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Viral pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895132/protection-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-pathogenesis-by-a-protein-based-vaccine-is-achieved-by-suppression-of-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-density-during-influenza-a-virus-co-infection
#1
M Nadeem Khan, Qingfu Xu, Michael E Pichichero
An increase in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization density during a viral co-infection initiates pathogenesis. To mimic natural Spn pathogenesis, we commensally colonized the NP of adult C57BL/6 mice with Spn serotypes (STs) 6A or 8, and then co-infected with mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A virus (PR/8/34). Spn established effective commensal colonization and Influenza co-infection caused Spn NP density to increase, resulting in bacteremia and mortality. We then studied histidine triad protein D (PhtD), a Spn adhesin vaccine candidate, for its ability to prevent invasive Spn disease in adult and infant mice...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885052/enhanced-protective-responses-to-a-serotype-independent-pneumococcal-vaccine-when-combined-with-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine
#2
Rachelle Babb, Austen Chen, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Timothy R Hirst, Ervin E Kara, Shaun R McColl, Mohammed Alsharifi, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza are the world's foremost bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. We have previously described a gamma-irradiated influenza (γ-FLU) vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity against heterosubtypic infections. More recently, we reported a novel non-adjuvanted gamma-irradiated S. pneumoniae (γ-PN) vaccine that elicits serotype-independent protection. Considering the clinical synergism of both pathogens, combination of a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a broad-spectrum influenza vaccine to protect against both infections would have considerable clinical impact...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852281/viral-bacterial-coinfection-affects-the-presentation-and-alters-the-prognosis-of-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#3
Guillaume Voiriot, Benoit Visseaux, Johana Cohen, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Mathilde Neuville, Caroline Morbieu, Charles Burdet, Aguila Radjou, François-Xavier Lescure, Roland Smonig, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre, Bruno Mourvillier, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Jean-Francois Soubirou, Stephane Ruckly, Nadhira Houhou-Fidouh, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) enables recovery of viruses from airways of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), although their clinical impact remains uncertain. METHODS: Among consecutive adult patients who had undergone a mPCR within 72 hours following their admission to one intensive care unit (ICU), we retrospectively included those with a final diagnosis of CAP. Four etiology groups were clustered: bacterial, viral, mixed (viral-bacterial) and no etiology...
October 25, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846213/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-midregional-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-and-midregional-proadrenomedullin-for-distinguishing-etiology-and-to-assess-severity-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Susanna Esposito, Maria Di Gangi, Fabio Cardinale, Eugenio Baraldi, Ilaria Corsini, Liviana Da Dalt, Pier Angelo Tovo, Antonio Correra, Alberto Villani, Oliviero Sacco, Laura Tenero, Piera Dones, Monia Gambino, Alberto Zampiero, Nicola Principi
STUDY DESIGN: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to distinguish bacterial from viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to identify severe cases in children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP. Index test results were compared with those derived from routine diagnostic tests, i.e., white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil percentages, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836224/-infectious-events-during-the-course-of-autoimmune-diseases-treated-with-rituximab-a-retrospective-study-of-93%C3%A2-cases
#5
M Catroux, M Lauda-Maillen, M Pathe, A-C De Boisgrollier de Ruolz, F Cazenave-Roblot, P Roblot, O Souchaud-Debouverie
OBJECTIVE: Describe the occurring infections in patients treated with rituximab for an autoimmune disease. METHODS: Retrospective and monocentric study of 93 adult patients treated with rituximab for autoimmune indications over a nine years period. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients suffered from a total of 95 infections. Out of them, 18 patients (19 %) had had at least an infectious episode triggering a hospital admission and/or intravenous treatment...
November 8, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815256/toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-activation-attenuates-pro-fibrotic-response-in-control-lung-fibroblasts-but-not-in-fibroblasts-from-ipf-patients
#6
Simone Ebener, Sandra Barnowski, Carlos Wotzkow, Thomas Michael Marti, Elena Lopez-Rodriguez, Bruno Crestani, Fabian Blank, Ralph Alexander Schmid, Thomas Geiser, Manuela Funke
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disease with a median survival of three years. IPF deteriorates upon viral or bacterial lung infection although pulmonary infection (pneumonia) in healthy lungs rarely induces fibrosis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiating pro-inflammatory pathways. As TLR4 has already been linked to hepatic fibrosis and scleroderma, we now investigated the role of TLR4 in IPF fibroblasts. Lung tissue sections from IPF patients were analyzed for TLR4 expression...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803187/exogenous-activation-of-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-by-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-reduces-pneumococcal-outgrowth-and-dissemination-postinfluenza
#7
Adeline Barthelemy, Stoyan Ivanov, Maya Hassane, Josette Fontaine, Béatrice Heurtault, Benoit Frisch, Christelle Faveeuw, Christophe Paget, François Trottein
: Influenza A virus infection can predispose to potentially devastating secondary bacterial infections. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are unconventional, lipid-reactive T lymphocytes that exert potent immunostimulatory functions. Using a mouse model of postinfluenza invasive secondary pneumococcal infection, we sought to establish whether α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer [a potent iNKT cell agonist that is currently in clinical development]) could limit bacterial superinfection...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795345/improved-detection-of-respiratory-pathogens-using-high-quality-sputum-with-taqman-array-card-technology
#8
Bernard J Wolff, Anna M Bramley, Kathleen A Thurman, Cynthia G Whitney, Brett Whitaker, Wesley H Self, Sandra R Arnold, Christopher Trabue, Richard G Wunderink, Jon McCullers, Kathryn M Edwards, Seema Jain, Jonas M Winchell
New diagnostic platforms often use naso- or oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs for pathogen detection for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We applied multi-pathogen testing to high-quality sputum specimens to determine if more pathogens could be identified relative to NP/OP swabs. Children (<18 years old) and adults hospitalized with CAP were enrolled over 2.5 years through the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study. NP/OP specimens with matching high-quality sputum (defined as ≤10 epithelial cells/low power field [lpf] and ≥25 white blood cells/lpf or a q-score definition of 2+) were tested by TaqMan Array Card (TAC), a multi-pathogen real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection platform...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788254/microorganisms-causing-community-acquired-acute-bronchitis-the-role-of-bacterial-infection
#9
Ji Young Park, Sunghoon Park, Sun Hwa Lee, Myung Goo Lee, Yong Bum Park, Kil Chan Oh, Jae-Myung Lee, Do Il Kim, Ki-Hyun Seo, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yongchun Ko, Seung Hun Jang, Ki-Suck Jung, Yong Il Hwang
BACKGROUND: Although acute bronchitis is quite common, there is relatively limited information regarding the microorganisms that are involved in this illness. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of acute bronchitis at 31 hospitals and clinics in Korea from July 2011 to June 2012. Sputum specimens were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture of microorganisms. RESULTS: Of the 811 enrolled patients, 291 had acceptable sputum specimens that were included for analysis of the etiologic distribution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783145/infectious-agents-after-liver-transplant-etiology-timeline-and-patients-cell-mediated-immunity-responses
#10
Angela Chiereghin, Evangelia Petrisli, Matteo Ravaioli, Maria Cristina Morelli, Gabriele Turello, Diego Squarzoni, Giulia Piccirilli, Simone Ambretti, Liliana Gabrielli, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Maria Paola Landini, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Infections continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. We retrospectively reviewed the symptomatic infectious episodes that occurred during the first year post-transplant to determine time of onset, causative pathogens and cell-mediated immunity response patterns. Ninety-eight of the 202 (48.5%) recipients enrolled developed at least one infectious episode. The total number of infectious episodes was 135: 77 (57.1%) bacterial, 45 (33.3%) viral and 13 (9...
October 25, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779831/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2014
#11
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766169/microbial-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-infants-and-children-admitted-to-the-pediatric-hospital-ain-shams-university
#12
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753796/etiology-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-infants-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#13
Prawin Kumar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Vishnu S Mishra, Mojahidul Islam, Shivani Randev, Aparna Mukherjee, Rama Chaudhry, Arti Kapil, Kana Ram Jat, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. OBJECTIVE: To document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus/es using multiplex real time PCR assay...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748303/aetiology-outcomes-predictors-of-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-north-india
#14
Surendra K Sharma, Anunay Gupta, Ashutosh Biswas, Abhishek Sharma, Atul Malhotra, K T Prasad, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Sajal Ajmani, Hridesh Mishra, Manish Soneja, Shobha Broor
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common disorder in critically ill patients and is associated with high mortality. There is a paucity of literature on this condition from developing countries. This prospective observational study was designed to find out the aetiology, outcomes and predictors of mortality in ARDS. METHODS: Sixty four consecutive patients who satisfied American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) definition of ARDS from medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India, were enrolled in the study...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746159/modulation-of-host-defence-against-bacterial-and-viral-infections-by-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#15
REVIEW
Marie-Odile Husson, Delphine Ley, Céline Portal, Madeleine Gottrand, Thomas Hueso, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Frédéric Gottrand
OBJECTIVES: Although n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) are used widely in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, their effect in infectious disease requires a particular attention. METHODS: The present article discusses their anti-inflammatory and immune properties involved in the host defence and presents a systematic review of the effects of their oral administration on the prevention and outcome of experimental and clinical infections...
December 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737908/point-of-care-crp-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumonia-in-adults
#16
(no author information available yet)
Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are among the most common acute conditions leading to GP consultations and to antibiotic prescribing in primary care, even though 70% are viral, and many others are minor self-limiting bacterial infections.(1-4) Between 0.5% and 1.1% of adults have community-acquired pneumonia every year in the UK, most of whom are managed in primary care.(4,5) The decision to prescribe antibiotics for an acute RTI in primary care is often based on clinical symptoms, which have low sensitivity and specificity, and high inter-observer variability...
October 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732665/single-cell-bottlenecks-in-the-pathogenesis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#17
Masamitsu Kono, M Ammar Zafar, Marisol Zuniga, Aoife M Roche, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Jeffrey N Weiser
Herein, we studied a virulent isolate of the leading bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in an infant mouse model of colonization, disease and transmission, both with and without influenza A (IAV) co-infection. To identify vulnerable points in the multiple steps involved in pneumococcal pathogenesis, this model was utilized for a comprehensive analysis of population bottlenecks. Our findings reveal that in the setting of IAV co-infection the organism must pass through single cell bottlenecks during bloodstream invasion from the nasopharynx within the host and in transmission between hosts...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711979/innate-immune-responses-in-the-ageing-lung
#18
REVIEW
D M Boe, L A Boule, E J Kovacs
The world is undergoing an unprecedented shift in demographics, with the number of individuals over the age of 60 years projected to reach 2 billion or more by 2050, representing 22% of the global population. Elderly people are at a higher risk for chronic disease and more susceptible to infection, due in part to age-related dysfunction of the immune system resulting from low-grade chronic inflammation known as 'inflamm-ageing'. The innate immune system of older individuals exhibits a diminished ability to respond to microbial threats and clear infections, resulting in a greater occurrence of many infectious diseases in elderly people...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701435/viral-inhibition-of-bacterial-phagocytosis-by-human-macrophages-redundant-role-of-cd36
#19
Grace E Cooper, Zoe C Pounce, Joshua C Wallington, Leidy Y Bastidas-Legarda, Ben Nicholas, Chiamaka Chidomere, Emily C Robinson, Kirstin Martin, Anna S Tocheva, Myron Christodoulides, Ratko Djukanovic, Tom M A Wilkinson, Karl J Staples
Macrophages are essential to maintaining lung homoeostasis and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-infected lung macrophages downregulate their expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. This receptor has also been shown to be involved in phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a primary agent associated with pneumonia secondary to viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD36 in the effects of viral infection on macrophage phagocytic function. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were exposed to H3N2 X31 influenza virus, M37 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or UV-irradiated virus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664086/respiratory-morbidity-after-childhood-burns-a-10-year-follow-up-study
#20
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Mark W Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The systemic responses triggered by burns and resuscitative measures may cause pulmonary damage and edema in the acute phase. These effects may occur in the absence of inhalation injury. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the recovery of the respiratory system postburn. This study aimed to examine 10-year hospital service use for respiratory morbidity in children with cutaneous burns and no smoke inhalation injury. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study with 10-year follow-up using linked hospital and death from Western Australia for children <5 years when hospitalized for a first burn injury (n = 5290) between 1980 and 2012 and a frequency matched noninjury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations (n = 27 061)...
September 23, 2016: Pediatrics
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