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Irritable bowel syndrome

Ruolin Ma, Mohsen Seifi, Maria Papanikolaou, James F Brown, Jerome D Swinny, Anthony Lewis
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can occur when coordinated smooth muscle contractility is disrupted. Potassium (K+ ) channels regulate GI smooth muscle tone and are key to GI tract relaxation, but their molecular and functional phenotypes are poorly described. Here we define the expression and functional roles of mechano-gated K2P channels in mouse ileum and colon. Expression and distribution of the K2P channel family were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Scott A Waldman, Michael Camilleri
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and IBDs are two of the most prevalent disorders of the GI tract and consume a significant proportion of healthcare resources. Recent studies have shown that membrane-bound guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) receptors lining the GI tract may serve as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of FGIDs and IBDs. GC-C receptor activation by its endogenous paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the resulting intracellular production of its downstream effector cyclic GMP, occurs in a pH-dependent manner and modulates key physiological functions...
March 21, 2018: Gut
Zinat Mohebbi, Farkhondeh Sharif, Hamid Peyrovi, Mahnaz Rakhshan, Mahvash Alizade Naini, Ladan Zarshenas
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as a chronic digestive disorder, impacts extensively on the quality of life, emotional well-being and self-identity. Chronic illness disrupts taken-for-granted notions about self. No qualitative study was found regarding patients' experience of life with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Iran. Objective: To explore the self-perception of lived experience of IBS patients. Methods: A qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on 12 IBS patients who had been referred to three central clinics (2 governmental and 1 private) affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Christopher V Almario, Brennan M R Spiegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Cleo Desormeaux, Tereza Bautzova, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Corinne Rolland, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Stuart M Brierley, Giovanni Barbara, Nathalie Vergnolle, Nicolas Cenac
Proteases and Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs) are major mediators involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our objectives were to decipher the expression and functionality (calcium signaling) of PARs in human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, and to define mechanisms involved in human sensory neuron signaling by IBS patient mediators.Human thoracic DRG were obtained from the national disease resource interchange. Expression of PAR1, PAR2 and PAR4 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR in whole DRG or in primary cultures of isolated neurons...
March 15, 2018: Pain
Ron Basuroy, Cathy Bouvier, John Ramage, Maia Sissons, Alexandra Kent, Raj Srirajaskanthan
<br>Introduction The gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are common primary sites for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Patients often report long duration of non-specific symptoms in the year prior to diagnosis. The aims of this study were to establish pre-diagnosis patterns of symptoms. Secondly, to determine the time from onset of symptoms to NET diagnosis and understand the interaction with primary and secondary healthcare providers. Method A survey was designed on a web-based survey platform with the focus on patient symptoms prior to diagnosis and a screen for functional diarrhoea (Rome III criteria (C4))...
March 18, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Trent Edwards, Craig Friesen, Jennifer V Schurman
BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study was to compare Rome III and IV evaluation criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), and an overlap syndrome consisting of both IBS and FD by assessing the frequency of each diagnosis in a population of children with chronic abdominal pain. Frequencies of Rome IV FD subtypes of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) were determined and FD/IBS overlap symptom associations were also assessed...
March 17, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Darren M Brenner, Ronald Fogel, Spencer D Dorn, Richard Krause, Paul Eng, Robert Kirshoff, Anhthu Nguyen, Robert A Crozier, Leslie Magnus, Patrick H Griffin
OBJECTIVES: Two identical, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of plecanatide in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). METHODS: Adults meeting Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomized (1:1:1) to placebo or plecanatide (3 or 6 mg) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of overall responders (patients reporting ≥30% reduction from baseline in worst abdominal pain plus an increase of ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM)/week from baseline in the same week for ≥6 of 12 treatment weeks)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Ehsan Mohammadi, Rocco Latorre, Edward R Truitt, Gregory D Jay, Benjamin D Sullivan, Tannin A Schmidt, Nataliya Smith, Debra Saunders, Jadith Ziegler, Megan Lerner, Robert Hurst, Rheal A Towner
OBJECTIVE: To test in an animal model the hypothesis that rhPRG4 (lubricin), a highly O-glycosylated mucin-like glycoprotein, may be a novel surface-active therapeutic for treating bladder permeability with co-morbid bowel permeability. Previously we showed that inducing bladder permeability in rats with dilute protamine sulfate (PS) produced colonic permeability and visceral hypersensitivity, suggesting increased bladder permeability could represent an etiologic factor in both Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Viola Andresen, Peter Layer
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) counts among the most prevalent chronic diseases. Clinically, the IBS is characterized by abdominal symptoms combined with irregular defecation, which are not explained by routine diagnostic tests. IBS is often triggered by enteric bacterial infections, and its pathogenesis involves disturbed enteric, gut-brain, and cerebral mechanisms. Diagnostic work-up must aim to establish a positive IBS diagnosis, and to exclude serious underlying differential diagnoses (such as neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and others)...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Fatemeh Zaribaf, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Parvane Saneei, Awat Feizi, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The associations between empirically derived dietary habits and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the relationship between empirically derived dietary habits and IBS in a large population of Iranian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, dietary habits of 4763 adults were assessed in three domains, "meal pattern", "eating rate" and "intra-meal fluid intake"...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Johann Hammer
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is challenging due to the lack of reliable biological markers to support the diagnosis. We assessed the relevance of a previously validated simple test for chemical hypersensitivity in the setting of a gastrointestinal outpatient department. METHODS: A total of 224 outpatients who were referred for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of alarm symptoms swallowed a capsule containing 0.75 mg capsaicin...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Yangyang Xu, Hao Cai, Gang Cao, Yu Duan, Ke Pei, Sicong Tu, Jia Zhou, Li Xie, Dongdong Sun, Jiayu Zhao, Jing Liu, Xiaoqi Wang, Lin Shen
Baizhu Shaoyao San (BSS) is a famous traditional Chinese medicinal formula widely used for the treatment of painful diarrhea, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. According to clinical medication, three medicinal herbs (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium) included in BSS must be processed using some specific methods of stir-frying. On the basis of the classical theories of traditional Chinese medicine, the therapeutic effects of BSS would be significantly enhanced after processing...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Sabine Buhner, Hannes Hahne, Kerstin Hartwig, Qin Li, Sheila Vignali, Daniela Ostertag, Chen Meng, Gabriele Hörmannsperger, Breg Braak, Christian Pehl, Thomas Frieling, Giovanni Barbara, Roberto De Giorgio, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Güralp Onur Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Guy Boeckxstaens, Dirk Haller, Bernhard Kuster, Michael Schemann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). METHOD: Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques...
2018: PloS One
Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional lower gastrointestinal disorders include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation, functional fecal incontinence, and functional anorectal pain. These disorders are common and have significant medical and social effects. They also can be challenging to manage. Patients with mild symptoms may benefit from lifestyle modification. IBS is classified into two subtypes: diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant. Depending on the IBS subtype and its likely etiology, patients may benefit from treatment with antispasmodics, antidepressants, guanylate cyclase-C agonists, chloride channel activators, antidiarrheal agents, probiotics, and/or antibiotics...
March 2018: FP Essentials
Chao Du, Lijun Peng, Guanjun Kou, Peng Wang, Lin Lu, Yanqing Li
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel disease (IBS) is viewed upon as a functional disorder of subclinical inflammatory changes in recent years, and there is no reliable biomarker. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1), also produced in a soluble form (sTREM-1), is involved in the activation of inflammatory cascades of intracellular events and may play a role in pathogenesis of IBS. AIM: To investigate whether serum sTREM-1 level can be used as a marker of subclinical inflammation in D-IBS...
March 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Cecilia Grinsvall, Hans Törnblom, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Magnus Simrén
Background and objective: Psychological states may interfere with visceral sensitivity. Here we investigate associations between psychosocial factors and visceral sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods: Two IBS patient cohorts (Cohort 1: n  = 231, Rome II; Cohort 2: n  = 141, Rome III) underwent rectal barostat testing, and completed questionnaires for anxiety, depression, somatization, and abuse. The associations between questionnaire measures and visceral sensitivity parameters were analyzed in three-step general linear models (step1: demographic and abuse variables; step 2: anxiety and depression; step 3: somatization)...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Egbert Clevers, William E Whitehead, Olafur S Palsson, Ami D Sperber, Hans Törnblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Jan Tack, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Rome IV criteria define functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders by specific combinations of symptoms. It is possible to empirically evaluate these symptom combinations by factor analysis (a statistical procedure that groups variables that correlate). However, this analysis has not been performed for the Rome IV criteria, and factor analyses based on the previous versions of the Rome criteria did not use population-based data. We therefore investigated symptom grouping by the Rome IV questionnaire using factor analysis of a population-based sample...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Egbert Clevers, Jan Tack, Hans Törnblom, Gisela Ringström, Koen Luyckx, Magnus Simrén, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data from longitudinal studies of the gastrointestinal and psychologic features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied within-person correlations among features of IBS, along with progression of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and quality of life, and factors associated with changes over time. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study of 276 patients with IBS in Sweden (70% female; ages, 19-76 years) who completed questionnaires, each year for 5 years, about their GI symptom severity, quality of life, GI-specific anxiety, general anxiety, depression, and coping resources...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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