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Amy P Hsu, Christa S Zerbe, Ladan Foruraghi, Nicole M Iovine, David M Mushatt, Laurianne Wild, Douglas B Kuhns, Steven M Holland
4 patients with adult-onset, disseminated mycobacterial infection had 5' UTR mutations in IKBKG without clear physical stigmata of NEMO deficiency. These mutations caused decreased levels of NEMO protein and Toll-like receptor driven cytokine production. 3 patients died from disseminated disease. These mutations may be missed by whole exome sequencing.
March 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hui Guo, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Jun Liang, Wen-Jing Yan
The smile is a frequently expressed facial expression that typically conveys a positive emotional state and friendly intent. However, human beings have also learned how to fake smiles, typically by controlling the mouth to provide a genuine-looking expression. This is often accompanied by inaccuracies that can allow others to determine that the smile is false. Mouth movement is one of the most striking features of the smile, yet our understanding of its dynamic elements is still limited. The present study analyzes the dynamic features of lip corners, and considers how they differ between genuine and posed smiles...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tyrone J Tolbert, Shinnosuke Nakayama, Maurizio Porfiri
The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers...
February 22, 2018: Zebrafish
Gunter Maubach, Ann-Christin Schmädicke, Michael Naumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Mark Lötzerich, Pascal S Roulin, Karin Boucke, Robert Witte, Oleg Georgiev, Urs F Greber
Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-κB regulatory subunit IKKγ), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-κB signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Weina Yang, Lina Gu, Chang Yang, Tianbo Liu
Objective: Nemo-like kinase (NLK) has been reported to play different roles in tumors. However, the role of NLK in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) remains unknown. In this study, we explored the clinical significance including survival of NLK protein expression in CSCCs. Patients and methods: Immunohistochemical method was performed using tissues from 130 patients with CSCC. The associations between NLK expression and the clinicopathological factors and prognosis of CSCCs were evaluated...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Yanxin Su, Peidian Shi, Lilin Zhang, Dong Lu, Chengxue Zhao, Ruiqiao Li, Lei Zhang, Jinhai Huang
Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of the immune response by regulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The linear ubiquitin-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN can control immune signaling transduction pathway by restricting Met1-linked ubiquitination process. In our study, the porcine OTLLIN gene was cloned and deubiquitin functions were detected in PRRSV-infected cell model. PRRSV infection promotes the expression of OTULIN gene, in turn, overexpression of OTULIN contributes to PRRSV proliferation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Catharine J Wheaton, Natalie D Mylniczenko, John M Rimoldi, Rama S V S Gadepalli, R Hart, Bobbi R O'Hara, Andrew N Evans
Sharks and rays are popular species used in wildlife ecotourism and aquariums to educate the public on the behavior, ecology and conservation challenges of elasmobranchs. To understand long-term physiological health and welfare under varying social and husbandry conditions, we developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure stress/ionoregulatory hormones in managed and semi-free range southern rays (Hypanus americanus). Banked serum and interrenal samples from 27 female rays managed at Disney's The Seas with Nemo and Friends® and Castaway Cay were used to evaluate measurement of 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1αOHB) relative to corticosterone (B)...
January 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Carla Reale, Tiziana Zotti, Ivan Scudiero, Pasquale Vito, Romania Stilo
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway controls a variety of important biological functions, including immune and inflammatory responses, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Two distinct pathways of NF-κB activation are known. The classical, canonical pathway is found virtually in all mammalian cells and NF-κB activation is mediated by the IKK complex, consisting of the IKK1/IKKα and IKK2/IKKβ catalytic kinase subunits and the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)/IKKγ protein...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
P N Kantaputra, A Hutsadaloi, M Kaewgahya, W Intachai, R German, M Koparal, C Leethanakul, A Tolun, J R Ketudat Cairns
Isolated hypodontia is the most common human malformation. It is caused by heterozygous variants in various genes, with heterozygous WNT10A variants being the most common cause. WNT10A and WNT10B are paralogs that likely evolved from a common ancestral gene after its duplication. Recently an association of WNT10B variants with oligodontia (severe tooth agenesis) has been reported. We performed mutational analysis in our cohort of 256 unrelated Thai families with various kinds of isolated dental anomalies. In seven families afflicted with dental anomalies we detected four heterozygous missense variants in WNT10B...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Mun Hua Tan, Christopher M Austin, Michael P Hammer, Yin Peng Lee, Laurence J Croft, Han Ming Gan
Background: Some of the most widely recognised coral-reef fishes are clownfish or anemonefishes, members of the family Pomacentridae (subfamily: Amphiprioninae). They are popular aquarium species due to their bright colours, adaptability to captivity and fascinating behavior. Their breeding biology (sequential hermaphrodites) and symbiotic mutualism with sea anemones have attracted much scientific interest. Moreover, there are some curious geographic-based phenotypes which warrant investigation...
January 12, 2018: GigaScience
R Arnold, C Augier, A S Barabash, A Basharina-Freshville, S Blondel, S Blot, M Bongrand, D Boursette, V Brudanin, J Busto, A J Caffrey, S Calvez, M Cascella, C Cerna, J P Cesar, A Chapon, E Chauveau, A Chopra, L Dawson, D Duchesneau, D Durand, V Egorov, G Eurin, J J Evans, L Fajt, D Filosofov, R Flack, X Garrido, H Gómez, B Guillon, P Guzowski, R Hodák, A Huber, P Hubert, C Hugon, S Jullian, A Klimenko, O Kochetov, S I Konovalov, V Kovalenko, D Lalanne, K Lang, Y Lemière, T Le Noblet, Z Liptak, X R Liu, P Loaiza, G Lutter, M Macko, C Macolino, F Mamedov, C Marquet, F Mauger, B Morgan, J Mott, I Nemchenok, M Nomachi, F Nova, F Nowacki, H Ohsumi, C Patrick, R B Pahlka, F Perrot, F Piquemal, P Povinec, P Přidal, Y A Ramachers, A Remoto, J L Reyss, C L Riddle, E Rukhadze, R Saakyan, R Salazar, X Sarazin, Yu Shitov, L Simard, F Šimkovic, A Smetana, K Smolek, A Smolnikov, S Söldner-Rembold, B Soulé, D Štefánik, I Štekl, J Suhonen, C S Sutton, G Szklarz, J Thomas, V Timkin, S Torre, Vl I Tretyak, V I Tretyak, V I Umatov, I Vanushin, C Vilela, V Vorobel, D Waters, F Xie, A Žukauskas
We report the results of a first experimental search for lepton number violation by four units in the neutrinoless quadruple-β decay of ^{150}Nd using a total exposure of 0.19 kg yr recorded with the NEMO-3 detector at the Modane Underground Laboratory. We find no evidence of this decay and set lower limits on the half-life in the range T_{1/2}>(1.1-3.2)×10^{21}  yr at the 90% C.L., depending on the model used for the kinematic distributions of the emitted electrons.
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: British Dental Journal
Arry Morel, Nemo Peeters, Fabienne Vailleau, Patrick Barberis, Gaofei Jiang, Richard Berthomé, Alice Guidot
In this chapter, we describe different methods for phenotyping strains or mutants of the bacterial wilt agent, Ralstonia solanacearum, on four different host plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), or Medicago truncatula. Methods for preparation of high volume or low volume inocula are first described. Then, we describe the procedures for inoculation of plants by soil drenching, stem injection or leaf infiltration, and scoring of the wilting symptoms development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fabien Lonjon, Nemo Peeters, Stéphane Genin, Fabienne Vailleau
Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to infect plants. Like many gram-negative bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, possesses a specialized protein secretion machinery to deliver effector proteins directly into the host cells. This type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial proteins translocated, called type 3 effectors (T3Es), constitute the main pathogenicity determinants of the R. solanacearum species complex (RSSC). Up to 113 orthologous groups defining T3E genes have been identified among the RSSC strains sequenced to date...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stefanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Lilo Greune, Anne-Sophie Stolle, Marie-Luise Lubos, Philip R Hardwidge, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Effector proteins are key virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria that target and subvert the functions of essential host defense mechanisms. Typically, these proteins are delivered into infected host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS). Recently, however, several effector proteins have been found to enter host cells in a T3SS-independent manner thereby widening the potential range of these virulence factors. Prototypes of such bacteria-derived cell-penetrating effectors (CPEs) are the Yersinia enterocolitica-derived YopM as well as the Salmonella typhimurium effector SspH1...
December 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Patrick Meyer, Pallab Maity, Andre Burkovski, Julian Schwab, Christoph Müssel, Karmveer Singh, Filipa F Ferreira, Linda Krug, Harald J Maier, Meinhard Wlaschek, Thomas Wirth, Hans A Kestler, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
Cells and tissues are exposed to stress from numerous sources. Senescence is a protective mechanism that prevents malignant tissue changes and constitutes a fundamental mechanism of aging. It can be accompanied by a senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that causes chronic inflammation. We present a Boolean network model-based gene regulatory network of the SASP, incorporating published gene interaction data. The simulation results describe current biological knowledge. The model predicts different in-silico knockouts that prevent key SASP-mediators, IL-6 and IL-8, from getting activated upon DNA damage...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jae-Gyu Kim, Hee-Jun Kim, Jung-Yoon Cho, Hwalrim Jeong, Yohan Park, Rokibul Islam, Cuong Kim Cap, Jae-Bong Park
Rho GTPases play significant roles in cellular function and their activity is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), providing activation and inactivation of these GTPases, respectively. Active GTP-bound form of RhoA activates its effector proteins while the inactive GDP-bound form of RhoA exists in a RhoA-RhoGDI (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor) complex in the cytosol. In particular, IκB kinase γ IKKγ/NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) plays a role as a GDI displacement factor (GDF) for RhoA activation through binding to RhoA-RhoGDI complex...
December 3, 2017: Small GTPases
Matthew C Phillips, Rishu Dheer, Rebeca Santaolalla, Julie M Davies, Juan Burgueño, Jessica K Lang, Michal Toborek, Maria T Abreu
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that adversely affect human health. PCBs bio-accumulate in organisms important for human consumption. PCBs accumulation in the body leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a major driver of inflammation. Despite dietary exposure being one of the main routes of exposure to PCBs, the gut has been widely ignored when studying the effects of PCBs. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of PCB 153 on the intestine and addressed whether PCB 153 affected intestinal permeability or inflammation and the mechanism by which this occurred...
January 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Gianluca Telesio, Ivan Scudiero, Maddalena Pizzulo, Pellegrino Mazzone, Tiziana Zotti, Serena Voccola, Immacolata Polvere, Pasquale Vito, Romania Stilo
The three CARD-containing MAGUK (CARMA) proteins function as scaffolding molecules that regulate activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Recently, mutations in CARMA2 have been linked to psoriasis susceptibility due to their acquired altered capacity to activate NF-κB. By means of two-hybrid screening with yeast, we identified RING finger protein 7 (RNF7) as an interactor of CARMA2. We present evidence that RNF7 functions as a negative regulator of the NF-κB-activating capacity of CARMA2...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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