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Pathogenesis of viral infection of the lungs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140992/transcriptome-profile-of-lung-dendritic-cells-after-in-vitro-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection
#1
Maren Julia Pröll, Christiane Neuhoff, Karl Schellander, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Mehmet Ulas Cinar, Sudeep Sahadevan, Xueqi Qu, Md Aminul Islam, Mikhael Poirier, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Christine Große-Brinkhaus
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105740/protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-protects-mice-against-thrombin-dependent-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infections
#2
Vuong Ba Lê, Béatrice Riteau, Marie-Christine Alessi, Christian Couture, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Chantal Rhéaume, Marie-Ève Hamelin, Guy Boivin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. However, its role remains controversial. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of PAR1 to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Pharmacological approaches were used to investigate the role of PAR1 during RSV and hMPV, in vitro using epithelial A549 cells and in vivo using a mouse model of virus infections...
November 4, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100887/a-pharmacologically-immunosuppressed-mouse-model-for-assessing-influenza-b-virus-pathogenicity-and-oseltamivir-treatment
#3
Bindumadhav M Marathe, Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Philippe Noriel Q Pascua, Jeremy C Jones, Charles J Russell, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova
Immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to influenza virus infections. Although neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy has proved effective in these patients, the treatment regimens require optimization, which can be partly addressed via animal models. Here, we describe a pharmacologically immunosuppressed mouse model for studying the pathogenesis of influenza B viruses and evaluating the efficacy of antiviral treatment. We modeled clinical regimens for dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress BALB/c mice that were then inoculated with B/Phuket/3073/2013 (Yamagata lineage) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/08, Victoria lineage) virus...
October 31, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046461/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-are-highly-permissive-for-varicella-zoster-virus-lytic-infection
#4
Tomohiko Sadaoka, Cindi L Schwartz, Labchan Rajbhandari, Arun Venkatesan, Jeffrey I Cohen
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell-associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000 to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-plaque forming unit (PFU) ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo, in which the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Using neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell-free wild-type (WT) VZV, we demonstrate that neurons are nearly 100 times more permissive for WT VZV infection than very early passage human embryonic lung cells or MRC-5 diploid human fibroblasts, the cells used for vaccine production or virus isolation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038764/pulmonary-transcriptomic-responses-indicate-a-dual-role-of-inflammation-in-pneumonia-development-and-viral-clearance-during-2009-pandemic-influenza-infection
#5
Raquel Almansa, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Lucía Rico, Verónica Iglesias, Alicia Ortega, Beatriz Vidaña, Jorge Martínez, Ana Expósito, María Montoya, Jesús F Bermejo-Martin
BACKGROUND: The interaction between influenza virus and the host response to infection clearly plays an important role in determining the outcome of infection. While much is known on the participation of inflammation on the pathogenesis of severe A (H1N1) pandemic 09-influenza virus, its role in the course of non-fatal pneumonia has not been fully addressed. METHODS: A systems biology approach was used to define gene expression profiles, histology and viral dynamics in the lungs of healthy immune-competent mice with pneumonia caused by a human influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, which successfully resolved the infection...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930978/influenza-a-virus-studies-in-a-mouse-model-of-infection
#6
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism(2). Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because their immune system is evolutionarily similar to that found in humans, they are available from commercial vendors as genetically identical subjects, there are multiple strains that can be exploited to evaluate the genetic basis of infections, and they are relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889999/humoral-immune-responses-during-asthma-and-influenza-co-morbidity-in-mice
#7
Laura A Doorley, Kim S LeMessurier, Amy R Iverson, Maneesha Palipane, Amali E Samarasinghe
Humoral immunity serve dual functions of direct pathogen neutralization and enhancement of leukocyte function. Antibody classes are determined by antigen triggers, and the resulting antibodies can contribute to disease pathogenesis and host defense. Although asthma and influenza are immunologically distinct diseases, since we have found that allergic asthma exacerbation promotes antiviral host responses to influenza A virus, we hypothesized that humoral immunity may contribute to allergic host protection during influenza...
December 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865344/heartland-virus-infection-in-hamsters-deficient-in-type-i-interferon-signaling-protracted-disease-course-ameliorated-by-favipiravir
#8
Jonna B Westover, Johanna D Rigas, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Brady T Hickerson, Kie-Hoon Jung, Jinxin Miao, Erin S Reynolds, Bettina L Conrad, Skot Nielson, Yousuke Furuta, Saravanan Thangamani, Zhongde Wang, Brian B Gowen
Heartland virus (HRTV) is an emerging tick-borne virus (Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) that has caused sporadic cases of human disease in several central and mid-eastern states of America. Animal models of HRTV disease are needed to gain insights into viral pathogenesis and advancing antiviral drug development. Presence of clinical disease following HRTV challenge in hamsters deficient in STAT2 function underscores the important role played by type I interferon-induced antiviral responses. However, the recovery of most of the infected animals suggests that other mechanisms to control infection and limit disease offer substantial protection...
November 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858723/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-tlr4-signaling-through-the-67-kda-laminin-receptor-and-effectively-alleviates-acute-lung-injury-induced-by-h9n2-swine-influenza-virus
#9
Ming-Ju Xu, Bao-Jian Liu, Cun-Lian Wang, Guo-Hua Wang, Yong Tian, Shao-Hua Wang, Jun Li, Pei-Yao Li, Rui-Hua Zhang, Dong Wei, Shu-Fei Tian, Tong Xu
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was found to inhibit the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway involved in influenza virus pathogenesis. Here, the effect of EGCG on TLR4 in an H9N2 virus-induced acute lung injury mouse model was investigated. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with A/Swine/Hebei/108/2002 (H9N2) virus or noninfectious allantoic fluid, and treated with EGCG and E5564 or normal saline orally for 5 consecutive days. PMVECs were treated with EGCG or anti-67kDa laminin receptor (LR). Lung physiopathology, inflammation, oxidative stress, viral replication, and TLR4/NF-κB/Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) pathway in lung tissue and/or PMVECs were investigated...
November 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858401/histopathology-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronovirus-mers-cov-infection-clinicopathological-and-ultrastructural-study
#10
Khaled O Alsaad, Ali H Hajeer, Mohammed Al Balwi, Mohammed Al Moaiqel, Nourah Al Oudah, Abdulaziz Al Ajlan, Sameera AlJohani, Sami Alsolamy, Giamal E Gmati, Hanan Balkhy, Hamdan H Al-Jahdali, Salim A Baharoon, Yaseen M Arabi
AIMS: The pathogenesis, viral localization and histopathological features of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in human are not sufficiently described. The aims of this study were to explore and define the spectrum of histological and ultrastructural pathological changes affecting various organs in a patient with MERS-CoV infection and represent a base of MERS-CoV histopathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the postmortem histopathological findings and investigated viral particles localization in the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tissue by transmission electron microscopic examination in a 33-year-old male patient of T-cell lymphoma, who acquired MERS-CoV infection...
August 31, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840816/a-persistently-infecting-coronavirus-in-hibernating-myotis-lucifugus-the-north-american-little-brown-bat
#11
Sonu Subudhi, Noreen Rapin, Trent K Bollinger, Janet E Hill, Michael E Donaldson, Christina M Davy, Lisa Warnecke, James M Turner, Christopher J Kyle, Craig K R Willis, Vikram Misra
Bats are important reservoir hosts for emerging viruses, including coronaviruses that cause diseases in people. Although there have been several studies on the pathogenesis of coronaviruses in humans and surrogate animals, there is little information on the interactions of these viruses with their natural bat hosts. We detected a coronavirus in the intestines of 53/174 hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), as well as in the lungs of some of these individuals. Interestingly, the presence of the virus was not accompanied by overt inflammation...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827121/a-scid-mouse-human-lung-xenograft-model-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#12
Wei Wang, Dequan Pan, Wenkun Fu, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Che Liu, Xiumin Huang, Yanzhen Lin, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Varicella pneumonia is one of the most serious, potentially life-threatening complications of primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults and immunocompromised individuals. However, studies on the lung pathogenesis of VZV infection as well as development and testing of antivirals have long been hindered by limited access to clinical samples and a lack of suitable animal models. In this study, we report for the first time the use of human lung xenografts in SCID mice for investigating VZV infection...
August 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812530/feline-herpesvirus-pneumonia-investigations-into-the-pathogenesis
#13
Josep Maria Monne Rodriguez, Gail Leeming, Kernt Köhler, Anja Kipar
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#14
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794044/nidovirus-associated-proliferative-pneumonia-in-the-green-tree-python-morelia-viridis
#15
Eva Dervas, Jussi Hepojoki, Andrea Laimbacher, Fernando Romero-Palomo, Christine Jelinek, Saskia Keller, Teemu Smura, Satu Hepojoki, Anja Kipar, Udo Hetzel
In 2014 we observed a noticeable increase in sudden deaths of green tree pythons (Morelia viridis). Pathological examination revealed accumulation of mucoid material within airways and lung, associated with enlargement of the entire lung. We performed full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterise the pathogenesis of this "mucinous" pneumonia. By histology we could show a marked hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and of faveolar type II pneumocytes...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774302/airway-and-parenchyma-immune-cells-in-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viral-and-non-viral-diffuse-alveolar-damage
#16
Monique Buttignol, Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto, Renata Calciolari Rossi E Silva, Marina Ballarin Albino, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Thais Mauad
BACKGROUND: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), which is the histological surrogate for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has a multifactorial aetiology. Therefore it is possible that the immunopathology differs among the various presentations of DAD. The aim of this study is to compare lung immunopathology of viral (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09) to non-viral, extrapulmonary aetiologies in autopsy cases with DAD. METHODS: The lung tissue of 44 patients, was divided in the H1N1 group (n = 15) characterized by severe pulmonary injury due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection; the ARDS group (n = 13), characterized by patients with DAD due to non-pulmonary causes; and the Control group (n = 16), consisting of patients with non-pulmonary causes of death...
August 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765216/key-role-of-the-scavenger-receptor-marco-in-mediating-adenovirus-infection-and-subsequent-innate-responses-of-macrophages
#17
Mareike D Maler, Peter J Nielsen, Nicole Stichling, Idan Cohen, Zsolt Ruzsics, Connor Wood, Peggy Engelhard, Maarit Suomalainen, Ildiko Gyory, Michael Huber, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Wolfgang W A Schamel, Siamon Gordon, Thilo Jakob, Stefan F Martin, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Urs F Greber, Marina A Freudenberg, György Fejer
The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells) than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763472/infectious-bronchitis%C3%A2-corona%C3%A2-virus%C3%A2-establishes-productive-infection-in-avian-macrophages-interfering-with-selected-antimicrobial-functions
#18
Aruna Amarasinghe, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Sadiya Nazir, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Frank van der Meer, Susan Catherine Cork, Susantha Gomis, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes respiratory disease leading to loss of egg and meat production in chickens. Although it is known that macrophage numbers are elevated in the respiratory tract of IBV infected chickens, the role played by macrophages in IBV infection, particularly as a target cell for viral replication, is unknown. In this study, first, we investigated the ability of IBV to establish productive replication in macrophages in lungs and trachea in vivo and in macrophage cell cultures in vitro using two pathogenic IBV strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702128/a-novel-host-factor-for-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
COMMENT
Masfique Mehedi, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory disease in young children worldwide. As part of a genome-wide siRNA screen, we recently discovered that actin-related protein 2 (ARP2) is a host factor in the RSV replication cycle. ARP2 is a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex, which catalyzes actin polymerization involved in cell morphology and motility. In the course of investigating this finding, we also found that RSV infection of human lung epithelial A459 cells induced filopodia formation and stimulated cell motility...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694795/modulation-of-host-mirnas-transcriptome-in-lung-and-spleen-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-infected-sheep-and-goats
#20
Aruna Pandey, Amit R Sahu, Sajad A Wani, Shikha Saxena, Sonam Kanchan, Vaishali Sah, Kaushal K Rajak, Alok Khanduri, Aditya P Sahoo, Ashok K Tiwari, Bina Mishra, D Muthuchelvan, Bishnu P Mishra, Raj K Singh, Ravi K Gandham
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious viral disease, characterized by fever, sore mouth, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and pneumonia, primarily affecting sheep and goats. Reports suggested variable host response in goats and sheep and this host response vis-a-vis the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has not been investigated. Here, miRNAs were sequenced and proteomics data were generated to identify the role of differentially expressed miRNA (DEmiRNA) in PPR virus (PPRV) infected lung and spleen tissues of sheep and goats...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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