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Longitudinal function

Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Yeseon Moon, Janet DeRosa, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI are common and associated with vascular and functional outcomes. However, the relationship between WMHs and longitudinal trajectories of functional status is not well characterized. We hypothesized that whole brain WMHs are associated with functional decline independently of intervening clinical vascular events and other vascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a population-based racially/ethnically diverse prospective cohort study, 1,290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain MRI and were followed afterwards for a mean 7...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Stefan Schneider, Doerte U Junghaenel, Masakatsu Ono, Arthur A Stone
Advances in pain measurement using ecological momentary assessments offer novel opportunities for understanding the temporal dynamics of pain. This study examined whether regime-switching models, which capture processes characterized by recurrent shifts between different states, provide clinically relevant information for characterizing individuals based on their temporal pain patterns. Patients with rheumatic diseases (N=116) provided 7-8 momentary pain ratings per day for two weekly periods, separated by 3 months...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Zia S Pradhan, Shivani Dixit, Shruthi Sreenivasaiah, Harsha L Rao, Jayasree P Venugopal, Sathi Devi, Carroll A B Webers
PURPOSE: To study sectoral vessel density (VD) and structural alterations in the peripapillary and parafoveal hemiretina corresponding to perimetrically intact regions of glaucomatous eyes with hemifield defects and to compare these with healthy eyes using optical coherence tomography. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 37 eyes with open-angle glaucoma having visual fields (VF) defects restricted to one hemifield and 45 age-matched controls. Peripapillary VD and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were measured in 8 sectors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Janet Baack Kukreja, Qiuling Shi, Courtney M Chang, Mohamed A Seif, Brandon M Sterling, Ting-Yu Chen, Kelly M Creel, Ashish M Kamat, Colin P Dinney, Neema Navai, Jay B Shah, Xin Shelley Wang
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is a disease of the elderly that is associated with high morbidity in those treated with radical cystectomy. In this observational study of patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, we analyzed and compared patient-reported outcomes from those treated with Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) methods versus those who received traditional perioperative care. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent radical cystectomy at a high-volume tertiary care referral center from November 2013 to December 2016, when the ERAS concept was being introduced into postoperative care at our institution...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Melinda M Pettigrew, Christian P Ahearn, Janneane F Gent, Yong Kong, Mary C Gallo, James B Munro, Adonis D'Mello, Sanjay Sethi, Hervé Tettelin, Timothy F Murphy
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natalie A Silverton, Ravi Patel, Josh Zimmerman, Jianing Ma, Greg Stoddard, Craig Selzman, Candice K Morrissey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intraoperative measures of right ventricular (RV) function using transesophageal echocardiography are associated with subsequent RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. SETTING: Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 100 patients with systolic heart failure undergoing elective LVAD implantation...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Zhifeng Gao, Jeffrey Bortman, Faraz Mahmood, John Mitchell, Feroze Mahmood, Robina Matyal
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and reliability of using a vendor-neutral platform to evaluate right ventricular (RV) strain. Reliability was determined by comparing intra- and inter-observer variability between RV strain assessments. The secondary objective was to assess strain's correlation with conventional RV functional parameters to evaluate its feasibility as a RV systolic functional assessment tool. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Martin Wollin, Kristian Thorborg, Marijke Welvaert, Tania Pizzari
OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Twenty-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Rebecca Lewthwaite, Carolee J Winstein, Christianne J Lane, Sarah Blanton, Burl R Wagenheim, Monica A Nelsen, Alexander W Dromerick, Steven L Wolf
BACKGROUND: Task-oriented therapies have been developed to address significant upper extremity disability that persists after stroke. Yet, the extent of and approach to rehabilitation and recovery remains unsatisfactory to many. OBJECTIVE: To compare a skill-directed investigational intervention with usual care treatment for body functions and structures, activities, participation, and quality of life outcomes. METHODS: On average, 46 days poststroke, 361 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 outpatient therapy groups: a patient-centered Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), dose-equivalent usual occupational therapy (DEUCC), or usual therapy (UCC)...
February 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jonathan Richard Gregory Etnel, Paula Hansen Suss, Gabriela Miotto Schnorr, Myriam Veloso, Daniele Fornazari Colatusso, Eduardo Mendel Balbi Filho, Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown favourable early results with decellularized allografts (DAs) for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction during the Ross procedure. However, mid- and long-term outcome data are still scarce. The objective of this study was to compare the durability of fresh DAs with standard cryopreserved allografts (SCAs) in patients undergoing the Ross procedure. METHODS: Two hundred patients underwent the Ross procedure with DA and 202 with SCA...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Hui-Wan Chuang, Chi-Wen Kao, Ming-Der Lee, Yue-Cune Chang
Depression is a common issue in institutionalized elderly people. The "Attentively Embracing Story" theory is applied to help individuals transform negative thoughts into positive, and reflect on spiritual healing. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a "Story-Centred Care Intervention Program" based on the "Attentively Embracing Story" theory in improving depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and heart rate variability in institutionalized elderly people. Seventy long-term care residents were recruited from two long-term care facilities and randomized into the story-centred care intervention (n = 35) and control groups (n = 35)...
2018: PloS One
Pedro Almeida, João Rodrigues, Patricia Lourenço, Maria Julia Maciel, Paulo Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is now well recognized but the identification of patients with HFpEF can be challenging. We aimed to evaluate the performance of tissue Doppler imaging indexes and left atrial size in HFpEF diagnosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We designed a case-control study in which cases are patients with acute heart failure and controls are age-matched and sex-matched patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors admitted to hospital because of stroke...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Barbara Nevicka, Annelies E M Van Vianen, Annebel H B De Hoogh, Bart C M Voorn
Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
David Alonso-Caneiro, Danuta M Sampson, Avenell L Chew, Michael J Collins, Fred K Chen
Adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) allows imaging of the cone photoreceptor in the living human retina. However, clinical interpretation of the AO-FIO image remains challenging due to suboptimal quality arising from residual uncorrected wavefront aberrations and rapid eye motion. An objective method of assessing image quality is necessary to determine whether an AO-FIO image is suitable for grading and diagnostic purpose. In this work, we explore the use of focus measure operators as a surrogate measure of AO-FIO image quality...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Ruifu Yang, Mingwu Zhou, Chaofeng Xing, Shimin Li, Li Song, Jia Chen, Yingjie Xiong, Kai Zhang
Objective: To expound the clinical effect of a new operation by transplanting double segment triangular fibula flap with vascular pedicle to repair the forefoot with lateral bone defect, and to study how to improve the operation method in the following stage. Methods: The inclusion criteria: More than 2 phalangeal and metatarsal bones defects of the lateral forefoot, widespread skin and soft tissue defects on pelma and dorsal foot, and destruction of the anterior aspect of foot arch, which seriously affects the foot function...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ane Alberdi Aramendi, Alyssa Weakley, Asier Aztiria Goenaga, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Diane J Cook
In the context of an aging population, tools to help elderly to live independently must be developed. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of using unobtrusively collected activity-aware smart home behavioral data to automatically detect one of the most common consequences of aging: functional health decline. After gathering the longitudinal smart home data of 29 older adults for an average of > 2 years, we automatically labeled the data with corresponding activity classes and extracted time-series statistics containing 10 behavioral features...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Lisa G Sorensen, Katie Neighbors, Regina M Hardison, Kathleen M Loomes, James W Varni, Vicky L Ng, Robert H Squires, Estella M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted. At 6 and 12 months after PALF presentation, surveys of HRQoL were completed for 2- to 19-year-olds and executive functioning for ages 2-16 years. At 12 months, patients 3-16 years of age completed neurocognitive testing. HRQoL scores were compared with a healthy, matched sample...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jill M Binkley, Paul Stratford, Stephanie Kirkpatrick, Clara R Farley, Joel Okoli, Sheryl Gabram
BACKGROUND: Activity limitations as well as impairments such as pain, numbness, limitation of shoulder range of motion, and weakness are common and well documented during and after treatment for breast cancer. There is limited information regarding the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures of upper extremity activity limitation in this population. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI) in patients after surgery for breast cancer...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Mehran Mazandarani, Naser Pariz
This paper deals with sub-optimal control of a fuzzy linear dynamical system. The aim is to keep the state variables of the fuzzy linear dynamical system close to zero in an optimal manner. In the fuzzy dynamical system, the fuzzy derivative is considered as the granular derivative; and all the coefficients and initial conditions can be uncertain. The criterion for assessing the optimality is regarded as a granular integral whose integrand is a quadratic function of the state variables and control inputs. Using the relative-distance-measure (RDM) fuzzy interval arithmetic and calculus of variations, the optimal control law is presented as the fuzzy state variables feedback...
March 16, 2018: ISA Transactions
Allison T Meyer, Patrick S Powell, Nicole Butera, Mark R Klinger, Laura G Klinger
Research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant difficulties with adaptive behavior skills including daily living and functional communication skills. Few studies have examined the developmental trajectory of adaptive behavior across childhood and adolescence. The present study examined longitudinal trajectories of adaptive behavior in a community-based clinic sample of 186 individuals with ASD. The overall pattern indicated an initial increase in adaptive behavior during early childhood followed by a plateau in skills during adolescence for individuals of all IQ groups...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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