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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897392/toll-like-receptor-4-signalling-mediates-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Daniela Verzola, Alice Bonanni, Antonella Sofia, Fabrizio Montecucco, Elena D'Amato, Valeria Cademartori, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Francesca Viazzi, Chiara Venturelli, Giuliano Brunori, Giacomo Garibotto
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in skeletal muscle is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cachexia but why uremia up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate locally the innate immune responses, but it is unknown whether in chronic kidney disease (CKD) TLR4 muscle signalling is altered. The aim of the study is to investigate whether in CKD muscle, TLRs had abnormal function and may be involved in transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#2
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886567/evaluation-of-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-and-nfkb-activation-oxidative-stress-response-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-histopathological-changes-in-rainbow-trout-brain-exposed-to-linuron
#3
Ahmet Topal, Gonca Alak, Serdar Altun, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Muhammed Atamanalp
Linuron is a widely used herbicide to control grasses and annual broad leaf weeds. It is known that linuron has toxic effects on different organisms. However, the toxic effects of linuron on aquatic organisms, especially fish, is completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate changes in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, histopathological changes, antioxidant responses and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout brain after exposure to linuron. Fish were exposed to 30μg/L, 120μg/L and 240μg/L concentrations of linuron for twenty-one days...
November 13, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876536/the-protective-effect-of-1alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-and-metformin-on-liver-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#4
REVIEW
Samah Elattar, Suzanne Estaphan, Enas A Mohamed, Ahmed Elzainy, Mary Naguib
There is an accumulating evidence suggesting an immunomodulatory role of 1α,25(OH)2D3. Altered 1α,25(OH)2D3 level may play a role in the development of T2DM and contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Our study was designed to study and compare the effect of metformin and 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation on liver injury in type 2 diabetic rat. Sixty male Albino rats were divided into 5 groups; group 1: control rats. the remaining rats were fed high fat diet for 2 weeks and injected with streptozotocin (35mg/kg BW, i...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875786/inflammation-dysregulated-metabolism-and-aromatase-in-obesity-and-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Heba Zahid, Evan R Simpson, Kristy A Brown
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Adipose tissue undergoes important changes in obesity due to excess storage of lipids, leading to adipocyte cell death and the recruitment of macrophages. The resultant state of chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the activation of NFkB signaling and elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. This occurs not only in the visceral and subcutaneous fat, but also in the breast fat...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853636/macrophage-derived-nitric-oxide-initiates-t-cell-diapedesis-and-tumor-rejection
#6
Ibrahim M Sektioglu, Rafael Carretero, Noemi Bender, Christian Bogdan, Natalio Garbi, Viktor Umansky, Ludmila Umansky, Katharina Urban, Magnus von Knebel-Döberitz, Veena Somasundaram, David Wink, Philipp Beckhove, Günter J Hämmerling
In tumor biology, nitric oxide (NO) is generally regarded as an immunosuppressive molecule that impedes T-cell functions and activation of endothelial cells. Contrasting with this view, we here describe a critical role for NO derived from inducible nitric oxide (iNOS)-expressing tumor macrophages in T-cell infiltration and tumor rejection as shown by iNOS gene deletion, inhibition of iNOS, or NO donors. Specifically, macrophage-derived NO was found to induce on tumor vessels adhesion molecules that were required for T-cell extravasation...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847566/metallothinein-1e-enhances-glioma-invasion-through-modulation-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-in-u87mg-mouse-brain-tumor-model
#7
Hyuk Hur, Hyang-Hwa Ryu, Chun-Hao Li, In Young Kim, Woo-Youl Jang, Shin Jung
Malignant glioma cells invading surrounding normal brain are inoperable and resistant to radio- and chemotherapy, and eventually lead to tumor regrowth. Identification of genes related to motility is important for understanding the molecular biological behavior of invasive gliomas. According to our previous studies, Metallothionein 1E (MT1E) was identified to enhance migration of human malignant glioma cells. The purpose of this study was to confirm that MT1E could modulate glioma invasion in vivo. Firstly we established 2 cell lines; MTS23, overexpressed by MT1E complementary DNA construct and pV12 as control...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822142/non-enzymatic-upregulation-of-tissue-factor-expression-by-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#8
Valentina Scalise, Cristina Balia, Silvana Cianchetti, Tommaso Neri, Vittoria Carnicelli, Riccardo Zucchi, Maria Franzini, Alessandro Corti, Aldo Paolicchi, Alessandro Celi, Roberto Pedrinelli
BACKGROUND: Besides maintaining intracellular glutathione stores, gamma-glutamyltransferase(GGT) generates reactive oxygen species and activates NFkB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor key in the induction of Tissue Factor (TF) gene expression, the principal initiator of the clotting cascade. Thus, GGT might be involved in TF-mediated coagulation processes, an assumption untested insofar. METHODS: Experiments were run with either equine, enzymatically active GGT or human recombinant (hr) GGT, a wheat germ-derived protein enzymatically inert because of missing post-translational glycosylation...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780234/early-fluid-resuscitation-by-lactated-ringer-s-solution-alleviate-the-cardiac-apoptosis-in-rats-with-trauma-hemorrhagic-shock
#9
Kuan-Ho Lin, Chien-Liang Liu, Wei-Wen Kuo, Catherine Reena Paul, Wei-Kung Chen, Su-Ying Wen, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Hsi-Chin Wu, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang
Cardiac trauma has been recognized as a complication associated with blunt chest trauma involving coronary artery injury, myocardium contusion and myocardial rupture. Secondary cardiac injuries after trauma supposed to be a critical factor in trauma patients, but the mechanism is not fully explored. Overproduction of TNF-alpha had been reported in multiple trauma animals, this induces oxidative stress resulting in cardiac apoptosis. Apoptosis gradually increases after trauma and reaches to a maximum level in 12 h time...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769711/esculetin-prevents-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-in-diabetic-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#10
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects and mechanism of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The diabetic mice model was induced by injection of streptozotocin, after which they were fed HFD diet with or without esculetin for 11 weeks. Non-diabetic mice were provided a normal diet. Diabetes induced hepatic hypertrophy, lipid accumulation and droplets; however, esculetin reversed these changes. Esculetin treatment in diabetic mice fed HFD significantly down-regulated expression of lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Dgat2 and Plpp2) and inflammation genes (Tlr4, Myd88, Nfkb, Tnfα and Il6)...
December 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768934/the-proteasome-regulates-collagen-induced-platelet-aggregation-via-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf%C3%A4-b-activation
#11
Katharina Grundler, Raffaela Rotter, Sloane Tilley, Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Mustaf Yakac, Erik Gaitzsch, Steffen Massberg, Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Ulrich Pohl, Hanna Mannell, Bjoern F Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Platelets possess critical hemostatic functions in the system of thrombosis and hemostasis, which can be affected by a multitude of external factors. Previous research has shown that platelets have the capacity to synthesize proteins de novo and more recently a multicatalytic protein complex, the proteasome, has been discovered in platelets. Due to its vital function for cellular integrity, the proteasome has become a therapeutic target for anti-proliferative drug therapies in cancer...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768832/articular-cartilage-injury-rapidly-activates-tak1-in-chondrocytes-by-inducing-its-phosphorylation-and-k63-polyubiquitination
#12
Heba M Ismail, Athanasios Didangelos, Tonia L Vincent, Jeremy Saklatvala
Objectives Mechanical injury to cartilage predisposes to osteoarthritis (OA). Wounding the articular cartilage surface causes rapid activation of MAP kinases and NFκB mimicking the response to inflammatory cytokines. Here, we identify the upstream signalling mechanisms involved. Methods Cartilage was injured by dissecting it from the articular surface of porcine metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) or by avulsing murine proximal femoral epiphyses. Protein phosphorylation was assayed by Western blotting of cartilage lysates...
October 21, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756582/multimodal-assessment-of-estrogen-receptor-mrna-profiles-to-quantify-estrogen-pathway-activity-in-breast-tumors
#13
Anita Muthukaruppan, Annette Lasham, Kathryn J Woad, Michael A Black, Cherie Blenkiron, Lance D Miller, Gavin Harris, Nicole McCarthy, Michael P Findlay, Andrew N Shelling, Cristin G Print
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers have transformed our understanding of the heterogeneity of breast cancer and have allowed the identification of genomic profiles of estrogen receptor (ER)-α signaling. However, our understanding of the transcriptional profiles of ER signaling remains inadequate. Therefore, we sought to identify the genomic indicators of ER pathway activity that could supplement traditional immunohistochemical (IHC) assessments of ER status to better understand ER signaling in the breast tumors of individual patients...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733688/rankl-receptor-activator-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-produced-by-osteocytes-is-required-for-the-increase-in-b-cells-and-bone-loss-caused-by-estrogen-deficiency-in-mice
#14
Yuko Fujiwara, Marilina Piemontese, Yu Liu, Jeff D Thostenson, Jinhu Xiong, Charles A O'Brien
The cytokine receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) produced by osteocytes is essential for osteoclast formation in cancellous bone under physiological conditions, and RANKL production by B lymphocytes is required for the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. Here, we examined whether RANKL produced by osteocytes is also required for the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. Mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes were protected from the increase in osteoclast number and the bone loss caused by ovariectomy...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730700/multiple-rare-genetic-variants-co-segregating-with-familial-iga-nephropathy-all-act-within-a-single-immune-related-network
#15
S N Cox, F Pesce, J S El-Sayed Moustafa, F Sallustio, G Serino, C Kkoufou, A Giampetruzzi, N Ancona, M Falchi, F P Schena
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common complex disease with a strong genetic involvement. We aimed to identify novel, rare, highly penetrant risk variants combining family-based linkage analysis with whole-exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: Linkage analysis of 16 kindreds of South Italian ancestry was performed using an 'affected-only' strategy. Eight most informative trios composed of two familial cases and an intrafamilial control were selected for WES. High-priority variants in linked regions were identified and validated using Sanger sequencing...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716427/a-functional-variant-of-tlr10-modifies-the-activity-of-nfkb-and-may-help-predict-a-worse-prognosis-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Silvia Torices, Antonio Julia, Pedro Muñoz, Ignacio Varela, Alejandro Balsa, Sara Marsal, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Francisco Blanco, Marcos López-Hoyos, Víctor Martinez-Taboada, Jose L Fernández-Luna
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members are key players in inflammation. TLR10 has been poorly studied in chronic inflammatory disorders, and its clinical relevance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is as yet unknown. We aimed at identifying TLR10 variants within all coding regions of the gene in patients with RA as well as studying their functional and clinical significance. METHODS: TLR10 gene variants were studied by performing sequencing of 66 patients with RA and 30 control subjects...
October 4, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716288/methylferulate-from-tamarix-aucheriana-inhibits-growth-and-enhances-chemosensitivity-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-possible-mechanism-of-action
#17
Mohamed Salah I Abaza, Mohammad Afzal, Raja'a J Al-Attiyah, Radhika Guleri
BACKGROUND: Natural products are valuable sources for anticancer agents. In the present study, methylferulate (MF) was identified for the first time from Tamarix aucheriana. Spectral data were used for identification of MF. The potential of MF to control cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cancer cell invasion, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) DNA-binding activity and proteasomal activities, as well as the enhancement of chemosensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells, were evaluated...
October 1, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705832/physiological-and-biochemical-effects-of-nickel-on-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-tissues-assessment-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation-oxidative-stress-and-histopathological-changes
#18
Ahmet Topal, Muhammed Atamanalp, Ertan Oruç, Hüseyin Serkan Erol
We investigated changes in nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, antioxidant responses and histopathological effects in the liver, gill and kidney tissues of rainbow trout exposed to nickel chloride (Ni). Two different concentrations (1 mg/L and 2 mg/L) were administrated to fish for 21 days. Tissues were taken from all fish for NFkB activity, histopathological examination and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activity and of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels...
January 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704463/2-deoxy-glucose-regulate-mmp-9-in-a-sirt-1%C3%A2-dependent-and-nfkb%C3%A2-independent-mechanism
#19
Lincy Edatt, K Haritha, T V Sruthi, P Aswini, V B Sameer Kumar
MMP9 is a member of the family of zinc-containing endopeptidases which degrade various components of the extracellular matrix, thereby regulating matrix remodeling. Since matrix remodeling plays an important role during growth and progression of cancer and considering the fact that, tumor cells switch to aerobic glycolysis as its major energy source, this study was designed to analyze if partial inhibition of glycolysis (the major energy pathway during hypoxia) can be used as a means to control matrix remodeling in terms of MMP9 activity and expression...
October 4, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699256/claudin-low-bladder-tumors-are-immune-infiltrated-and-actively-immune-suppressed
#20
Jordan Kardos, Shengjie Chai, Lisle E Mose, Sara R Selitsky, Bhavani Krishnan, Ryoichi Saito, Michael D Iglesia, Matthew I Milowsky, Joel S Parker, William Y Kim, Benjamin G Vincent
We report the discovery of a claudin-low molecular subtype of high-grade bladder cancer that shares characteristics with the homonymous subtype of breast cancer. Claudin-low bladder tumors were enriched for multiple genetic features including increased rates of RB1, EP300, and NCOR1 mutations; increased frequency of EGFR amplification; decreased rates of FGFR3, ELF3, and KDM6A mutations; and decreased frequency of PPARG amplification. While claudin-low tumors showed the highest expression of immune gene signatures, they also demonstrated gene expression patterns consistent with those observed in active immunosuppression...
March 17, 2016: JCI Insight
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