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Ocd treatment

Yuanhan Bai, Xi Yang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Haichen Yang
BACKGROUND: Ritualistic behaviors are common in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), while catatonic stupor occasionally occurs in psychotic or mood disorders. Schizoaffective disorder is a specific mental disorder involving both psychotic and affective symptoms. The syndrome usually represents a specific diagnosis, as in the case of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Pádraig Egan, Susan Murphy, Jelena Jovanovik, Russell Tucker, Noel Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVE:  This article aimed to describe the use and evolution of a synthetic osteochondral resurfacing (SOR) implant in the treatment of osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the femoral condyle and to report the clinical, radiographic, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes of this technique. METHODS:  Medical records of dogs that were treated with first-generation (G1) and second-generation (G2) SOR at a single institute were reviewed...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Fern Jaspers-Fayer, Sarah Yao Lin, Laura Belschner, Janet Mah, Elaine Chan, Clare Bleakley, Rhonda Ellwyn, Annie Simpson, Katherine McKenney, S Evelyn Stewart
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances, including delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and disorders of sleep initiation and maintenance (DIMS), have repeatedly been identified in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These disturbances have not been well-characterized objectively in pediatric OCD. METHODS: Thirty OCD-affected youth (8-18 yrs, 40% male) and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), and one week of continuous actigraphy with concurrent sleep diary documentation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Michelle L Davis, Matthew McCann, Wayne K Goodman, Eric A Storch
A recent survey of Americans found that the majority experienced stress during and after the 2016 United States presidential election. Psychosocial, environmental stressors can have a unique impact on symptom presentation in mental health disorders. This manuscript details a case illustration of an individual whose symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder were directly linked to the election, as well as how these symptoms were addressed via treatment with intensive exposure and response prevention.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Joel B Huleatt, Carl W Nissen, Matthew D Milewski
The treatment of sports injuries in the skeletally immature has a unique set of complications. Growth deformity may occur after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; therefore, skeletal age is used to help guide the choice between physeal sparing and transphyseal techniques. Arthrofibrosis after tibial spine fracture fixation can be reduced by initiating immediate range of motion, and should be treated early and cautiously to avoid iatrogenic fracture. Nonunions of medial epicondyle elbow fractures are more common with nonoperative treatment, but seldom lead to clinical problems outside of certain athletes...
April 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Raymond Leung, Panos Thomas
Osteochondral defects (OCD) are rare conditions that usually present in young adolescents. The causes include trauma, inflammation, ischaemia, genetics and changes at secondary ossification centres. The case report presents a 27-year-old man with chronic intermittent left knee pain for about 3 years. He typically develops the symptom after prolonged standing or when rising from a prolonged seated position. An initial MRI scan in 2014 did not identify and report an OCD that was present in his left lateral tibial plateau...
March 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Pauline W Ng'ang'a, Muthoni Mathai, Anne Obondo, Teresia Mutavi, Manasi Kumar
Background: Psychiatric morbidity is commonly associated with HIV disease and may have adverse effects. This aspect may be overlooked at comprehensive HIV care centers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undetected psychiatric morbidity among HIV/AIDS adult patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre in a semi-urban clinic, in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of adult HIV patients not receiving any psychiatric treatment was conducted...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Valerie Tobin
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be a disabling condition for children, adolescents, and their families. The majority of children and adolescents with OCD have poor academic functioning and a comorbid diagnosis. Many patients will respond with exposure and response prevention therapy. However, for those who are unable, unwilling, or do not fully respond to conservative treatment, it is essential that advanced practice nurses are able to appropriately evaluate and prescribe for OCD in their young patients...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Karin Melin, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Ingela Skärsäter, Bente Storm Mowatt Haugland, Tord Ivarsson
This study reports follow-up 2 and 3 years after the initial assessment of a sample of youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Participants were 109 children and adolescents, aged 5-17 years, recruited from a specialized, outpatient OCD clinic in Sweden. Patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), augmented when indicated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). In cases where SSRIs were insufficient, augmentation with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) was applied. Participants were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), Children's OCD Impact Scale (COIS), and Children's Depressive Inventory (CDI) at follow-ups 2 and 3 years after baseline assessment...
March 3, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jérôme Brunelin, Marine Mondino, Rémy Bation, Ulrich Palm, Mohamed Saoud, Emmanuel Poulet
Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in patients with OCD. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and future clinical applications of tDCS in patients with OCD...
February 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Patrizia D Hofer, Karina Wahl, Andrea H Meyer, Marcel Miché, Katja Beesdo-Baum, Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Roselind Lieb
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with other mental disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. Few longitudinal studies, however, have evaluated the temporal association of prior OCD and subsequent mental disorders across the age period of highest risk for first onset of mental disorders. We examined associations between prior OCD and a broad range of subsequent mental disorders and simulated proportions of new onsets of mental disorders that could potentially be attributed to prior OCD, assuming a causal relationship...
February 28, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Thomas V Fernandez, James F Leckman, Christopher Pittenger
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is present in 1.5-2.5% of the population and can result in substantial lifelong disability. It is characterized by intrusive thoughts, sensations, and urges and by repetitive behaviors that are difficult to control despite, in most cases, preserved insight as to their excessive or irrational nature. The causes and underlying pathophysiology of OCD are not well understood, which has limited the development of new treatments and interventions. Despite evidence for a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk, identification and replication of genetic variants associated with OCD have been challenging...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Andrea Aguglia, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Umberto Albert, Giuseppe Maina
Objective: The co-occurrence of general medical conditions (GMCs) and major psychiatric disorders is well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of GMCs in patients with a primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and, secondly, to investigate which clinical variables are associated with the presence of a GMC. Methods: Subjects with a primary diagnosis of OCD were included. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Luana D Laurito, Carla P Loureiro, Rafaela V Dias, Paula Vigne, Gabriela B de Menezes, Rafael C Freire, Ulrich Stangier, Leonardo F Fontenelle
We investigated the rates of current and past benzodiazepine (BZD) use in a sample of 102 subjects attending specialized anxiety disorder clinics, including panic disorder (PD; N = 36), social anxiety disorder (SAD; N = 28) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N = 38) patients. Almost 56% of the entire sample was using BZDs at the moment of the assessment, and 74.5% described having used them at some point during their lifetimes. The duration of psychiatric treatment and a lifetime history of PD, but not any other "transdiagnostic" measure of severity (such as the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-36, and the Beck Inventories) were independent risk factors for current prescription of BZDs...
February 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Luca Andriolo, Christian Candrian, Tiziana Papio, Alessia Cavicchioli, Francesco Perdisa, Giuseppe Filardo
Objective Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions are a relevant problem that affects the long-term prognosis of young patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evidence on potential and indications of nonsurgical treatment strategies for knee OCD. Design The search was conducted on 3 medical electronic databases according to PRISMA guidelines, including reports of any level of evidence dealing with the conservative management of knee OCD. Of 1688 identified records, 55 full-text articles were screened: 27 studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 908 knees, and were used for the analysis...
February 1, 2018: Cartilage
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Yulia Worbe, Miguel Bernardo, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common in clozapine-treated patients although the actual prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to address the three aforementioned questions. METHODS: The electronic records of a large cohort of clozapine-medicated schizophrenia patients routinely screened for OCD were used. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory Revised version (OCI-R) was available from 118 cases and a 21 points cut-off threshold for OCD was defined...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Joseph K Carpenter, Leigh A Andrews, Sara M Witcraft, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that randomly assigned patients (N = 2,843) with acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD) to CBT or a psychological or pill placebo condition. Findings demonstrated moderate placebo-controlled effects of CBT on target disorder symptoms (Hedges' g = 0...
February 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Nicco Reggente, Teena D Moody, Francesca Morfini, Courtney Sheen, Jesse Rissman, Joseph O'Neill, Jamie D Feusner
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, response varies considerably among individuals. Attaining a means to predict an individual's potential response would permit clinicians to more prudently allocate resources for this often stressful and time-consuming treatment. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from adults with OCD before and after 4 weeks of intensive daily CBT. We leveraged machine learning with cross-validation to assess the power of functional connectivity (FC) patterns to predict individual posttreatment OCD symptom severity...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Abbe Garcia, Kristen Benito, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children under 8 years of age, referred to as early-onset OCD, has similar features to OCD in older children, including moderate to severe symptoms, impairment, and significant comorbidity. Family-based cognitive behavioral therapy (FB-CBT) has been found efficacious in reducing OCD symptoms and functional impairment in children ages 5-8 years with OCD; however, its effectiveness on reducing comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this same population has yet to be demonstrated...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alexander I Tröster
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). DBS has been approved for these same conditions in Europe, but, additionally the European Commission (EC) has granted the Conformité Européenne (CE) Mark for DBS as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures in adults with medically refractory epilepsy. In this issue of EJN Budman and colleagues [1] briefly review the range of neurologic conditions that might constitute promising new indications for DBS...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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