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Compression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922351/estimation-of-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-eye-through-the-study-of-its-vibrational-modes
#1
M Á Aloy, J E Adsuara, P Cerdá-Durán, M Obergaulinger, J J Esteve-Taboada, T Ferrer-Blasco, R Montés-Micó
Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-)seismic techniques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922141/towards-an-in-plane-methodology-to-track-breast-lesions-by-using-mammograms-and-patient-specific-finite-element-simulations
#2
Andres Lapuebla-Ferri, Jose Cegoñino-Banzo, Antonio-Jose Jimenez-Mocholi, Amaya Perez Del Palomar
In breast cancer screening or diagnosis, it is usual to combine different images in order to locate a lesion as accurately as possible. These images are generated by using a single or several imaging techniques. As X-ray based mammography is used widespread, a breast lesion is located in the same plane of the image (mammogram), but tracking of a breast lesion across mammograms corresponding to different views is a daring task for medical physicians. According to this, simulation tools and methodologies that use patient-specific numerical models can facilitate the task of fusing information from different images...
September 18, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921994/anisotropic-cracking-of-nanocrystal-superlattices
#3
Benjamin T Diroll, Xuedan Ma, Yaoting Wu, Christopher B Murray
The synthesis colloidal nanocrystals in non-polar organic solvents has led to exceptional size- and shape-control, enabling the formation of nanocrystal superlattices isostructural to atomic lattices built with nanocrystals rather than atoms. The long aliphatic ligands (e.g. oleic acid) used to achieve this control separate nanocrystals too far in the solid-state for most charge-transporting devices. Solid-state ligand exchange, which brings particles closer together and enhances conductivity, necessitates large changes in the total volume of the solid (compressive stress), which leads to film cracking...
September 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921631/validation-of-highly-accelerated-real-time-cardiac-cine-mri-with-radial-k-space-sampling-and-compressed-sensing-in-patients-at-1-5t-and-3t
#4
Hassan Haji-Valizadeh, Amir A Rahsepar, Jeremy D Collins, Elwin Bassett, Tamara Isakova, Tobias Block, Ganesh Adluru, Edward V R DiBella, Daniel C Lee, James C Carr, Daniel Kim
PURPOSE: To validate an optimal 12-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI pulse sequence with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing (CS) in patients at 1.5T and 3T. METHODS: We used two strategies to reduce image artifacts arising from gradient delays and eddy currents in radial k-space sampling with balanced steady-state free precession readout. We validated this pulse sequence against a standard breath-hold cine sequence in two patient cohorts: a myocardial infarction (n = 16) group at 1...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921057/dvt-prevention-in-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Christopher Goshgarian, Philip B Gorelick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in stroke patients. We discuss use of oral anticoagulation and other interventions for the prevention of VTE. A new class of medications, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), have been successfully trialed for the prevention of VTE. We review the data and guidance statements for VTE prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Warfarin and vitamin K antagonist drugs have been the mainstay of VTE prevention for decades...
September 18, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921041/stabilization-of-scaphoid-type-b2-fractures-with-one-or-two-headless-compression-screws
#6
S Quadlbauer, T Beer, Ch Pezzei, J Jurkowitsch, A Tichy, T Hausner, M Leixnering
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the scaphoid account for the most commonly injured carpal bone. Minimally displaced fractures of the waist will heal in 85-90% when using a below elbow cast. However, fractures with displacement have a higher risk for nonunion. Therefore, open reduction and fixation with headless compression screws (HCS) have become the preferred method of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcome of unstable scaphoid B2 type fractures, stabilized using one or two headless compression screws...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920907/energy-analysis-of-decoders-for-rakeness-based-compressed-sensing-of-ecg-signals
#7
Fabio Pareschi, Mauro Mangia, Daniele Bortolotti, Andrea Bartolini, Luca Benini, Riccardo Rovatti, Gianluca Setti
In recent years, compressed sensing (CS) has proved to be effective in lowering the power consumption of sensing nodes in biomedical signal processing devices. This is due to the fact the CS is capable of reducing the amount of data to be transmitted to ensure correct reconstruction of the acquired waveforms. Rakeness-based CS has been introduced to further reduce the amount of transmitted data by exploiting the uneven distribution to the sensed signal energy. Yet, so far no thorough analysis exists on the impact of its adoption on CS decoder performance...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920895/matched-filtering-for-heart-rate-estimation-on-compressive-sensing-ecg-measurements
#8
Giulia Da Poian, Christopher J Rozell, Riccardo Bernardini, Roberto Rinaldo, Gari D Clifford
OBJECTIVE: Compressive Sensing (CS) has recently been applied as a low complexity compression framework for long-term monitoring of electrocardiogram signals using Wireless Body Sensor Networks. Long-term recording of ECG signals can be useful for diagnostic purposes and to monitor the evolution of several widespread diseases. In particular, beat to beat intervals provide important clinical information, and these can be derived from the ECG signal by computing the distance between QRS complexes (R-peaks)...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920823/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-a-unilateral-renal-cystadenoma-in-an-african-lion-panthera-leo
#9
Ronan Eustace, Jacob Rubin, Kimberly A Thompson, Kyle Snowdon, James G Sikarskie, Colleen Monahan, Rebecca C Smedley
A renal tubular cystadenoma was diagnosed in a 14-yr-old male African lion (Panthera leo). During a routine health evaluation, a left renal mass was identified via physical examination, radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonography. The mass was 30 × 15 cm in size and had a thin capsule with central hypoechoic fluid, suggestive of a perirenal cyst. An exploratory celiotomy with partial nephrectomy was performed without complications. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a thick fibrous capsule surrounding multiple, variable-sized cysts that markedly compressed the adjacent fibrotic and atrophied renal cortex...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#10
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920545/median-nerve-movement-in-the-carpal-tunnel-before-and-after-carpal-tunnel-release-using-transverse-ultrasound
#11
Mitsuhiko Nanno, Norie Kodera, Yuji Tomori, Yusuke Hagiwara, Shinro Takai
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the movement of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel during wrist and finger motions between before and after carpal tunnel release (CTR) using transverse ultrasound in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and to evaluate the biomechanical efficacy of CTR for CTS. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with CTS were examined by transverse ultrasound. The location of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel was examined quantitatively as a coordinate at varied wrist positions with finger extension and flexion, respectively, before and after CTR...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920110/painful-neuropathy-caused-by-compression-of-the-inferior-alveolar-nerve-by-focal-osteosclerotic-lesion-of-the-mandible-a-case-report
#12
David Debevc, Tomaž Hitij, Andrej Kansky
Osteosclerotic lesions are a common finding on dental radiographs. They are considered developmental variants of a normal bone architecture and they usually do not need any treatment. The purpose of this article is to present a rare case of osteosclerotic lesion of the mandible causing trigeminal neuropathy by compression of the alveolar nerve. The pain started with dental hypersensitivity of the mandibular right first molar. Later on, signs of irreversible molar tooth pulpitis developed. Endodontic therapy and apicoectomy did not resolve the pain, which later intensified, and painful neuropathy localized to inferior alveolar nerve developed; therefore, surgical decompression was indicated...
2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919827/is-a-mechanical-assist-device-better-than-manual-chest-compression-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Thidathit Prachanukool, Kasamon Aramvanitch, Nuttamon Thongwichit, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth, Yuwares Sittichanbuncha
BACKGROUND: Chest compression quality is a determinant of survival from sudden cardiac arrest. The CPR RsQ Assist Device (CPR RAD) is a new cardiopulmonary resuscitation device for chest compression. It is operated manually but it does not pull up on the chest on the up stroke. The aim of this study was to compare the CPR RAD with standard manual compression in terms of chest compression quality in a manikin model. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either the device or manual chest compression group...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919430/role-of-subchondral-bone-properties-and-changes-in-development-of-load-induced-osteoarthritis-in-mice
#14
Olufunmilayo O Adebayo, Frank C Ko, Philip T Wan, Steven R Goldring, Mary B Goldring, Timothy M Wright, Marjolein C H van der Meulen
OBJECTIVE: Animal models recapitulating post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) suggest that subchondral bone (SCB) properties and remodeling may play major roles in disease initiation and progression. Thus, we investigated the role of SCB properties and its effects on load-induced OA progression by applying a tibial loading model on two distinct mouse strains treated with alendronate (ALN). DESIGN: Cyclic compression was applied to the left tibia of 26-week-old male C57Bl/6 (B6, low bone mass) and FVB (high bone mass) mice...
September 14, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919399/a-numerical-model-suggests-the-interplay-between-nuclear-plasticity-and-stiffness-during-a-perfusion-assay
#15
Solenne Deveraux, Rachele Allena, Denis Aubry
Cell deformability is a necessary condition for a cell to be able to migrate, an ability that is vital both for healthy and diseased organisms. The nucleus being the largest and stiffest organelle, it often is a barrier to cell migration. It is thus essential to characterize its mechanical behaviour. First, we numerically investigate the visco-elasto-plastic properties of the isolated nucleus during a compression test. This simulation highlights the impact of the mechanical behaviour of the nuclear lamina and the nucleoplasm on the overall plasticity...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919307/a-journey-between-high-altitude-hypoxia-and-critical-patient-hypoxia-what-can-it-teach-us-about-compression-and-the-management-of-critical-disease
#16
M L Avellanas Chavala
High altitude sickness (hypobaric hypoxia) is a form of cellular hypoxia similar to that suffered by critically ill patients. The study of mountaineers exposed to extreme hypoxia offers the advantage of involving a relatively homogeneous and healthy population compared to those typically found in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), which are heterogeneous and generally less healthy. Knowledge of altitude physiology and pathology allows us to understanding how hypoxia affects critical patients. Comparable changes in mitochondrial biogenesis between both groups may reflect similar adaptive responses and suggest therapeutic interventions based on the protection or stimulation of such mitochondrial biogenesis...
September 14, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919186/non-surgical-treatment-of-delayed-onset-brachial-plexopathy-due-to-hypertrophic-clavicular-callus-a-case-report
#17
REVIEW
Benjamin M Carpenter, David R Pettersson, Adam J Mirarchi, Drew Groshong, Hans L Carlson
Clavicular fractures are common injuries which are traditionally managed non-surgically without clinically significant sequelae. However, they may develop hypertrophic callus formation that compresses the brachial plexus. These cases may present months to years after initial injury with varying degrees of pain, paresthesia and weakness on the affected side, and are usually treated by surgical resection of the hypertrophic callus. We present a case of brachial plexopathy due to hypertrophic clavicular callus causing weakness and paresthesia...
September 12, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918706/speech-intelligibility-benefits-of-frequency-lowering-algorithms-in-adult-hearing-aid-users-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Andrea Simpson, Alicia Bond, Michelle Loeliger, Sandy Clarke
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of two frequency-lowering schemes, non-linear frequency compression and frequency transposition, at improving speech intelligibility for adult hearing-impaired populations. DESIGN: A systematic search of 10 electronic databases was carried out using pre-defined inclusion criteria. Accepted articles were then critically appraised using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Critical Appraisal Tool...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918550/advance-care-planning-challenges-at-the-emergency-department-of-a-cancer-care-center
#20
Maria T Cruz-Carreras, Patrick Chaftari, Jayne Viets-Upchurch
INTRODUCTION: Code status discussions form an important part of advance care planning (ACP) as it enables physicians to respect the patient's wishes for end-of-life care. However, in some cases, code status discussions can be challenging causing the physician to go against the patient's wishes and the code of medical ethics. This is especially true in an emergency setting. In this paper, we will discuss three cases of advanced cancer patients, where code status discussions posed challenges to healthcare providers...
September 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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