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Irritable bowel syndrome

Qin Xiang Ng, Alex Yu Sen Soh, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex and chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal condition that affects more than 10% of the population worldwide. There is a pressing need for new therapeutic strategies in the management of IBS. Increasing research has shed light on the modulatory functions of melatonin on pain, local inflammation and motility in the gastrointestinal tract. However, melatonin's effects are limited by its extensive first-pass metabolism and short half-life...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Courtney Reynolds, Eric Esrailian, Daniel Hommes
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement (QI) identifies practical methods to improve patient care; however, it is not always widely known which QI methods are successful. We sought to create a primer of QI in gastroenterology for the practicing clinician. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of QI literature in gastroenterology. We included search terms for inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pancreatitis, liver disease, colorectal cancer screening, endoscopy, and gastrointestinal bleeding...
July 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Lucy Harper, Justine Bold
Aim: To explore the motivation for gluten avoidance in the absence of coeliac disease (CD) and ascertain what symptoms are triggered by gluten and what beliefs/reasons influence this decision. Background: Links between physical/psychological symptoms and gluten in CD are well known but less is known about those who self-select a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the absence of CD. Methods: An empirical study using responses to an anonymous on-line questionnaire...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Giovanni Casella, Vincenzo Villanacci, Camillo Di Bella, Gabrio Bassotti, Justine Bold, Kamran Rostami
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), also referred to as non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS), is a clinical syndrome characterized by both intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms responsive to the withdrawal of gluten-containing food from the diet. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances in research and provide a brief overview of the history of the condition for the benefit of professionals working in gastroenterology. Academic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using key words such as "non-celiac gluten sensitivity", "gluten related disorders", and the studies outlined in reference page were selected and analysed...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Ellen Johanne Vara, Karl A Brokstad, Trygve Hausken, Gülen Arslan Lied
Introduction: A considerable number of patients with gastrointestinal complaints attributable to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have shown evidence of immune activation. Fatigue is also frequently reported by IBS patients and the condition is considered as a common comorbidity of IBS. Therefore, it is interesting to see whether these two conditions share the same pathophysiological mechanism. Aims: To investigate the potential role of cytokine profiles in patients with IBS and the relationship between cytokine profiles and fatigue...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Nestor N Jimenez-Vargas, Luke A Pattison, Peishen Zhao, TinaMarie Lieu, Rocco Latorre, Dane D Jensen, Joel Castro, Luigi Aurelio, Giang T Le, Bernard Flynn, Carmen Klein Herenbrink, Holly R Yeatman, Laura Edgington-Mitchell, Christopher J H Porter, Michelle L Halls, Meritxell Canals, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Daniel P Poole, Peter McLean, Gareth A Hicks, Nicole Scheff, Elyssa Chen, Aditi Bhattacharya, Brian L Schmidt, Stuart M Brierley, Stephen J Vanner, Nigel W Bunnett
Once activated at the surface of cells, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) redistribute to endosomes, where they can continue to signal. Whether GPCRs in endosomes generate signals that contribute to human disease is unknown. We evaluated endosomal signaling of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2 ), which has been proposed to mediate pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin S, which are activated in the colonic mucosa of patients with IBS and in experimental animals with colitis, caused persistent PAR2 -dependent hyperexcitability of nociceptors, sensitization of colonic afferent neurons to mechanical stimuli, and somatic mechanical allodynia...
July 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jordan Shapiro, Jessica Bernica, Ruben Hernaez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Giovanni Barbara, Madhusudan Grover, Premysl Bercik, Maura Corsetti, Uday C Ghoshal, Lena Ohman, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The existence of post-infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) has been substantiated by epidemiology studies conducted in diverse geographic and clinical settings. However, the available evidence has not been well summarized and there is little guidance for diagnosis and treatment of PI-IBS. The ROME Foundation has produced a working team report was to summarize the available evidence on the pathophysiology of PI-IBS and provide guidance for diagnosis and treatment, based upon findings reported in the literature and clinical experience...
July 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Magdalena Kopczyńska, Łukasz Mokros, Tadeusz Pietras, Ewa Małecka-Panas
Introduction: While irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not life-threatening for most, it has enormous influence on quality of life (QOL) and mental health. Aim: To evaluate the association between QOL and depressive symptoms in IBS patients. Material and methods: A total of 87 patients and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled consecutively. All participants were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires: an IBS-specific quality of life (IBS-QOL) questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI)...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Muhammed Majeed, Kalyanam Nagabhushanam, Sivakumar Arumugam, Shaheen Majeed, Furqan Ali
Background: The modification of microbial ecology in human gut by supplementing probiotics may be an alternative strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Objective: The current study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 for major depressive disorder (MDD) in IBS patients. Method: Patients ( n = 40) diagnosed for MDD with IBS were randomized (1:1) to receive placebo or B. coagulans MTCC 5856 at a daily dose of 2 × 109 cfu (2 billion spores) and were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (90 days)...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Qian Li, Bei-Ping Zhang, Shao-Gang Huang, Wen-Wei Ouyang, Jian-Hui Xie, Ze-Huai Wen, Xiao-Bo Yang
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, recurring condition, prevalent in the general population. Current medication treatments usually leave patients undertreated. Nowadays, Chinese medicine (CM) is being considered as a promising treatment approach for IBS. However, due to methodological limitations, there is no strong evidence to support CM. Although IBS relapses are common, the relapse assessment has always been neglected in CM study designs. Meanwhile, in clinical practice and studies, it has been found that certain CM formulas can only benefit certain kinds of patients...
July 11, 2018: Trials
L P Duan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Praveena Thirunathan, Annamalai Manickavasagan
Pulses are an excellent source of protein and dietary fibre and are consumed around the world. Their consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, they contain various antinutrients such as tannins and trypsin inhibitors, as well as indigestible carbohydrates called alpha-galactosides. These oligosaccharides are fermented by the microorganisms in the gut, producing gas and causing flatulence in healthy individuals. While this flatulence is undesirable (and results in their low acceptance in the Western diet), alpha-galactosides have also been hypothesized to increase susceptibility to bowel diseases, and their presence in the gut worsens the symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
William D Chey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lisa Flammini, Leonardo Mantelli, Alessandra Volpe, Giuseppe Domenichini, Rosanna Di Lecce, Maurizio Dondi, Anna Maria Cantoni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Fausto Quintavalla
Rifaximin is an unabsorbed oral antibiotic showing anti-inflammatory properties in human pathologies like irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In veterinary medicine, rifaximin is primarily used in the treatment of dermatological diseases in all animal species, in therapy and prophylaxis of mastitis in cows and in the treatment of endometritis in cattle and horses. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of rifaximin on primary cell cultures from bovine endometrium in which inflammatory response was induced by Lipopolysaccaride (LPS) treatment...
July 9, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
E O Igwe, K E Charlton, Y C Probst, K Kent, M E Netzel
BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown that anthocyanins, a subclass of polyphenol, are metabolised in the gut, modulate bacterial species and exert bioactive effects through this interaction. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to determine the level of current evidence for the association between anthocyanin intake and changes in gut microbiota populations. The studies included were also assessed for the different techniques used in microbiota determination...
July 8, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Yukinori Nagakura, Nana Ohsaka, Ryutarou Azuma, Saeri Takahashi, Yuuka Takebayashi, Saori Kawasaki, Shuhei Murai, Masaya Miwa, Hiroko Saito
Functional somatic syndromes (FSS), a clinical condition manifesting a variety of unexplained somatic symptoms, has been proposed as an inclusive nosology encompassing individual syndromes such as fibromyalgia syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that disturbance of the endogenous monoamine system could be involved in the aetiology of FSS. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate whether the disturbance of the monoamine system would cause FSS-associated symptomatology in mice...
July 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sofie Ingdam Halkjær, Alice Højer Christensen, Bobby Zhao Sheng Lo, Patrick Denis Browne, Stig Günther, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Andreas Munk Petersen
OBJECTIVE: IBS is associated with an intestinal dysbiosis and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been hypothesised to have a positive effect in patients with IBS. We performed a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate if FMT resulted in an altered gut microbiota and improvement in clinical outcome in patients with IBS. DESIGN: We performed this study in 52 adult patients with moderate-to-severe IBS. At the screening visit, clinical history and symptoms were assessed and faecal samples were collected...
July 6, 2018: Gut
Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Michiko Kano, Manabu Tashiro, Shin Fukudo
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mediates stress responses in the brain-gut axis. Administration of CRH modulates brain activation, for example by controlling the autonomic nervous system in response to colorectal distention. Here, we investigated the relationship between sympathoadrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to colorectal distention in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We enrolled 32 patients with IBS (16 women and 16 men) and 32 healthy subjects (16 women and 16 men), and randomly divided them between CRH and saline injection groups...
2018: PloS One
John S Kane, Andrew J Irvine, Yannick Derwa, Olorunda Rotimi, Alexander C Ford
Background: Patients with microscopic colitis (MC) often present with abdominal pain and diarrhoea, and previous data suggest that there may be overlap between MC and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated the prevalence of IBS-type symptoms in patients with MC, and assess the impact of these symptoms on psychological health and quality of life. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals with a histological diagnosis of MC, collecting demographic data, Rome III IBS-type symptoms, and mood, somatization, and quality of life data...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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