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Viral pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068397/burn-injury-leads-to-increased-long-term-susceptibility-to-respiratory-infection-in-both-mouse-models-and-population-studies
#1
Vanessa S Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood, Janine M Duke, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: Burn injury initiates an acute inflammatory response that subsequently drives wound repair. However, acute disruption to the immune response is also common, leading to susceptibility to sepsis and increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased understanding of the impact of burn injury on the immune system in the acute phase, little is known about long-term consequences of burn injury on immune function. This study was established to determine whether burn injury has long-term clinical impacts on patients' immune responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#2
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 4, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060871/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-mrsa-pneumonia
#4
Elizabeth A Fitzpatrick, Dahui You, Bishwas Shrestha, David Siefker, Vivek S Patel, Nikki Yadav, Sridhar Jaligama, Stephania A Cormier
Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054135/-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
S Poetter-Lang, C J Herold
CLINICAL ISSUE: The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging...
January 4, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049398/infectious-agents-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-exploring-the-links
#6
Mohammad Zubair Alam, Qamre Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Asif Ahmad Jiman-Fatani, Esam I Azhar, Mohammad Azhar Khan, Absarul Haque
Recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lyme disease (LD). However, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. Infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. The infection leads to the activation of inflammatory processes and host immune responses, which acts as defense mechanism and also causes damage to the host neuronal functions and viability...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999962/human-lung-ex-vivo-infection-models
#7
REVIEW
Andreas C Hocke, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel
Pneumonia is counted among the leading causes of death worldwide. Viruses, bacteria and pathogen-related molecules interact with cells present in the human alveolus by numerous, yet poorly understood ways. Traditional cell culture models little reflect the cellular composition, matrix complexity and three-dimensional architecture of the human lung. Integrative animal models suffer from species differences, which are of particular importance for the investigation of zoonotic lung diseases. The use of cultured ex vivo infected human lung tissue may overcome some of these limitations and complement traditional models...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994358/retrospective-analysis-of-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-molecular-diagnostics-ses-in-70-patients-with-suspected-central-nervous-system-infections-a-single-center-study
#8
Rama Krishnan Tiruppur Chinnappan Ramalingam, Dipanjan Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections present a grave health care challenge due to high morbidity and mortality. Clinical findings and conventional laboratory assessments are not sufficiently distinct for specific etiologic diagnosis. Identification of pathogens is a key to appropriate therapy. AIM: In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical utility of syndrome evaluation system (SES) for diagnosing clinically suspected CNS infections...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993295/viruses-are-prevalent-in-non-ventilated-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Andrew F Shorr, Marya D Zilberberg, Scott T Micek, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia arising in non-ventilated patients (NVHAP) is traditionally thought to be caused by bacteria, and little is known about viral etiologies in this syndrome. We sought to describe the prevalence of viruses causing NVHAP and to determine factors independently associated with the isolation of a virus. METHODS: We identified patients with NVHAP over one year and reviewed their cultures to determine etiologies. Patients with a viral process were compared to those with either negative cultures or a bacterial infection to determine variables independently associated with the recovery of a virus...
January 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984245/bacterial-pneumonia-as-an-influenza-complication
#10
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Frank van Someren Gréve, Marcus J Schultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathogenesis and impact of coinfection, in particular bacterial coinfection, in influenza are incompletely understood. This review summarizes results from studies on bacterial coinfection in the recent pandemic influenza outbreak. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic immune mechanisms play a key role in the development of coinfection based on the complexity of the interaction of the host and the viral and bacterial pathogens. Several studies were performed to determine the point prevalence of bacterial coinfection in influenza...
December 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981251/lethal-synergism-between-influenza-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#11
Jennifer M Rudd, Harshini K Ashar, Vincent Tk Chow, Narasaraju Teluguakula
The devastating synergism of bacterial pneumonia with influenza viral infections left its mark on the world over the last century. Although the details of pathogenesis remain unclear, the synergism is related to a variety of factors including pulmonary epithelial barrier damage which exposes receptors that influence bacterial adherence and the triggering of an exaggerated innate immune response and cytokine storm, which further acts to worsen the injury. Several therapeutics and combination therapies of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories including corticosteroids and toll-like receptor modifiers, and anti-virals are being discussed...
October 2016: Journal of Infectious Pulmonary Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922126/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-severe-pneumonia-triggers-innate-immune-responses-and-specifically-enhances-ip-10-a-translational-study
#12
Jonathan Hoffmann, Daniela Machado, Olivier Terrier, Stephane Pouzol, Mélina Messaoudi, Wilma Basualdo, Emilio E Espínola, Rosa M Guillen, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Valentina Picot, Thomas Bénet, Hubert Endtz, Graciela Russomando, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#13
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895132/protection-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-pathogenesis-by-a-protein-based-vaccine-is-achieved-by-suppression-of-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-density-during-influenza-a-virus-co-infection
#14
M Nadeem Khan, Qingfu Xu, Michael E Pichichero
An increase in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization density during a viral co-infection initiates pathogenesis. To mimic natural Spn pathogenesis, we commensally colonized the NP of adult C57BL/6 mice with Spn serotypes (STs) 6A or 8, and then co-infected with mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A virus (PR/8/34). Spn established effective commensal colonization and Influenza co-infection caused Spn NP density to increase, resulting in bacteremia and mortality. We then studied histidine triad protein D (PhtD), a Spn adhesin vaccine candidate, for its ability to prevent invasive Spn disease in adult and infant mice...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885052/enhanced-protective-responses-to-a-serotype-independent-pneumococcal-vaccine-when-combined-with-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine
#15
Rachelle Babb, Austen Chen, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Timothy R Hirst, Ervin E Kara, Shaun R McColl, Mohammed Alsharifi, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza are the world's foremost bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. We have previously described a γ-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU) vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity against heterosubtypic infections. More recently, we reported a novel non-adjuvanted γ-irradiated S pneumoniae (γ-PN) vaccine that elicits serotype-independent protection. Considering the clinical synergism of both pathogens, combination of a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a broad-spectrum influenza vaccine to protect against both infections would have a considerable clinical impact...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852281/viral-bacterial-coinfection-affects-the-presentation-and-alters-the-prognosis-of-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Guillaume Voiriot, Benoit Visseaux, Johana Cohen, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Mathilde Neuville, Caroline Morbieu, Charles Burdet, Aguila Radjou, François-Xavier Lescure, Roland Smonig, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre, Bruno Mourvillier, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Jean-Francois Soubirou, Stephane Ruckly, Nadhira Houhou-Fidouh, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) enables recovery of viruses from airways of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), although their clinical impact remains uncertain. METHODS: Among consecutive adult patients who had undergone a mPCR within 72 hours following their admission to one intensive care unit (ICU), we retrospectively included those with a final diagnosis of CAP. Four etiology groups were clustered: bacterial, viral, mixed (viral-bacterial) and no etiology...
October 25, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846213/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-midregional-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-and-midregional-proadrenomedullin-for-distinguishing-etiology-and-to-assess-severity-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Susanna Esposito, Maria Di Gangi, Fabio Cardinale, Eugenio Baraldi, Ilaria Corsini, Liviana Da Dalt, Pier Angelo Tovo, Antonio Correra, Alberto Villani, Oliviero Sacco, Laura Tenero, Piera Dones, Monia Gambino, Alberto Zampiero, Nicola Principi
STUDY DESIGN: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to distinguish bacterial from viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to identify severe cases in children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP. Index test results were compared with those derived from routine diagnostic tests, i.e., white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil percentages, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836224/-infectious-events-during-the-course-of-autoimmune-diseases-treated-with-rituximab-a-retrospective-study-of-93%C3%A2-cases
#18
M Catroux, M Lauda-Maillen, M Pathe, A-C De Boisgrollier de Ruolz, F Cazenave-Roblot, P Roblot, O Souchaud-Debouverie
OBJECTIVE: Describe the occurring infections in patients treated with rituximab for an autoimmune disease. METHODS: Retrospective and monocentric study of 93 adult patients treated with rituximab for autoimmune indications over a nine years period. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients suffered from a total of 95 infections. Out of them, 18 patients (19 %) had had at least an infectious episode triggering a hospital admission and/or intravenous treatment...
November 8, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815256/toll-like-receptor-4-activation-attenuates-profibrotic-response-in-control-lung-fibroblasts-but-not-in-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-ipf
#19
Simone Ebener, Sandra Barnowski, Carlos Wotzkow, Thomas M Marti, Elena Lopez-Rodriguez, Bruno Crestani, Fabian Blank, Ralph A Schmid, Thomas Geiser, Manuela Funke
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with a median survival of 3 yr. IPF deteriorates upon viral or bacterial lung infection although pulmonary infection (pneumonia) in healthy lungs rarely induces fibrosis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), initiating proinflammatory pathways. As TLR4 has already been linked to hepatic fibrosis and scleroderma, we now investigated the role of TLR4 in IPF fibroblasts. Lung tissue sections from patients with IPF were analyzed for TLR4 expression...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803187/exogenous-activation-of-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-by-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-reduces-pneumococcal-outgrowth-and-dissemination-postinfluenza
#20
Adeline Barthelemy, Stoyan Ivanov, Maya Hassane, Josette Fontaine, Béatrice Heurtault, Benoit Frisch, Christelle Faveeuw, Christophe Paget, François Trottein
: Influenza A virus infection can predispose to potentially devastating secondary bacterial infections. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are unconventional, lipid-reactive T lymphocytes that exert potent immunostimulatory functions. Using a mouse model of postinfluenza invasive secondary pneumococcal infection, we sought to establish whether α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer [a potent iNKT cell agonist that is currently in clinical development]) could limit bacterial superinfection...
November 1, 2016: MBio
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