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Viral pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218726/biomarkers-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217919/serious-infection-rates-among-children-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-enrolled-in-medicaid
#2
Linda T Hiraki, Candace H Feldman, Francisco M Marty, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Hongshu Guan, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nationwide prevalence and incidence of serious infections among children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) enrolled in Medicaid, the U.S. health insurance program for low-income patients. METHODS: From Medicaid claims (2000-2006) we identified children 5 to <18 years old with SLE (≥3 ICD-9 codes of 710.0, each >30 days apart) and lupus nephritis (LN; ≥2 ICD-9 codes for kidney disease on/after SLE codes). From hospital discharge diagnoses, we identified infection subtypes (bacterial, fungal, viral)...
February 19, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198193/association-between-dehydration-and-fever-during-the-first-week-of-life
#3
Ariane Boutin, Ana Carceller, Marie Pier Desjardins, Marisol Sanchez, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: Trying to differentiate serious bacterial infection (SBI) from a self-limiting illness in febrile infants seen in the pediatric emergency department (PED) is a significant challenge. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dehydration and its relationship to SBI in febrile full-term newborns under 1 week of age seen in a PED. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out on all children younger than 8 days of age with fever who presented to a single, tertiary care, PED from January 2009 to April 2014...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#4
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182108/assessment-of-the-usefulness-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-tests-in-the-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-process-of-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children-a-single-center-experience
#5
Ewelina Gowin, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Joanna Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Waldemar Bobkowski, Piotr Fichna, Paulina Sobkowiak, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Anna Bręborowicz, Jacek Wysocki, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of the study was assessment of the usefulness of multiplex real-time PCR tests in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in children hospitalized due to pneumonia and burdened with comorbidities. Methods. The study group included 97 children hospitalized due to pneumonia at the Karol Jonscher Teaching Hospital in Poznań, in whom multiplex real-time PCR tests (FTD respiratory pathogens 33; fast-track diagnostics) were used. Results. Positive test results of the test were achieved in 74 patients (76...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181039/irf3-inhibits-neutrophil-recruitment-in-mice-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Zhenghao Piao, Haiying Yuan, Cuili Wang, Liyun Shi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the immune response to viral infection via the IRF3/IFN-β signaling pathway. Controversial data exist regarding the role of IRF3 in immune cell recruitment during bacterial infections. IRF3 has been shown to promote neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in mice infected with P. aeruginosa by inducing the production of specific chemokines and cytokines...
February 8, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168862/increased-systemic-cytokine-chemokine-expression-in-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-patients-with-bacterial-viral-or-mixed-lung-infection
#7
Maria J Giuffrida, Nereida Valero, Jesus Mosquera, Anyelo Duran, Francisco Arocha, Betulio Chacín, Luz Marina Espina, Jenifer Gotera, John Bermudez, Alibeth Mavarez, Melchor Alvarez-Mon
This study was aimed to determine the profiles of serum cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (MCP-1: monocyte chemoattract protein-1 and RANTES: regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in individuals with an asthmatic versus a non-asthmatic background with bacterial, viral or mixed acute respiratory infection. Asthmatic (n=14) and non- asthmatic (n=29) patients with acute viral, bacterial or mixed (bacterial and viruses) respiratory infection were studied. Patients were also analyzed as individuals with pneumonia or bronchitis...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160239/impact-of-site-of-care-on-infection-rates-among-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases-receiving-intravenous-immunoglobulin-therapy
#8
Richard L Wasserman, Diane Ito, Yan Xiong, Xiaolan Ye, Patrick Bonnet, Josephine Li-McLeod
PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are at increased risk of infection and may require lifelong immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement. Infection incidence rates were determined for patients with PIDD receiving intravenously administered IgG (IGIV) in a home or hospital outpatient infusion center (HOIC). METHODS: Data were extracted from a large, US-based, employer-sponsored administrative database. Patients were eligible for analysis if they had ≥1 inpatient or emergency room claim or ≥2 outpatient claims with a PIDD diagnosis between January 2002 and March 2013, 12 months of continuous health plan enrollment prior to index date (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159179/legionnaire-s-disease-and-its-mimics-a-clinical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Whenever the cardinal manifestations of a disorder occur in similar disorders, there is potential for a disease mimic. Legionnaire's disease has protean manifestations and has the potential to mimic or be mimicked by other community acquired pneumonias (CAPs). In CAPs caused by other than Legionella species, the more characteristic features in common with legionnaire's disease the more difficult the diagnostic conundrum. In hospitalized adults with CAP, legionnaire's disease may mimic influenza or other viral pneumonias...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159173/legionnaire-s-disease-and-influenza
#10
REVIEW
Eleni E Magira, Sryros Zakynthinos
Legionella pneumophila and influenza types A and B viruses can cause either community-acquired pneumonia with respiratory failure, or Legionella infection could attribute to influenza infection with potentially fatal prognosis. Copathogenesis between pandemic influenza and bacteria is characterized by complex interactions between coinfecting pathogens and the host. Understanding the underlying reason of the emersion of the secondary bacterial infection during an influenza infection is challenging. The dual infection has an impact on viral control and may delay viral clearance...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159155/postviral-complications-bacterial-pneumonia
#11
REVIEW
Jason E Prasso, Jane C Deng
Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157451/the-role-of-nod-like-receptors-in-pulmonary-infection
#12
Kristin M Wiese, Bria M Coates, Karen M Ridge
Pneumonia is caused by both viral and bacterial pathogens and is responsible for a significant health burden in the Unites States. The innate immune system is the human body's first line of defense against these pathogens. The recognition of invading pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production followed by recruitment and activation of effector immune cells. The nonspecific inflammatory nature of the innate immune response can result in immunopathology that is detrimental to the host...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139879/differences-in-inflammatory-marker-patterns-for-adult-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients-induced-by-different-pathogens
#13
Meng Liu, Hui Li, Chun Xue Xue, Li Gu, Jiu Xin Qu, Yi Min Wang, Ying Mei Liu, Bin Cao, Meng Liu, Hui Li, Chun Xue Xue, Li Gu, Jiu Xin Qu, Yi Min Wang, Ying Mei Liu, Bin Cao
INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory marker patterns of Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) induced by different microorganisms in adult patients remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the inflammatory marker patterns of adult CAP patients induced by different pathogens. METHODS: Adult CAP patients with definite etiologies were enrolled from September 2010 to June 2012. They were divided into three groups according to the causative pathogens: typical bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), and viruses...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122641/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-pneumonia-do-we-know-enough-to-improve-clinical-care
#14
EDITORIAL
Kelly A Cawcutt, Andre C Kalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099077/disease-complexity-in-a-declining-alaskan-muskox-ovibos-moschatus-population
#15
Josephine A Afema, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Stephen M Arthur, Kathy Burek Huntington, Jonna A K Mazet
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-1992, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068397/burn-injury-leads-to-increased-long-term-susceptibility-to-respiratory-infection-in-both-mouse-models-and-population-studies
#16
Vanessa S Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood, Janine M Duke, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: Burn injury initiates an acute inflammatory response that subsequently drives wound repair. However, acute disruption to the immune response is also common, leading to susceptibility to sepsis and increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increased understanding of the impact of burn injury on the immune system in the acute phase, little is known about long-term consequences of burn injury on immune function. This study was established to determine whether burn injury has long-term clinical impacts on patients' immune responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067676/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-optimal-management
#17
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. Several efforts have been implemented to achieve better outcomes, but an important proportion of patients continue dying. This review focuses on the newest research on prognostic factors and diagnostics, opening new perspectives in the management of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: CAP survival improved in recent years despite an increasing incidence of severe presentations...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 4, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060871/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-mrsa-pneumonia
#19
Elizabeth A Fitzpatrick, Dahui You, Bishwas Shrestha, David Siefker, Vivek S Patel, Nikki Yadav, Sridhar Jaligama, Stephania A Cormier
Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054135/-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
S Poetter-Lang, C J Herold
CLINICAL ISSUE: The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging...
January 2017: Der Radiologe
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