for bacteria, with the bacteria in indoor air having potentially major consequences for the health of a building's occupants. A major example is the decreased diversity and altered composition of indoor airborne microbial communities as a proposed explanation for the increasing prevalence of asthma and allergies worldwide. Previous research has shown that living on a farm confers protection against development of asthma and allergies, with airborne bacteria suggested as playing a role in this protective effect...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhen-Qian Zhuang, Lin-Lin Shen, Wei-Wei Li, Xue Fu, Fan Zeng, Li Gui, Yang Lü, Min Cai, Chi Zhu, Yin-Ling Tan, Peng Zheng, Hui-Yun Li, Jie Zhu, Hua-Dong Zhou, Xian-Le Bu, Yan-Jiang Wang
Previous studies suggest that gut microbiota is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depression. However, whether the composition and diversity of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. In the present study, we collected fecal samples from 43 AD patients and 43 age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the microbiota composition in feces...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yongqiong Deng, Hong Wang, Jiyuan Zhou, Yunzhou Mou, Guiqiang Wang, Xia Xiong
Acne vulgaris has been postulated to have a gastrointestinal mechanism; however, little is known about gut microbiota dysfunction in this condition. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether the gut microbiota is altered in acne. Faecal bacterial diversity was analysed in 43 patients with acne and 43 controls, using hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene. Distinct differences were found in microbial diversity between patients with acne and controls (Shannon diversity index (p = 0...
May 14, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Phillippa L Connerton, Philip J Richards, Geraldine M Lafontaine, Peter M O'Kane, Nacheervan Ghaffar, Nicola J Cummings, Darren L Smith, Neville M Fish, Ian F Connerton
BACKGROUND: Campylobacters are an unwelcome member of the poultry gut microbiota in terms of food safety. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiota, inflammatory responses, and zootechnical parameters of broiler chickens not exposed to Campylobacter jejuni with those exposed either early at 6 days old or at the age commercial broiler chicken flocks are frequently observed to become colonized at 20 days old. RESULTS: Birds infected with Campylobacter at 20 days became cecal colonized within 2 days of exposure, whereas birds infected at 6 days of age did not show complete colonization of the sample cohort until 9 days post-infection...
May 12, 2018: Microbiome
Ying Xiao, Jialin Dong, Zhiting Yin, Qiguo Wu, Yiming Zhou, Xiaoli Zhou
To elucidate the possible mechanisms for the preventive effect of procyanidin B2 on aging, a combined analysis of metabolic profile and gut microbiome was carried out in the present study. The mimetic aged mice induced by d-galactose injection (500 mg/kg, sc daily), and the preventive group was fed with the diet plus 0.2% procyanidin B2. After 7 weeks of treatment, the spatial memory was assayed using the Morris water maze test. Procyanidin B2 significantly ameliorated the impaired memory and antioxidant abilities induced by d-galactose...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xiaojie Yuan, Yong Long, Zhaohua Ji, Jie Gao, Ting Fu, Min Yan, Lei Zhang, Haixia Su, Weilu Zhang, Xiaohui Wen, Zhongshu Pu, Hui Chen, Yufei Wang, Xu Gu, Binyuan Yan, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Zhongjun Shao
SCOPE: GTPs exerts anti-CRC activity. The intestinal microbiota and intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. GT modulates the composition of mouse gut microbiota harmonious with anticancer activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GTL consumption on the gut and oral microbiome in healthy volunteers (n = 12). METHODS AND RESULTS: 16S sequencing and PICRUSt analysis of both fecal and saliva samples (collected before intervention, after 2 weeks of GTL (400 ml/day) and after a washout period of one week) in healthy volunteers showed changes in microbial diversity and core microbiota and difference in clear classification (PLS-DA)...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Taeyoung Koo, Sung Wook Park, Dong Hyun Jo, Daesik Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Hee-Yeon Cho, Jeungeun Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin-Soo Kim
LbCpf1, derived from Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006, is a CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease and holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here we show that LbCpf1 can be used for therapeutic gene editing in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The intravitreal delivery of LbCpf1, targeted to two angiogenesis-associated genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and hypoxia inducing factor 1a (Hif1a), using adeno-associated virus, led to efficient gene disruption with no apparent off-target effects in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Elizabeth Magowan, Qendrim Zebeli
Little is known about the role of the gut mucosal microbiota and microbe-host signaling in the variation of pig's feed efficiency (FE). This study therefore aimed to investigate the FE-related differences in the metabolically active mucosal bacterial microbiota and expression of genes for innate immune response, barrier function, nutrient uptake, and incretins in the cecum of finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 72) were ranked for their residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) between days 42 and 91 postweaning and were stratified within litter and sex into high (HRFI; n = 8) and low RFI (LRFI; n = 8)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lijie Han, Hua Jin, Lizhi Zhou, Xin Zhang, Zhiping Fan, Min Dai, Qianyun Lin, Fen Huang, Li Xuan, Haiyan Zhang, Qifa Liu
Animal models have indicated that intestinal microbiota influence acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) by modulating immune homeostasis. But, in humans, the mechanism by which the microbiota induces aGVHD remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and T cell subsets in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) to explore the mechanism by which microbiota induced aGVHD. Based on aGVHD, this study was categorized into two groups: grades II-IV aGVHD (aGVHD group, n  = 32) and grade 0-I aGVHD (non-aGVHD group, n  = 49)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Natalia S Klimenko, Alexander V Tyakht, Anna S Popenko, Anatoly S Vasiliev, Ilya A Altukhov, Dmitry S Ischenko, Tatiana I Shashkova, Daria A Efimova, Dmitri A Nikogosov, Dmitrii A Osipenko, Sergey V Musienko, Kseniya S Selezneva, Ancha Baranova, Alexander M Kurilshikov, Stepan M Toshchakov, Aleksei A Korzhenkov, Nazar I Samarov, Margarita A Shevchenko, Alina V Tepliuk, Dmitry G Alexeev
Personalized nutrition is of increasing interest to individuals actively monitoring their health. The relations between the duration of diet intervention and the effects on gut microbiota have yet to be elucidated. Here we examined the associations of short-term dietary changes, long-term dietary habits and lifestyle with gut microbiota. Stool samples from 248 citizen-science volunteers were collected before and after a self-reported 2-week personalized diet intervention, then analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing...
May 8, 2018: Nutrients
Shuchen Feng, Melinda Bootsma, Sandra L McLellan
The human microbiome contains many organisms that could potentially be used as indicators of human fecal pollution. Here we report the development of two novel human-associated genetic marker assays that target organisms within the family Lachnospiraceae Next-generation sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene from sewage and animal stool samples identified 40 human-associated marker candidates with a robust signal in sewage and low or no occurrence in nonhuman hosts. Two were chosen for quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay development using longer sequences (V2 to V9 regions) generated from clone libraries...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yang Zhang, Renren Wu, Yimin Zhang, Guang Wang, Kaiming Li
Understanding the variations in the microorganisms associated with human fecal pollution in different types of water is necessary to manage water quality and predict human health risks. Using an Illumina sequencing method, we investigated variations in the fecal bacteria originating from fresh human feces and their decay trends in nutrient-supplemented water and natural river water. Nutrient addition contributed to the growth of heterotrophic bacteria like Comamonadaceae, Cytophagaceae, and Sphingobacteriaceae, but led to lower concentrations for Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zenghua Deng, Zhihui Li, Changqing Sun, Hui Xie, Zhengang Chen, Jinbo Liu, Hui Wang, Chenggang Zhang, Guangshun Wang
Lung cancer is amongst the most common types of cancer throughout the world. The overall 5-year survival rate is ~17%. A number of studies have demonstrated that the microbiome existing within the host may affect the level of inflammation, and consequently contribute to the carcinogenesis of certain types of cancer. To investigate the role of inflammation and the microbiome in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer, an intervention study involving mice, including a control group (C; n=5), a urethane-induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma group (U; n=5) and a prebiotics intervention group (P; n=5) was carried out...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
M Joch, J Mrázek, E Skřivanová, L Čermák, M Marounek
In this study, the effects of seven pure plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) on rumen fermentation, methane (CH4 ) production and rumen bacterial community composition were determined. Two in vitro trials were conducted. In trial 1, nine concentrations of 8-hydroxyquinoline, α-terpineol, camphor, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, thymoquinone and thymol were incubated on separate days using in vitro 24-hr batch incubations. All compounds tested demonstrated the ability to alter rumen fermentation parameters and decrease CH4 production...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
P Frutos, P G Toral, A Belenguer, G Hervás
Dairy ewes show large individual variation in the extent of diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) but reasons behind this variability remain uncertain. Previous results offered no convincing support for these differences being related to relevant changes in the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, including potentially antilipogenic FA, or in the transcript abundance of candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that alterations in the processes of rumen biohydrogenation and fermentation, as well as in the bacterial community structure, might account for individual variation in fish oil-induced MFD severity...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hui Zhu, Dong Zeng, Ning Wang, Li-Li Niu, Yi Zhou, Yan Zeng, Xue-Qin Ni
The Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is a rare and endangered ruminant distributed in the eastern Himalayas. However, little information is available regarding the intestinal microbiota of the takin. In this study, Illumina Miseq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA was employed to characterize microbial community and diversity in the feces of wild (n = 6) and captive takins (n = 6). The takin exhibited an intestinal microbiota dominated by three phyla: Firmicutes (57.4%), Bacteroidetes (24...
April 27, 2018: AMB Express
Zhang Lin, Wu Ye, Xianpeng Zu, Haisheng Xie, Houkai Li, Yiping Li, Weidong Zhang
Gut microbiota is recognized as an indispensable "metabolic organ" that plays crucial roles in maintaining human health or initiating diseases. Spleen-yang-deficiency syndrome (SYDS) is a common syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) clinic. It is a complex phenotype reflecting the overall changes of metabolism which are mainly caused by digestive disorders. However, little is known about the changes of gut microbiota and metabolism in patients with SYDS, as well as the crosstalk between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Еlena Yausheva, Sergey Miroshnikov, Еlena Sizova
The research included the study of influence of ultrafine particle preparations (nanoparticles of copper, zinc, iron, CuZn alloy) and metal salts (iron pyrophosphate, copper asparginate, zinc asparginate) on the composition of cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Before adding the studied nanoparticles and metal salts to the diet, cecal microbiota of broiler chickens was represented by 76% Firmicutes taxon and 16% Bacteroidetes. Numerous among them were the bacteria of the taxa Anaerotruncus spp., Lactobacillus spp...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruiz, Inmaculada Acuña, Ruy Jáuregui, Nico Jehmlich, Sven-Bastian Haange, Martin von Bergen, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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