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Pathogenesis of viral infection of the lungs

Jolanta Parada-Turska, Monika Turska
Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis which predominantly affects medium-sized arteries. It is a rare disease nowadays. Both the nomenclature and the classification of polyarteritis nodosa was amended several times in the past. Currently, there is a distinction between the primary form described as classical polyarteritis nodosa and other forms that are associated with their probable cause e.g. with viral hepatitis B, C or HIV infection. Moreover, polyarteritis-like necrotizing vasculitis can appear in the course of genetic diseases caused by mutations in single genes...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Tongtong Wang, Qian Du, Xingchen Wu, Yingying Niu, Lijuan Guan, Zhenyu Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Shan-Lu Liu, Dewen Tong, Yong Huang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (Cap) is a unique structure protein that plays pivotal roles in the process of viral replication and pathogenesis. Herein, we characterized putative porcine Makorin ring finger protein 1 variant (pMKRN1), a N-terminal-truncated variant of putative full-size porcine MKRN1, which is a unique expression pattern resulting from the porcine mkrn1 gene and interacts with PCV2 Cap. Domain mapping assay showed that the C terminus of pMKRN1 and the fragments (108-198 aa) of Cap are required for this interaction...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xiaochun Gai, Qun Zhang, Haibing Lu, Zhanqing Yang, Lisai Zhu, Xin Li, Xinping Wang
BACKGROUNDS: HY12 viruses are enteroviruses recently isolated from cattle characterized by severe respiratory and digestive disease with high morbidity and mortality in China. While the viruses exhibit unique biological and molecular characters distinct from known enterovirus E, the pathogenicity and viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown. METHODS: Neonatal mice of Balb/C, ICR, and Kunming strain are infected with HY12 to determine the susceptible mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
Jodi L McGill, Sean M Kelly, Pankaj Kumar, Savannah Speckhart, Shannon L Haughney, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E Sacco
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is closely related to HRSV and a significant cause of morbidity in young cattle. BRSV infection in calves displays many similarities to RSV infection in humans, including similar age dependency and disease pathogenesis. Polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have shown promise as adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles due to their ability to promote enhanced immunogenicity through the route of administration, provide sustained antigen exposure, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Nick D Van Skike, Nana K Minkah, Chad H Hogan, Gary Wu, Peter T Benziger, Darby G Oldenburg, Mehmet Kara, Deborah M Kim-Holzapfel, Douglas W White, Scott A Tibbetts, Jarrod B French, Laurie T Krug
Gammaherpesviruses encode proteins with homology to the cellular purine metabolic enzyme formyl-glycinamide-phosphoribosyl-amidotransferase (FGARAT), but the role of these viral FGARATs (vFGARATs) in the pathogenesis of a natural host has not been investigated. We report a novel role for the ORF75A vFGARAT of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) in infectious virion production and colonization of mice. MHV68 mutants with premature stop codons in orf75A exhibited a log reduction in acute replication in the lungs after intranasal infection, which preceded a defect in colonization of multiple host reservoirs including the mediastinal lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the spleen...
February 1, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
P J Santangelo, C Cicala, S N Byrareddy, K T Ortiz, D Little, K E Lindsay, S Gumber, J J Hong, K Jelicic, K A Rogers, C Zurla, F Villinger, A A Ansari, A S Fauci, J Arthos
Integrin α4β7 mediates the trafficking of leukocytes, including CD4+ T cells, to lymphoid tissues in the gut. Virus mediated damage to the gut is implicated in HIV and SIV mediated chronic immune activation and leads to irreversible damage to the immune system. We employed an immuno-PET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the impact of an anti-integrin α4β7 mAb alone or in combination with ART, on the distribution of both SIV infected cells and CD4+ cells in rhesus macaques infected with SIV. We determined that α4β7 mAb reduced viral antigen in an array of tissues of the lung, spleen, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Giovanni Di Teodoro, Giuseppe Marruchella, Andrea Di Provvido, Gianluca Orsini, Gaetano Federico Ronchi, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Nicola D'Alterio, Flavio Sacchini, Massimo Scacchia
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). Knowledge on CBPP pathogenesis is fragmented and hampered by the limited availability of laboratory animal and in vitro models of investigation. The purpose of the present study is to assess respiratory explants as useful tools to study the early stages of CBPP. Explants were obtained from trachea, bronchi and lungs of slaughtered cattle, tested negative for Mycoplasma spp. and for the major bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens...
January 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
Harendra Singh Chahar, Tiziana Corsello, Andrzej S Kudlicki, Narayana Komaravelli, Antonella Casola
Exosomes are microvesicles known to carry biologically active molecules, including RNA, DNA and proteins. Viral infections can induce profound changes in exosome composition, and exosomes have been implicated in viral transmission and pathogenesis. No information is current available regarding exosome composition and function during infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. In this study, we characterized exosomes released from RSV-infected lung carcinoma-derived A549 cells...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma E Hornick, Balaji Banoth, Ann M Miller, Zeb R Zacharias, Nidhi Jain, Mary E Wilson, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Kevin L Legge, Gail A Bishop, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Suzanne L Cassel
Exaggerated inflammatory responses during influenza A virus (IAV) infection are typically associated with severe disease. Neutrophils are among the immune cells that can drive this excessive and detrimental inflammation. In moderation, however, neutrophils are necessary for optimal viral control. In this study, we explore the role of the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptor family member Nlrp12 in modulating neutrophilic responses during lethal IAV infection. Nlrp12-/- mice are protected from lethality during IAV infection and show decreased vascular permeability, fewer pulmonary neutrophils, and a reduction in levels of neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 in their lungs compared with wild-type mice...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Elitsa L Pavlova, Lora S Simeonova, Galina A Gegova
Influenza pathogenesis comprises a complex cascade of impaired cellular processes resulting from the viral replication and exaggerated immune response accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and oxidative stress, destructing membranous structures and tissues. By classical virological and biochemical methods we compared and evaluated the therapeutic effects of 2.5mg/kg/day of the antiviral drug - oseltamivir (OS), 500mg/kg/day of the immune modulator - isoprinosine (IP) and 500mg/kg/day of the antioxidant agent ellagic acid (EA) with a focus on their combined activities in influenza H3N2 virus-infected mice...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Angela Amedee, Bonnie Phillips, Kara Jensen, Spencer Robichaux, Nedra Lacour, Mark Burke, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris
Despite optimization of preventative measures for vertical HIV-1 transmission, daily roughly 400 infants become HIV infected, most of them via breastfeeding. Viral entry has been presumed to occur in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the exact entry site(s) have not been defined. Therefore, we quantified viral RNA and DNA in oral, intestinal and systemic tissues of 15 infant macaques within 48-96 hours after oral SIVmac251 exposure. SIV DNA was detected as early as 48 hours, whereas SIV RNA was typically detected at later time points (72-96 hours)...
December 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Chun Li, Qiao Qiao, Shu-Bin Hao, Zhen Dong, Li Zhao, Jing Ji, Zhi-Yu Wang, Hong-Ling Wen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, and severe infections can induce neurological complications and even death. However, the pathogenesis of EV71 remains unknown. The 2A proteinase (2Apro ) of EV71 plays an important role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, inhibiting host protein synthesis, and evading innate immunity. This study was to determine the function of EV71 2Apro in replication and virulence. A chimeric strain (SDLY 107-2A-1) was recombined by replacing 2Apro of a severe strain (SDLY107) with that of a mild strain (SDLY1) based on an infectious cDNA clone...
January 15, 2018: Virus Research
Maren Julia Pröll, Christiane Neuhoff, Karl Schellander, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Mehmet Ulas Cinar, Sudeep Sahadevan, Xueqi Qu, Md Aminul Islam, Mikhael Poirier, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Christine Große-Brinkhaus
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete...
2017: PloS One
Vuong Ba Lê, Béatrice Riteau, Marie-Christine Alessi, Christian Couture, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Chantal Rhéaume, Marie-Ève Hamelin, Guy Boivin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. However, its role remains controversial. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of PAR1 to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Pharmacological approaches were used to investigate the role of PAR1 during RSV and hMPV infection, in vitro using epithelial A549 cells and in vivo using a mouse model of virus infection...
January 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Bindumadhav M Marathe, Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Philippe Noriel Q Pascua, Jeremy C Jones, Charles J Russell, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova
Immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to influenza virus infections. Although neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy has proved effective in these patients, the treatment regimens require optimization, which can be partly addressed via animal models. Here, we describe a pharmacologically immunosuppressed mouse model for studying the pathogenesis of influenza B viruses and evaluating the efficacy of antiviral treatment. We modeled clinical regimens for dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress BALB/c mice that were then inoculated with B/Phuket/3073/2013 (Yamagata lineage) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/08, Victoria lineage) virus...
October 31, 2017: Antiviral Research
Tomohiko Sadaoka, Cindi L Schwartz, Labchan Rajbhandari, Arun Venkatesan, Jeffrey I Cohen
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell-associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000 to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-plaque forming unit (PFU) ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo, in which the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Using neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell-free wild-type (WT) VZV, we demonstrate that neurons are nearly 100 times more permissive for WT VZV infection than very early passage human embryonic lung cells or MRC-5 diploid human fibroblasts, the cells used for vaccine production or virus isolation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
Raquel Almansa, Pamela Martínez-Orellana, Lucía Rico, Verónica Iglesias, Alicia Ortega, Beatriz Vidaña, Jorge Martínez, Ana Expósito, María Montoya, Jesús F Bermejo-Martin
BACKGROUND: The interaction between influenza virus and the host response to infection clearly plays an important role in determining the outcome of infection. While much is known on the participation of inflammation on the pathogenesis of severe A (H1N1) pandemic 09-influenza virus, its role in the course of non-fatal pneumonia has not been fully addressed. METHODS: A systems biology approach was used to define gene expression profiles, histology and viral dynamics in the lungs of healthy immune-competent mice with pneumonia caused by a human influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, which successfully resolved the infection...
2017: PeerJ
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism(2). Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because their immune system is evolutionarily similar to that found in humans, they are available from commercial vendors as genetically identical subjects, there are multiple strains that can be exploited to evaluate the genetic basis of infections, and they are relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Laura A Doorley, Kim S LeMessurier, Amy R Iverson, Maneesha Palipane, Amali E Samarasinghe
Humoral immunity serve dual functions of direct pathogen neutralization and enhancement of leukocyte function. Antibody classes are determined by antigen triggers, and the resulting antibodies can contribute to disease pathogenesis and host defense. Although asthma and influenza are immunologically distinct diseases, since we have found that allergic asthma exacerbation promotes antiviral host responses to influenza A virus, we hypothesized that humoral immunity may contribute to allergic host protection during influenza...
December 2017: Immunobiology
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