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Juliane D Glaeser, Khosrowdad Salehi, Linda Kanim, Dmitriy Sheyn, Zachary NaPier, Phillip Behrens, Leslie Garcia, Jason M Cuéllar, Hyun W Bae
Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) have been successfully used to enhance bone formation and to induce spinal fusion in humans. However, side effects, such as soft-tissue edema and inflammation, have been reported. NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD) inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of immune response. In this study, we investigated NBD's potential to reduce BMP-2-induced soft-tissue inflammation without affecting BMP-2-mediated spinal fusion in rat...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Giovanna M Collu, Andreas Jenny, Konstantin Gaengel, Ivana Mirkovic, Mei-Ling Chin, Ursula Weber, Michael J Smith, Marek Mlodzik
Planar cell polarity (PCP) instructs tissue patterning in a wide range of organisms from fruit flies to humans. PCP signaling coordinates cell behavior across tissues and is integrated by cells to couple cell fate identity with position in a developing tissue. In the fly eye, PCP signaling is required for the specification of R3 and R4 photoreceptors based upon their positioning relative to the dorso-ventral axis. The 'core' PCP pathway involves the asymmetric localization of two distinct membrane-bound complexes, one containing Frizzled (Fz, required in R3) and the other Van Gogh (Vang, required in R4)...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Qingyu Tang, Sayan Chakraborty, Guozhou Xu
Activation of the IkB kinase β (IKKβ) is a central event in the NF-kB mediated canonical pro-inflammatory pathway. Numerous studies have reported that the oligomerization-mediated trans auto-phosphorylation of IKKβ is indispensable for itsphosphorylation leading to its activation and the IKKβ-mediated phosphorylation of substrates such as the IkB proteins. Moreover, IKKβ'sinteraction with NF-kB essential modifier (NEMO) is necessary for IKKβ activation. Interestingly, some viruses encode virulence factors that target the IKKβ to inhibit NF-kB-mediated antiviral immune responses...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Priyanshu Bhargava, Vidhi Malik, Ye Liu, Jihoon Ryu, Sunil C Kaul, Durai Sundar, Renu Wadhwa
Withaferin-A (Wi-A) has been shown to possess anticancer activity. Molecular mechanism(s) of its action have not been fully resolved. We recruited low dose of Wi-A that caused slow growth arrest in cancer cells, and was relatively safe for normal cells. Consistently, we detected nuclear translocation of NFκB and activation of p38MAPK selectively in cancer cells. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that Wi-A did not disrupt IKK/IKKβ-Nemo complex that regulates NFκB activity. However, it caused moderate change in the conformation of IKKβ-Nemo interacting domain...
April 28, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Chi Zhang, Changchuan Li, Shixun Li, Ling Qin, Manli Luo, Guangtao Fu, Junxiong Qiu, Peng Peng, Weibin Cai, Yue Ding
Arthroplasty has been widely performed worldwide. However, peri-prosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening induced by macrophages activated by wear particles still remain a predominant cause of long term prosthetic failure. Our study aimed to identify the role of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages through Toll-like Recepters (TLR)s signaling pathway activated by wear particles both in vivo and in vitro. The effect of SHP on activation of TLR4 pathway and secretion of cytokines was observed in RAW264...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Yan Tang, Hyokjoon Kwon, Brian A Neel, Michal Kasher-Meron, Jacob Pessin, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin
The systems integration of whole-body metabolism and immune signaling are central homeostatic mechanisms necessary for maintenance of normal physiology, and dysregulation of these processes leads to a variety of chronic disorders. However, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for cell-autonomous cross talk between the inflammatory signaling pathways and metabolic flux have remained enigmatic. In this study, we discovered that the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR (Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator) critically regulates NF-κB activation...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
V Papadopoulou, P Germonpré, D Cosgrove, R J Eckersley, P A Dayton, G Obeid, A Boutros, M-X Tang, S Theunissen, C Balestra
PURPOSE: A reduction in ambient pressure or decompression from scuba diving can result in ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (VGE). These environmental exposures carry a risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules; however, bubbles are routinely observed for dives well within these limits and significant inter-personal variability in DCS risk exists. Here, we assess the variability and evolution of VGE for 2 h post-dive using echocardiography, following a standardized pool dive in calm warm conditions...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jingxuan Fu, Daoyuan Huang, Fuwen Yuan, Nan Xie, Qian Li, Xinpei Sun, Xuehong Zhou, Guodong Li, Tanjun Tong, Yu Zhang
DNA damage-induced NF-kB activation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and cellular senescence. However, the underlying mechanisms, especially the initial sensors and transducers connecting the nuclear DNA damage signal with cytoplasmic NF-kB activation remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that TRAF-interacting protein with forkhead-associated domain (TIFA), an established NF-kB activator in the cytosol, unexpectedly exhibited nuclear translocation and accumulation on damaged chromatin following genotoxic stress...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jessica N Redgrave, Lucy Moore, Tosin Oyekunle, Maryam Ebrahim, Konstantinos Falidas, Nicola Snowdon, Ali Ali, Arshad Majid
BACKGROUND: Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has the potential to enhance the effects of physiotherapy for upper limb motor recovery after stroke. Noninvasive, transcutaneous auricular branch VNS (taVNS) may have similar benefits, but this has not been evaluated in stroke recovery. We sought to determine the feasibility of taVNS delivered alongside upper limb repetitive task-specific practice after stroke and its effects on a range of outcome measures evaluating limb function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen participants at more than 3 months postischemic stroke with residual upper limb dysfunction were recruited from the community of Sheffield, United Kingdom (October-December 2016)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Clara Franco-Jarava, Hongying Wang, Andrea Martin-Nalda, de la Sierra Daniel Alvarez, Marina García-Prat, Domingo Bodet, Vicenç García-Patos, Alberto Plaja, Francesc Rudilla, Victor Rodriguez-Sureda, Laura García-Latorre, Ivona Aksentijevich, Roger Colobran, Pere Soler-Palacín
There is scarce literature about autoinflammation in syndromic patients. We describe a patient who, in addition to psychomotor and growth delay, presented with fevers, neutrophilic dermatosis, and recurrent orogenital ulcers. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array permitted to identify a 13.13Mb deletion on chromosome 6, encompassing 53 genes, and including TNFAIP3 gene (A20). A20 is a potent inhibitor of the NF-kB signalling pathway and restricts inflammation via its deubiquitinase activity. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays showed decreased A20 expression and increased phosphorylation of p65 and IkBa...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Leslie Nemo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2017: Scientific American
Leslie Nemo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Scientific American
Leslie Nemo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Scientific American
Leslie Nemo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Scientific American
Leslie Nemo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Scientific American
Amy P Hsu, Christa S Zerbe, Ladan Foruraghi, Nicole M Iovine, David M Mushatt, Laurianne Wild, Douglas B Kuhns, Steven M Holland
4 patients with adult-onset, disseminated mycobacterial infection had 5' UTR mutations in IKBKG without clear physical stigmata of NEMO deficiency. These mutations caused decreased levels of NEMO protein and Toll-like receptor driven cytokine production. 3 patients died from disseminated disease. These mutations may be missed by whole exome sequencing.
March 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hui Guo, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Jun Liang, Wen-Jing Yan
The smile is a frequently expressed facial expression that typically conveys a positive emotional state and friendly intent. However, human beings have also learned how to fake smiles, typically by controlling the mouth to provide a genuine-looking expression. This is often accompanied by inaccuracies that can allow others to determine that the smile is false. Mouth movement is one of the most striking features of the smile, yet our understanding of its dynamic elements is still limited. The present study analyzes the dynamic features of lip corners, and considers how they differ between genuine and posed smiles...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tyrone J Tolbert, Shinnosuke Nakayama, Maurizio Porfiri
The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers...
February 22, 2018: Zebrafish
Gunter Maubach, Ann-Christin Schmädicke, Michael Naumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Mark Lötzerich, Pascal S Roulin, Karin Boucke, Robert Witte, Oleg Georgiev, Urs F Greber
Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-κB regulatory subunit IKKγ), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-κB signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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