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Viral pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#1
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221484/the-impacts-of-baseline-ventilator-parameters-on-hospital-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-treated-with-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Meng-Yu Wu, Yu-Sheng Chang, Chung-Chi Huang, Tzu-I Wu, Pyng-Jing Lin
BACKGROUND: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a valuable life support in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adult patients. However, the success of VV-ECMO is known to be influenced by the baseline settings of mechanical ventilation (MV) before its institution. This study was aimed at identifying the baseline ventilator parameters which were independently associated with hospital mortality in non-trauma patients receiving VV-ECMO for severe ARDS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 106 non-trauma patients (mean age: 53 years) who received VV-ECMO for ARDS in a single medical center from 2007 to 2016...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215596/rsv-infection-in-human-macrophages-promotes-cxcl10-ip-10-expression-during-bacterial-co-infection
#3
Daniela Machado, Jonathan Hoffmann, Marie Moroso, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Hubert Endtz, Olivier Terrier, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212701/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-eplex%C3%A2-respiratory-pathogen-panel-for-the-detection-of-viral-and-bacterial-respiratory-tract-pathogens-in-nasopharyngeal-swabs
#4
N Esther Babady, Matthew R England, Kristen L Jurcic Smith, Taojun He, Dona Saumya Wijetunge, Yi-Wei Tang, Robin R Chamberland, Marilyn Menegus, Ella M Swierkosz, Robert C Jerris, Wallace Greene
Background: The performance of the new ePlex® Respiratory Pathogen (RP) Panel (GenMark Diagnostics) for the simultaneous detection of 19 viruses (influenza A, influenza A H1, influenza A 2009 H1, influenza A H3, influenza B, adenovirus, coronaviruses [HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E], human rhinovirus/enterovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3 and 4, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [RSVA and RSV B]) and two bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae) was evaluated.Methods: Prospectively and retrospectively collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens (n =2,908) were evaluated using the ePlex RP Panel with the bioMérieux/BioFire FilmArray® Respiratory Panel (BF RP) as the comparator method...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208015/molecular-etiological-profile-of-atypical-bacterial-pathogens-viruses-and-coinfections-among-infants-and-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-admitted-to-a-national-hospital-in-lima-peru
#5
Juana Del Valle-Mendoza, Wilmer Silva-Caso, Angela Cornejo-Tapia, Fiorella Orellana-Peralta, Eduardo Verne, Claudia Ugarte, Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis, María Del Carmen De Lama-Odría, Ronald Nazario-Fuertes, Mónica Esquivel-Vizcarra, Verónica Casabona-Ore, Pablo Weilg, Luis J Del Valle
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of 14 respiratory viruses and atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae), via polymerase chain reaction in patients under 18 years old hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from Lima, Peru. RESULTS: Atypical pathogens were detected in 40% (58/146); viral etiologies in 36% (52/146) and coinfections in 19% (27/146). The most common etiological agent was M...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207801/autoimmune-haemolytic-anaemia-a-spectrum-of-presentation-in-children
#6
Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, Ankita Patel, Sataroopa Mishra
Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemias (AIHAs) are rare in children. They can be either a primary disease or secondary to/triggered by a host of other clinical conditions. We present five interesting cases of paediatric AIHA associated with infections (viral, bacterial and atypical) and autoimmune diseases {Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)}. The H1N1 influenza associated AIHA responded to oseltamivir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IvIg) while the cases secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and pneumococcal bacteraemia required only treatment of the primary infection...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203400/decreased-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression-in-aged-lung-may-contribute-to-increased-susceptibility-to-secondary-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#7
Soo Jung Cho, Maria Plataki, Dana Mitzel, Gena Lowry, Kristen Rooney, Heather Stout-Delgado
Post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading morbidity and mortality in older patients (≥65years of age). The goal of our current study is to understand the impact of chronological aging on innate immune responses to a secondary, post viral infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of bacterial pneumonia. Using aged murine models of infection, our findings demonstrate increased morbidity and mortality in aged mice within 48h post-secondary S. pneumoniae infection. Increased susceptibility of aged mice was associated with decreased TLR1, TLR6, and TLR9 mRNA expression and diminished IL1β mRNA expression...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186559/phyloscanner-inferring-transmission-from-within-and-between-host-pathogen-genetic-diversity
#8
Chris Wymant, Matthew Hall, Oliver Ratmann, David Bonsall, Tanya Golubchik, Mariateresa de Cesare, Astrid Gall, Marion Cornelissen, Christophe Fraser
A central feature of pathogen genomics is that different infectious particles (virions, bacterial cells, etc.) within an infected individual may be genetically distinct, with patterns of relatedness amongst infectious particles being the result of both within-host evolution and transmission from one host to the next. Here we present a new software tool, phyloscanner, which analyses pathogen diversity from multiple infected hosts. phyloscanner provides unprecedented resolution into the transmission process, allowing inference of the direction of transmission from sequence data alone...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181956/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2015
#9
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166922/herpes-simplex-type-1-pneumonitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphatic-leukemia-a-case-report
#10
Miriam Luginbuehl, Alexander Imhof, Alexander Klarer
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus type 1 in patients in intensive care without classic immunosuppression as well as the necessity of antiviral treatment in the case of herpes simplex virus detection in respiratory specimens in these patients is controversial. We present a case of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with stable chronic lymphatic leukemia not requiring treatment, in whom we diagnosed herpes simplex virus type 1 bronchopneumonitis based on herpes simplex virus type 1 detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and clinical response to antiviral treatment...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161087/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-the-age-of-the-microbiome
#11
Markus J Ege
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. Examples were endemic fecal-oral infections by viral, bacterial, or protozoic pathogens, such as hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, or Toxoplasma gondii. Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene hypothesis was extended to inflammatory diseases in general. An impressive illustration of the hygiene hypothesis was found in the consistent farm effect on asthma and allergies, which has partly been attributed to immunomodulatory properties of endotoxin as emitted by livestock...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#12
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148920/the-unexpected-impact-of-vaccines-on-secondary-bacterial-infections-following-influenza
#13
Amber M Smith, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens...
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135841/severe-warm-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-in-a-7-month-old-infant-associated-with-a-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#14
Cierra Wandro, Leili Dolatshahi, Douglas Blackall
A 7-month-old female infant had clinical and laboratory evidence of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She also had clinical evidence of an upper respiratory tract infection with molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although reticulocytopenic initially, she responded to red blood cell transfusion, steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin and remains well today. With the increasing use of multiplex respiratory viral and bacterial pathogen detection systems, the rare association described in this report may prove to be more common than previously thought and may provide insight into the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of red blood cell autoantibodies...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129538/pneumonia-in-the-tropics-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Steve McGloughlin, Pravin R Amin
The aetiology of community acquired pneumonia varies according to the region in which it is acquired. This review discusses those causes of CAP that occur in the tropics and might not be readily recognizable when transplanted to other sites. Various forms of pneumonia including the viral causes such as influenza (seasonal and avian varieties), the coronaviruses and the Hantavirus as well as bacterial causes, specifically the pneumonic form of Yersinia pestis and melioidosis are discussed.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121208/dynamics-of-bacterial-colonization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-during-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-viral-upper-respiratory-infection
#16
Gregory P DeMuri, James E Gern, Jens C Eickhoff, Susan V Lynch, Ellen R Wald
Background: Virus is detected in about 80% of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in children and is also detectable in the nasopharynx of 30% of asymptomatic children. The effect of asymptomatic viral infection on the dynamics of bacterial density and colonization of the nasopharynx has not been reported. Objective: To assess the presence and density of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharynx of 4 to 7 year old children during URI and when well...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113587/streptococcus-pneumoniae-burden-and-nasopharyngeal-inflammation-during-acute-otitis-media
#17
Matthew C Morris, Michael E Pichichero
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a common respiratory pathogen and a frequent cause of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. The first step in bacterial pathogenesis of AOM is the establishment of asymptomatic colonization in the nasopharynx. We studied Spn bacterial burden in conjunction with neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory gene transcription and cytokine secretion in samples of nasal wash collected from normal and otitis-prone children during health, viral upper respiratory infection without middle ear involvement (URI) and AOM...
November 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109465/evidence-for-human-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-wild-and-captive-chimpanzees-a-potential-threat-to-wild-populations
#18
Sophie Köndgen, Sebastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kim Grützmacher, Verena Keil, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Kathrin Nowak, Sonja Metzger, John Kiyang, Antina Lübke Becker, Tobias Deschner, Roman M Wittig, Felix Lankester, Fabian H Leendertz
Habituation of wild great apes for tourism and research has had a significant positive effect on the conservation of these species. However, risks associated with such activities have been identified, specifically the transmission of human respiratory viruses to wild great apes, causing high morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Here, we investigate the source of bacterial-viral co-infections in wild and captive chimpanzee communities in the course of several respiratory disease outbreaks. Molecular analyses showed that human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV) and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) were involved in the etiology of the disease...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108950/amoxicillin-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-subgroup-analysis-by-bacterial-and-viral-etiology
#19
Robin Bruyndonckx, Beth Stuart, Paul Little, Niel Hens, Margareta Ieven, Christopher C Butler, Theo Verheij, Herman Goossens, Samuel Coenen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of amoxicillin treatment in adult patients presenting to primary care with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) who are infected with a potential bacterial, viral, or mixed bacterial/viral infection. METHODS: The multicenter randomized controlled trial focused on adults with LRTI not suspected for pneumonia. Patients were randomized to receive either antibiotic (amoxicillin 1g) or placebo three times daily for seven consecutive days using computer-generated random numbers (follow-up 28 days)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070690/genotype-2-strains-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-dysregulate-alveolar-macrophage-cytokine-production-via-the-unfolded-protein-response
#20
Wei-Yu Chen, William M Schniztlein, Gabriela Calzada-Nova, Federico A Zuckermann
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) causing dysregulated interferon (IFN)-α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production through a mechanism(s) yet to be resolved. Here, we show that AMΦ infected with PRRSV secreted a reduced quantity of IFN-α following the cell exposure to synthetic dsRNA. This reduction did not correlate with reduced IFNA1 gene transcription. Rather, it coincided with two events that occurred late during infection and were indicative of translational attenuation, specifically, the activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), and the appearance of stress granules...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
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