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Viral pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628024/-evaluation-of-dynamic-telomere-length-shortening-of-lymphocytes-in-immunocompromised-children-with-chronic-diseases-of-the-respiratory
#1
E Khalturina, I Nesterova
Nowadays it is common to observe the growth of viral-viral and viral-bacterial co-infections in children of different ages, due to dysfunction of lymphocytes (DL), which can be connected with the process of the accelerated shortening of the end structures of chromosomal telomeres, telomere length changes are described in lymphocytes of children with chronic mono-infections. The conducted study has shown the shortening of telomere lymphocytes in children with CDRT seropositive for mixed-herpes viral infections (herpes simplex virus, virus, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in various combinations) and for bacterial co-infections - Chlamydia trachomatis and (or) Mycoplasma pneumoniae...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619153/identification-of-candidate-protein-markers-of-bovine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-infection-using-an-in-vitro-model
#2
Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Simon Doherty, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617860/increasing-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-in-asylum-seekers-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-switzerland
#3
Constantine Bloch-Infanger, Veronika Bättig, Jürg Kremo, Andreas F Widmer, Adrian Egli, Roland Bingisser, Manuel Battegay, Stefan Erb
OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. METHODS: At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616745/bacterial-meningitis-complicating-the-course-of-liver-cirrhosis
#4
Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Silvano Esposito
Meningitis is rarely reported in studies investigating bacterial infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. We investigated the findings of bacterial meningitis in patients affected by liver cirrhosis referred to our department in a 16-year period. MATERIALS: Patients with cirrhosis and bacterial meningitis were enrolled. Cirrhosis was defined by liver histology or clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic and endoscopic findings. Bacterial meningitis was defined by cerebro-spinal fluid pleocytosis (>10/mcl) and characteristic clinical presentation...
June 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615935/serum-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-clinical-outcomes-of-copd-exacerbation-caused-by-different-pathogens
#5
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Apitch Apiwattanaporn, Warisara Siricharoonwong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD exacerbation is characterized by worsening of symptoms, warranting change in treatment. Systemic and airway inflammation play roles in the pathogenesis of COPD exacerbation. We hypothesized whether increased serum inflammatory biomarkers are associated with the clinical outcomes of COPD exacerbation caused by different infectious pathogens. METHODS: COPD patients with exacerbation were recruited from a hospital emergency department during 2014-2015...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580101/highly-specific-and-rapid-glycan-based-amperometric-detection-of-influenza-viruses
#6
Xikai Cui, Amrita Das, Abasaheb N Dhawane, Joyce Sweeney, Xiaohu Zhang, Vasanta Chivukula, Suri S Iyer
Rapid and precise detection of influenza viruses in a point of care setting is critical for applying appropriate countermeasures. Current methods such as nucleic acid or antibody based techniques are expensive or suffer from low sensitivity, respectively. We have developed an assay that uses glucose test strips and a handheld potentiostat to detect the influenza virus with high specificity. Influenza surface glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA), but not bacterial NA, cleaved galactose bearing substrates, 4,7di-OMe N-acetylneuraminic acid attached to the 3 or 6 position of galactose, to release galactose...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577241/human-infectious-diseases-and-risk-of-preeclampsia-an-updated-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Zahra Behboodi Moghadam, Ishag Adam, Vafa Saber, Maryam Bagheri, Ali Rostami
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In recent years, a growing body of literatures suggests that infections by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and their related inflammations play an important role in the pathogenesis of PE. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google scholar, and Cochrane databases using the following search words: "infection and preeclampsia," "bacterial infection and preeclampsia," "viral infection and preeclampsia" and "parasitic infection and preeclampsia...
June 2, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575375/association-of-c-reactive-protein-with-bacterial-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-pneumonia-among-children-aged-5-years-in-the-perch-study
#8
Melissa M Higdon, Tham Le, Katherine L O'Brien, David R Murdoch, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Juliet O Awori, Vicky L Baillie, Stephanie Cascio, Somchai Chuananon, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Bernard E Ebruke, Hubert P Endtz, Anek Kaewpan, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, David P Moore, Daniel E Park, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Rasheed Salaudeen, Phil Seidenberg, Somwe Wa Somwe, Mamadou Sylla, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Maria Deloria Knoll, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Lack of a gold standard for identifying bacterial and viral etiologies of pneumonia has limited evaluation of C-reactive protein (CRP) for identifying bacterial pneumonia. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CRP for identifying bacterial vs respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) multicenter case-control study. Methods.: We measured serum CRP levels in cases with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia and a subset of community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542110/pneumonia-after-liver-transplantation
#9
Stephanie A K Angarita, Tara A Russell, Fady M Kaldas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia occurs in 8-23% of patients after liver transplantation and contributes considerably to their morbidity and mortality. With the increasing acuity of liver transplantation patients in the current era, pneumonias, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonias, and multidrug-resistant pathogens, are of growing concern. RECENT FINDINGS: Postliver transplantation pneumonia cause varies with the timing of infection. In the early period (<1 month postliver transplantation), nosocomial pneumonias, including ventilator-associated pneumonias and multidrug-resistant species are most common...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#10
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526018/infection-mediated-asthma-etiology-mechanisms-and-treatment-options-with-focus-on-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-macrolides
#11
REVIEW
Wilmore C Webley, David L Hahn
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness to non-specific bronchoconstriction agonists as the primary underlying pathophysiology. The worldwide incidence of asthma has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, over 300 million children and adults worldwide currently suffer from this incurable disease and 255,000 die from the disease each year. It is now well accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome and many clinical subtypes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510985/changing-diagnosis-coding-routines-may-confound-the-results-of-longitudinal-childhood-pneumonia-studies
#12
M Eriksson, A Nilsson, R Bennet
AIM: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007. METHODS: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484991/lipid-testing-in-infectious-diseases-possible-role-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#13
REVIEW
Sebastian Filippas-Ntekouan, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Moses Elisaf
INTRODUCTION: Acute infections lead to significant alterations in metabolic regulation including lipids and lipoproteins, which play a central role in the host immune response. In this regard, several studies have investigated the role of lipid levels as a marker of infection severity and prognosis. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We review here the role of lipids in immune response and the potential mechanisms underneath. Moreover, we summarize studies on lipid and lipoprotein alterations in acute bacterial, viral and parasitic infections as well as their diagnostic and prognostic significance...
May 8, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480294/high-prevalence-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-to-influenza-viruses-in-preschool-children-living-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#14
Jennifer L Dembinski, Adane Mihret, Solomon A Yimer, Bamlak Tessema, Mai-Chi Trieu, Azeb Tarekegn, Nahom Getachew, Rebecca J Cox, Fredrik Oftung, Bjørn Haneberg, Abraham Aseffa, Siri Mjaaland
BACKGROUND: Influenza in children who reside in tropical and subtropical regions has until recently been regarded as insignificant. However, new evidence suggests that it significantly impacts hospitalization and promotes secondary bacterial coinfections. Ethiopia is situated in a subtropical area where influenza viruses are likely to circulate year round. METHODS: Clinical data were recorded in a cohort of 103 healthy preschool children recruited in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474099/a-three-step-diagnosis-of-pediatric-pneumonia-at-the-emergency-department-using-clinical-predictors-c-reactive-protein-and-pneumococcal-pcr
#15
Gabriel Alcoba, Kristina Keitel, Veronica Maspoli, Laurence Lacroix, Sergio Manzano, Mario Gehri, René Tabin, Alain Gervaix, Annick Galetto-Lacour
Recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) advocate that, in the absence of the clinical and laboratory findings typical of bacterial CAP, antibiotics are not required. However, the true value of the clinical and laboratory predictors of pediatric CAP still needs to be assessed. This prospective cohort study in three emergency departments enrolled 142 children with radiological pneumonia. Pneumonia with lung consolidation was the primary endpoint; complicated pneumonia (bacteremia, empyema, or pleural effusion) was the secondary endpoint...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464021/predictive-value-of-clinical-and-laboratory-features-for-the-main-febrile-diseases-in-children-living-in-tanzania-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Olga De Santis, Mary Kilowoko, Esther Kyungu, Willy Sangu, Pascal Cherpillod, Laurent Kaiser, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: To construct evidence-based guidelines for management of febrile illness, it is essential to identify clinical predictors for the main causes of fever, either to diagnose the disease when no laboratory test is available or to better target testing when a test is available. The objective was to investigate clinical predictors of several diseases in a cohort of febrile children attending outpatient clinics in Tanzania, whose diagnoses have been established after extensive clinical and laboratory workup...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#17
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458673/inflammatory-responses-regulating-alveolar-ion-transport-during-pulmonary-infections
#18
REVIEW
Christin Peteranderl, Jacob I Sznajder, Susanne Herold, Emilia Lecuona
The respiratory epithelium is lined by a tightly balanced fluid layer that allows normal O2 and CO2 exchange and maintains surface tension and host defense. To maintain alveolar fluid homeostasis, both the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and the expression of epithelial ion channels and pumps are necessary to establish a vectorial ion gradient. However, during pulmonary infection, auto- and/or paracrine-acting mediators induce pathophysiological changes of the alveolar-capillary barrier, altered expression of epithelial Na,K-ATPase and of epithelial ion channels including epithelial sodium channel and cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator, leading to the accumulation of edema and impaired alveolar fluid clearance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425200/high-dose-calcineurin-inhibitor-free-everolimus-as-a-maintenance-regimen-for-heart-transplantation-may-be-a-risk-factor-for%C3%A2-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#19
Yu-Ning Hu, Nan-Yao Lee, Jun-Neng Roan, Chi-Hsin Hsu, Chwan-Yao Luo
BACKGROUND: Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen...
April 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412081/nasopharyngeal-polymicrobial-colonization-during-health-viral-upper-respiratory-infection-and-upper-respiratory-bacterial-infection
#20
Qingfu Xu, Jareth Wischmeyer, Eduardo Gonzalez, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
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