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Pathogenesis of viral infection of the lungs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179378/the-human-immune-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Clark D Russell, Stefan A Unger, Marc Walton, Jürgen Schwarze
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important etiological agent of respiratory infections, particularly in children. Much information regarding the immune response to RSV comes from animal models and in vitro studies. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the human immune response to RSV infection, based on a systematic literature review of research on infected humans. There is an initial strong neutrophil response to RSV infection in humans, which is positively correlated with disease severity and mediated by interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161961/genome-wide-gene-expression-pattern-underlying-differential-host-response-to-high-or-low-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-ducks
#2
A Kumar, P Vijayakumar, P N Gandhale, P B Ranaware, H Kumar, D D Kulkarni, A A Raut, A Mishra
The differences in the influenza viral pathogenesis observed between different pathogenic strains are associated with distinct properties of virus strains and the host immune responses. In order to determine the differences in the duck immune response against two different pathogenic strains, we studied genome-wide host immune gene response of ducks infected with A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 and A/duck/Tripura/103597/2008 H5N1 viruses using custom-designed microarray. A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 is highly pathogenic virus (HP) to ducks, whereas A/duck/Tripura/103597/2008 is a low pathogenic (LP) virus strain...
February 6, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159164/respiratory-viral-infections-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Clemente J Britto, Virginia Brady, Seiwon Lee, Charles S Dela Cruz
Chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD), affect many individuals worldwide. Patients with these chronic lung diseases are susceptible to respiratory lung infections and some of these viral infections can contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the associations of lung infections and the respective chronic lung diseases and how infection in the different lung diseases affects disease exacerbation and progression...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120850/critical-role-of-cxcl4-in-the-lung-pathogenesis-of-influenza-h1n1-respiratory-infection
#4
L Guo, K Feng, Y C Wang, J J Mei, R T Ning, H W Zheng, J J Wang, G S Worthen, X Wang, J Song, Q H Li, L D Liu
Annual epidemics and unexpected pandemics of influenza are threats to human health. Lung immune and inflammatory responses, such as those induced by respiratory infection influenza virus, determine the outcome of pulmonary pathogenesis. Platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) has an immunoregulatory role in inflammatory diseases. Here we show that CXCL4 is associated with pulmonary influenza infection and has a critical role in protecting mice from fatal H1N1 virus respiratory infection. CXCL4 knockout resulted in diminished viral clearance from the lung and decreased lung inflammation during early infection but more severe lung pathology relative to wild-type mice during late infection...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115001/host-cell-copper-transporters-ctr1-and-atp7a-are-important-for-influenza-a-virus-replication
#5
Jonathan C Rupp, Manon Locatelli, Alexis Grieser, Andrea Ramos, Patricia J Campbell, Hong Yi, John Steel, Jason L Burkhead, Eric Bortz
BACKGROUND: The essential role of copper in eukaryotic cellular physiology is known, but has not been recognized as important in the context of influenza A virus infection. In this study, we investigated the effect of cellular copper on influenza A virus replication. METHODS: Influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus growth and macromolecule syntheses were assessed in cultured human lung cells (A549) where the copper concentration of the growth medium was modified, or expression of host genes involved in copper homeostasis was targeted by RNA interference...
January 23, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108632/contribution-of-innate-immune-cells-to-pathogenesis-of-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Suzanne L Cole, Ling-Pei Ho
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause respiratory illness of varying severity based on the virus strains, host predisposition and pre-existing immunity. Ultimately, outcome and recovery from infection rely on an effective immune response comprising both innate and adaptive components. The innate immune response provides the first line of defence and is crucial to the outcome of infection. Airway epithelial cells are the first cell type to encounter the virus in the lungs, providing antiviral and chemotactic molecules that shape the ensuing immune response by rapidly recruiting innate effector cells such as NK cells, monocytes and neutrophils...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#7
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105854/t-705-favipiravir-suppresses-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-production-in-response-to-influenza-virus-infection-a-beneficial-feature-of-t-705-as-an-anti-influenza-drug
#8
T Tanaka, T Kamiyama, T Daikoku, K Takahashi, N Nomura, M Kurokawa, K Shiraki
Influenza virus infection induces the production of various cytokines, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of infection. Among the cytokines induced by influenza, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production has been correlated with the severity of lung lesions. We investigated the effects of T-705 (Favipiravir, 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) on cytokine production due to influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo, compared with oseltamivir or GS 4071, an active form of oseltamivir. TNF-α production in mouse macrophage-derived P388D1 cells infected with the influenza virus was lower following treatment with T-705 at concentrations of 0...
January 25, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076422/monoclonal-antibody-against-g-glycoprotein-increases-respiratory-syncytial-virus-clearance-in-vivo-and-prevents-vaccine-enhanced-diseases
#9
Hyo-Jeong Lee, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Min-Hee Park, Joo-Young Kim, Jun Chang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children, and the elderly. The G glycoprotein plays a role in host cell attachment and also modulates the host immune response, thereby inducing disease pathogenesis. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 5H6 and 3A5) against G protein core fragment (Gcf), which consisted of amino acid residues 131 to 230 from RSV A2 G protein. Epitope mapping study revealed that 5H6 specifically binds to the G/164-176 peptide that includes conserved sequences shared by both RSV A and B subtypes, and 3A5 binds to the G/190-204 peptide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074713/pathogens-patterns-of-pneumonia-and-epidemiologic-risk-factors-associated-with-respiratory-disease-in-recently-weaned-cattle-in-ireland
#10
Gerard M Murray, Simon J More, Dónal Sammin, Mìcheàl J Casey, Máire C McElroy, Rónan G O'Neill, William J Byrne, Bernadette Earley, Tracy A Clegg, Hywel Ball, Colin J Bell, Joseph P Cassidy
We examined the pathogens, morphologic patterns, and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in 136 recently weaned cattle ("weanlings"), 6-12 mo of age, that were submitted for postmortem examination to regional veterinary laboratories in Ireland. A standardized sampling protocol included routine microbiologic investigations as well as polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Lungs with histologic lesions were categorized into 1 of 5 morphologic patterns of pneumonia. Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%) and interstitial pneumonia (48%) were the morphologic patterns recorded most frequently...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069010/nanoparticle-exposure-reactivates-latent-herpesvirus-and-restores-a-signature-of-acute-infection
#11
Christine Sattler, Franco Moritz, Shanze Chen, Beatrix Steer, David Kutschke, Martin Irmler, Johannes Beckers, Oliver Eickelberg, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Heiko Adler, Tobias Stoeger
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of environmental (nano) particles (NP) as well as persistent herpesvirus-infection are potentially associated with chronic lung disease and as both are omnipresent in human society a coincidence of these two factors is highly likely. We hypothesized that NP-exposure of persistently herpesvirus-infected cells as a second hit might disrupt immune control of viral latency, provoke reactivation of latent virus and eventually lead to an inflammatory response and tissue damage...
10, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060677/pathogenesis-of-frog-virus-3-ranavirus-iridoviridae-infection-in-wood-frogs-rana-sylvatica
#12
M J Forzán, K M Jones, E Ariel, R J Whittington, J Wood, R J Frederick Markham, P-Y Daoust
Wood frogs ( Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10(4.43) pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053105/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-latent-membrane-protein-1-upregulates-glucose-transporter-1-transcription-via-the-mtorc1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#13
Jun Zhang, Lin Jia, Weitao Lin, Yim Ling Yip, Kwok Wai Lo, Victoria Ming Yi Lau, Dandan Zhu, Chi Man Tsang, Yuan Zhou, Wen Deng, Hong Lok Lung, Maria Li Lung, Lai Man Cheung, Sai Wah Tsao
: Accumulating evidence indicates that oncogenic viral protein exerts a crucial role in activating aerobic glycolysis during tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a trans-membrane protein with potent cell signaling properties and has tumorigenic transformation property. Activation of NF-κB is a major signaling pathway mediating many downstream transformation properties of LMP1. Here we report that activation of mTORC1 by LMP1 is a key modulator for activation of NF-κB signaling to mediate aerobic glycolysis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038412/enhanced-virulence-of-clade-2-3-2-1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-viruses-in-ferrets
#14
Melissa B Pearce, Claudia Pappas, Kortney M Gustin, C Todd Davis, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, David E Swayne, Taronna R Maines, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey
Sporadic avian to human transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses necessitates the analysis of currently circulating and evolving clades to assess their potential risk. Following the spread and sustained circulation of clade 2 viruses across multiple continents, numerous subclades and genotypes have been described. To better understand the pathogenesis associated with the continued diversification of clade 2A(H5N1) influenza viruses, we investigated the relative virulence of eleven human and poultry isolates collected from 2006 to 2013 by determining their ability to cause disease in the ferret model...
February 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018302/proteomic-analysis-of-differential-expression-of-cellular-proteins-in-response-to-avian-h9n2-virus-infection-of-a549-cells
#15
Guanliu Yu, Wei Liang, Jiyuan Liu, Dan Meng, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai, Yumei Cai
In this study, differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different spots between the groups (ratio > 2, p < 0.05) were identified with mass spectrometry identification. Proteins located in the downstream of the NF-κB and IFN transcription factor pathways were identified, e.g., ISG15. Actin and keratin were also identified, suggesting that the cytoskeleton may plays an important role in the AIV infection of mammalian cells...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988511/pigs-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-are-impaired-in-controlling-influenza-a-virus-infection
#16
Daniela S Rajao, Crystal L Loving, Emily H Waide, Phillip C Gauger, Jack C M Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect many host species, including humans and pigs. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition characterized by a deficiency of T, B, and/or natural killer (NK) cells. Animal models of SCID have great value for biomedical research. Here, we evaluated the pathogenesis and the innate immune response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm09) using a recently identified line of naturally occurring SCID pigs deficient in T and B lymphocytes that still have functional NK cells...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938674/mannheimia-haemolytica-biofilm-formation-on-bovine-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#17
Ismail Boukahil, Charles J Czuprynski
Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation...
December 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928015/reassortment-between-swine-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-in-the-united-states-resulted-in-influenza-a-viruses-with-diverse-genetic-constellations-with-variable-virulence-in-pigs
#18
Daniela S Rajão, Rasna R Walia, Brian Campbell, Phillip C Gauger, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Mary Lea Killian, Amy L Vincent
: Repeated spillovers of the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) from humans to pigs resulted in substantial evolution of influenza A viruses infecting swine, contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulating in swine. The reassortment with endemic swine viruses and maintenance of some of the H1N1pdm09 internal genes resulted in the circulation of different genomic constellations in pigs. Here, we performed a whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of 368 IAV circulating in swine from 2009 to 2016 in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902340/viral-bacterial-interactions-in-the-respiratory-tract
#19
Carla Bellinghausen, Gernot G U Rohde, Paul H M Savelkoul, Emiel F M Wouters, Frank R M Stassen
In the respiratory tract, viruses and bacteria can interact on multiple levels. It is well known that respiratory viruses, particularly influenza viruses, increase the susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. Numerous mechanisms, including compromised physical and immunological barriers, and changes in the microenvironment have hereby been shown to contribute to the development of secondary bacterial infections. In contrast, our understanding of how bacteria shape a response to subsequent viral infection is still limited...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
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